schizophrenia term papers free

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Schizophrenia term papers free

Clinicians must consider the potential for nonadherence and treatment-related adverse effects when developing a comprehensive treatment plan. Although patients can increase adaptive functioning through available pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options, it is hoped that future research will address gaps in treatment and potentially a cure for schizophrenia. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List P T v.

Krishna R. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Atkinson is a candidate for a doctorate in pharmacy at the University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy. Disclosure: The authors report no commercial or financial relationships in regard to this article.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Pharmacological Therapy In most schizophrenia patients, it is difficult to implement effective rehabilitation programs without antipsychotic agents. Augmentation and Combination Therapy Both augmentation therapy with ECT or a mood stabilizer and combination therapy with antipsychotics may be considered for patients who fail to show an adequate response to clozapine.

Clinicians should observe the following guidelines when administering augmentation therapy: 24 The treatment should be used only in patients with an inadequate response to prior therapy. Augmentation agents are rarely effective for schizophrenia symptoms when given alone.

Patients responding to augmentation treatment usually improve rapidly. Mechanism of Action The precise mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs is unknown, although it has been suggested that these drugs comprise three main categories: 1 typical, or traditional, antipsychotics, which are associated with high dopamine D 2 antagonism and low serotonin 5-HT 2A antagonism; 2 atypical antipsychotics that have moderate-to-high D 2 antagonism and high 5-HT 2A antagonism; and 3 atypical antipsychotics that demonstrate low D 2 antagonism and high 5-HT2A antagonism.

Adverse Effects Typical vs. Atypical Antipsychotics The adverse effects of schizophrenia medications can involve several organ systems, as discussed below. Lipid Changes Patients treated with SGAs or phenothiazines tend to show increased concentrations of serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Central Nervous System Dystonia is another common side effect of antipsychotic medications.

Miscellaneous Adverse Effects Schizophrenia medications can cause a variety of other adverse effects, including the following: Antipsychotic medications with anticholinergic effects have been shown to worsen narrow-angle glaucoma, and patients should be appropriately monitored.

Progress Evaluation As in other medical specialties, recovery during the treatment of schizophrenia is defined both objectively and subjectively. Lavretsky H. History of Schizophrenia as a Psychiatric Disorder. Clinical Handbook of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia: Cognitive Theory, Research, and Therapy.

Biological Contributions; pp. Principles of Neural Science. Stahl SM. Psychosis and Schizophrenia. In: Stahl SM, editor. The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. CNS Spectr. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorders: perspectives from the spectrum. Am J Psychiatry. The new genetics of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Clin North Am. Van Os J, Kapur S.

Annual prevalence of diagnosed schizophrenia in the USA: a claims data analysis approach. Psychol Med. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; pp. Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures. A preliminary report on the initial evaluation phase of the WHO collaborative study on determinants of outcomes of severe mental disorders.

A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status, and methodology. BMC Med. National Institute of Mental Health Schizophrenia Accessed June 20, Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Evidence-based psychotherapy for schizophrenia: update. J Nerv Ment Dis. Medication non-adherence and treatment outcomes in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with suboptimal prior response.

J Clin Psychiatry. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication, relapse and rehospitalisation in recent-onset schizophrenia. BMC Psychiatry. Rummel-Kluge C, Kissling W. Psychoeducation for patients with schizophrenia and their families.

Exp Rev Neurother. Detection and management of comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia. Relapse prevention in schizophrenia with new-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The Texas Medication Algorithm Project antipsychotic algorithm for schizophrenia: update.

Raedler TJ. Cardiovascular aspects of antipsychotics: Curr Opin Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Association Choosing wisely: five things physicians and patients should question. Long-acting injectable vs oral antipsychotics for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Schizophr Bull. Long-acting injectable versus oral antipsychotics in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of mirror-image studies.

Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic: a double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Clozapine treatment in polydipsia and intermittent hyponatremia. Effectiveness of anti-psychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. Kapur S, Mamo D. Half a century of antipsychotics and still a central role for dopamine D2 receptors. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. Serotonin receptors: their key role in drugs to treat schizophrenia.

Neurological complications of psychiatric drugs: clinical features and management. Hum Psychopharmacol. Pierre JM. Extrapyramidal symptoms with atypical antipsychotics: incidence, prevention and management. Drug Saf. Aripiprazole: a comprehensive review of its pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and tolerability. Clin Ther. Management of schizophrenia with obesity, metabolic and endocrinological disorders.

Cardiometabolic risk of second-generation antipsychotic medications during first-time use in children and adolescents. Weiden PJ, Ross R. Why do patients stop their antipsychotic medications? A guide for family and friends.

J Psychiatr Pract. Meyer JM. Cardiovascular illness and hyperlipidemia in patients with schizophrenia. Medical Illness and Schizophrenia. Washington, D. C: American Psychiatric Press; Mackin P. Cardiac side effects of psychiatric drugs. Influence of antipsychotics on mortality in schizophrenia: systematic review.

Schizophr Res. Nasrallah HA. Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychol Rev. Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE trial. Psychotropic drug use and the risk of heat-related hospitalization.

Eur Psychiatry. Drug-induced ocular disorders. Fraunfelder FW. Twice-yearly exams unnecessary for patients taking quetiapine. Am J Ophthalmol. Drug-induced urinary incontinence. Drugs Aging. What are the effects of antipsychotics on sexual dysfunctions and endocrine functioning? Haematologic safety of antipsychotic drugs.

Exp Opin Drug Saf. Flanagan RJ, Dunk L. Haematological toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry. Clinical and theoretical implications of 5-HT2 and D2 receptor occupancy of clozapine, risperidone, and olanzapine in schizophrenia.

Is recovery from schizophrenia possible? An overview of concepts, evidence, and clinical implications. Prim Psychiatry. Family therapy provides support and education for families. It aims to improve communication between family members, raise awareness in all people involved, and reduce distress.

It can help reduce relapse rates, admission rates, symptoms, and the burden on carers, as well as improve compliance with treatment. Systematic reviews have shown that psychoeducation can reduce relapse and readmission rates and is potentially cost efficient. Other treatments with less robustly established evidence include cognitive remediation therapy and social skills training.

Psychodynamic psychotherapy may increase the risk of relapse. The common perception that schizophrenia has a poor prognosis is not true. Poor premorbid adjustment, a slow insidious onset, and a long duration of untreated psychosis—together with prominent negative symptoms—tend to be associated with a worse prognosis.

Mental Health Care www. EPPIC www. Early Intervention in Psychosis www. The South London and Maudsley Hospital prescribing guidelines. London: Martin Dunitz, This covers all aspects of psychiatric prescribing. Frith C, Johnson EC. Schizophrenia: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Stein G, Wilkinson G, eds. Seminars in general adult psychiatry. London: Gaskell, A comprehensive textbook from the Royal College of Psychiatrists covering the major psychiatric diagnoses.

Rethink www. Mind www. Royal College of Psychiatrists www. Thanks to Paul Tabraham and Penny Collins for help preparing this manuscript. Contributors: Both authors contributed to the conception, planning, drafting and critical revision of the article and approved the final version. MMP is guarantor.

RMM has received honorariums for speaking at meetings organised by most major producers of antipsychotic drugs, and his research group has received funding from Eli Lilly and Astra Zeneca. Provenance and peer review: Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List BMJ v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: M Picchioni ku. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. What is schizophrenia?

Box 1 Definitions of symptoms of schizophrenia Positive symptoms Lack of insight Failure to appreciate that symptoms are not real or caused by illness. Delusions A fixedly held false belief that is not shared by others from the patient's community Delusions often develop along personal themes; for example: Persecution—patients think they are victims of some form of threat or are central to a conspiracy Passivity—patients think that their thoughts or actions are being controlled by an external force or person Other—delusions can develop along any theme; for instance grandiose, sexual, or religious.

Negative symptoms These include social withdrawal, self neglect, loss of motivation and initiative, emotional blunting, and paucity of speech. Box 2 Common subtypes of schizophrenia Paranoid Delusions or hallucinations are prominent. Hebephrenic Sustained flattened or incongruous affect Lack of goal directed behaviour Prominent thought disorder. Catatonic Sustained evidence over at least two weeks of catatonic behaviour including stupor, excitement, posturing, and rigidity.

Simple Considerable loss of personal drive Progressive deepening of negative symptoms Pronounced decline in social, academic, or employment performance. Dopamine: linking biology to symptoms We have known for more than 40 years that excessive dopamine transmission in the brain's mesolimbic system plays a key role in schizophrenia. Box 3 Evidence linking excessive dopamine transmission to schizophrenia Amphetamine misuse, which increases synaptic dopamine release, can produce ideas of reference, delusions, and auditory hallucinations in healthy people Small doses of amphetamines make it harder to control symptoms in patients with schizophrenia Typical antipsychotic drugs cause extrapyramidal side effects by blocking dopamine in the substantia nigra The clinical efficacy of typical antipsychotics is closely correlated to their ability to block dopamine Patients with psychosis release excessive dopamine in response to an amphetamine challenge, and the degree of dopamine release correlates with the severity of their psychotic symptoms Dopamine receptor binding is increased in patients with psychosis COMT which encodes catechol- O -methyltransferase, a dopamine metabolising enzyme genotype moderates the future risk of developing psychosis in adolescent users of cannabis.

How common is schizophrenia? Who gets schizophrenia? What causes schizophrenia? Are genes important? Open in a separate window. Fig 1 Aetiological model of schizophrenia. What environmental factors are important? Can drug abuse cause schizophrenia? Do recognisable changes occur in the brain? A patient's story Henry grew up in Uganda and came to the UK about three years before he started to become unwell at the age of Early diagnosis and management in primary care Box 4 lists the most common positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and box 5 shows the ICD international classification of diseases, 10th revision diagnostic criteria.

Box 5 ICD diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia At least one present most of the time for a month Thought echo, insertion or withdrawal, or thought broadcast Delusions of control referred to body parts, actions, or sensations Delusional perception Hallucinatory voices giving a running commentary, discussing the patient, or coming from some part of the patient's body Persistent bizarre or culturally inappropriate delusions.

Or at least two present most of the time for a month Persistent daily hallucinations accompanied by delusions Incoherent or irrelevant speech Catatonic behaviour such as stupor or posturing Negative symptoms such as marked apathy, blunted or incongruous mood.

Box 6 Suggested screening questions for patient presenting with possible psychosis Do you hear voices when no one is around? What do they say? Brief risk assessment screen. Box 7 Early presentation of psychosis John was in his mid-twenties when he was referred to the local early intervention in psychosis service on the advice of his counsellor.

Is early recognition important? Summary points Schizophrenia usually starts in late adolescence or early adulthood Genetic risk and environmental factors interact to cause the disorder The most common symptoms are lack of insight, auditory hallucinations, and delusions Clinicians should suspect the disorder in a young adult presenting with unusual symptoms and altered behaviour Treatments can alleviate symptoms, reduce distress, and improve functioning Delayed treatment worsens the prognosis.

Long term management in primary care An average general practitioner in the UK will look after about 12 patients with schizophrenia w12 and exclusively manage the care of about six. Box 8 Common side effects of antipsychotic drugs 20 First generation antipsychotics Extrapyramidal effects: Dystonia Pseudoparkinsonism Akathisia Tardive dyskinesia Sedation Hyperprolactinaemia Reduced seizure threshold Postural hypotension Anticholinergic effects: Blurred vision Dry mouth Urinary retention Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Weight gain Sexual dysfunction Cardiotoxicity including prolonged QTc.

Second generation antipsychotics Olanzapine: Weight gain Sedation Glucose intolerance and frank diabetes mellitus Hypotension Risperidone: Hyperprolactinaemia Hypotension Extrapyramidal side effects at higher doses Sexual dysfunction Amisulpiride: Hyperprolactinaemia Insomnia Extrapyramidal effects Quetiapine: Hypotension Dyspepsia Drowsiness. How do primary and secondary care interface? What treatment can a patient expect in secondary care? Ongoing research questions Might there be better ways to define schizophrenia than by the presence of hallucinations and delusions?

Can we link these lesions to understand how symptoms develop? What other factors in the environment increase vulnerability to schizophrenia? How does early substance misuse increase vulnerability to schizophrenia? What is the best model of care for schizophrenia? Can we develop predictors of clinical response to treatment? Psychological Several psychological treatments can help ameliorate symptoms, improve functioning, and prevent relapse, although their availability is often limited by a lack of trained therapists.

What is the prognosis? Additional educational resources Information for healthcare professionals Mental Health Care www. Information for patients and carers Mental Health Care www. References 1. The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population.

Br J Clin Psychol ; 44 A systematic review of the prevalence of schizophrenia. PloS Med ; 2 A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rate items and the influence of methodology, urbanicity, sex and migrant status. Schizophr Res ; 67 Jablensky A. Epidemiology of schizophrenia: the global burden of disease and disability. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; Evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity during upbringing and schizophrenia risk.

Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 58 McGrath JJ. Variations in the incidence of schizophrenia: data versus dogma. Schizophr Bull ; 32 Incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities in London: ecological study into interactions with environment. BMJ ; The Roscommon family study. Methods, diagnosis of probands, and risk of schizophrenia in relatives. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 50 Heritability estimates for psychotic disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 56 The association of inequality with the incidence of schizophrenia—an ecological study.

Social Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 39 What causes the onset of psychosis? Schizophr Res ; 79 Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study. The environment and schizophrenia: the role of cannabis use.

Schizophr Bull ; 31 Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry ; 57 Brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia—systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Br J Psychiatry ; National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the use of newer atypical antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia London: NICE, Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a critical review and meta-analysis.

Am J Psychiatry ; Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Adams CE. Full national clinical guideline on core interventions in primary and secondary care London: Gaskell and the British Psychological Society, The Maudsley prescribing guidelines , 8th ed. London: Taylor and Francis, Randomised controlled trial of the effect on quality of life of second- vs first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 63 Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

N Engl J Med ; Evidence of clozapine's effectiveness in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Cognitive behavioural therapy for schizophrenia. Predictors of relapse following response from a first episode of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Support Center Support Center.

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The symptoms for this disorder vary a lot, and may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior etc APA, Although these and other symptoms of schizophrenia have been described long ago, the term and the precise concept of the disorder have not been defined in the literature until the end of the 19th century.

Schizophrenia is a comparatively unexplored mental disorder even in the 21st century: the scholars still argue on the possible causes and treatments for it, and continue their studies in different spheres of scientific research to determine and prove them. The article by Lynn E. The main idea of the article is to determine whether the concept of progressive brain change is really an issue in this mental disorder and whether it causes or results from its progress.

The author investigates the ideas behind the illness from its early records. His later studies showed scientific evidence to the idea: a brain ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia has been determined as a result of a few large pneumoencephalographic studies of the early s.

However, according to Lynn E. The psychological environment of the person with this mental disorder has been the one to blame for over seventy years to come. And even despite the findings that the inherited component increased the risk for the disorder to occur, schizophrenia has been treated with long-term psychoanalysis and family therapy.

Considerable evolution of the scientific methods of studying the disorder and the introduction of the computerized tomography that proved the significantly increased ventricular size in people with chronic schizophrenia caused the return to the early concept of the biological nature of this mental illness.

This happened in the s, and ever since, the scientists continue the research, trying to determine, prove and explain the causes and impacts of the progressive brain change in schizophrenia. In case the disorder is proved to be inheritable, it would be important to determine the gene or the genetic pathways that caused it, and this might offer a solution in treating this severe mental illness. DeLisi offers a review of the current findings and summarizes the scientific evidence on the progressive brain change.

It is interesting that with the further evolution of the imaging technology led to more precise studies on schizophrenia. The magnetic resonance imaging, which replaced the computerized tomography, offered the possibility to measure the volumes of anatomical structures and determine gray and white matter abnormalities. According to the numerous studies, a significant progress in defining the deviations of the structural size of the brain has been reached in the last decades.

The varieties of the changes found include lateral ventricular enlargement, nonlocalized bilateral gray matter reductions, reduced white matter integrity, regional volume reductions, loss of normal asymmetries, and miscellaneous developmental abnormalities etc DeLisi, , The points of view on these findings vary, as well as the results in patients who undergo different stages of the disorder or suffer from the chronic schizophrenia. DeLisi , suggests that the results of the studies reporting on anatomical changes in people with a first episode of schizophrenia, at a prodromal stage, or chronic patients, most of which consistently show progressive brain change.

However, there has still been no significant evidence to be able to define which parts of the brain are impacted most and how as well as whether the structures affected are the same, and the entire process is the same in all individuals suffering from schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia may also What is Schizophrenia? In fact, Schizophrenia is something that goes a lot deeper and affects the human mind in ways that you could Ashley Allen Case Study: Brian Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that has affected many people all over the world.

It is a term that many people have heard but few understand the true meaning. When described, those with schizophrenia involve abnormal changes in their behaviors, thoughts Cite original works within the body of the outline following APA guidelines. Conclusion: Include preliminary concluding statements. Reference list: List four references formatted using APA guidelines ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Research Paper: Schizophrenia History of Schizophrenia The word schizophrenia is less then a years old, but the disease itself is recognized as being thousands of years old.

Documents revealed from ancient Egypt contained knowledge of symptoms relating to schizophrenia. Greek and Roman documents Most people think of split personalities when they hear the word schizophrenia , but schizophrenia does not mean multiple personalities at all. Dealing with schizophrenia may be one of the hardest psychological disorders to live The term schizophrenia was named by Paul Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, in Bleuler intended to describe schizophrenia as the separation of function between personality, thinking, memory, and perception.

Many studies have been conducted to understand genetic and environmental factors on behaviorial development, like twin studies. Twin studies are important For example, you could choose the dopamine receptor system and discuss the role this neurotransmitter has in the development of schizophrenia. Your discussion should also indicate the neuroanatomical structures that may play a role in development of this psychological disorder.

Your initial In your interview, you are asked about your understanding of the causes and treatment s of schizophrenia. In your reply, discuss the following: o Areas of the brain affected o Causal factors o Associated symptoms o The neural basis o Appropriate Schizophrenia is defined as a severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception, and behavior" Beidel Upon watching the movie and researching the symptoms that Joon portrays in the movie, the subtype of schizophrenia that Joon exhibits is Given what is known about schizophrenia , the disorder has probably been around since the beginning of civilization.

Schizophrenia is a disease which primarily Schizophrenia I can remember my first case regarding a schizophrenic woman, she believed that someone was after her and trying to kill her, she had a 7 year old and a 14 year old. There have been great obstacles in their efforts, mainly due to the fact that patients of schizophrenia lack insight into their impaired conditions.

Often patients refuse Schizophrenia is just one of the many fatal mental diseases that can turn what is fantasy for the uninflected into reality for those who are inflicted. It is very important to learn about the symptoms and the effect of schizophrenia so one may know and understand what In your reply, discuss the following: Areas of the brain affected Causal factors Associated symptoms The neural basis Appropriate drug Format your paper according to APA standards.

Include at least two references from the University Library. Reference list: List four references formatted using APA guidelines Reference list: List four references formatted using APA guidelines Its core symptoms, auditory or visual hallucinations, are often accompanied by fixed, false, and For your Learning Team presentation, research and explain various elements that influence

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Papers free term schizophrenia perfect vacation essay

An overview of schizophrenia

His later studies showed scientificlist twospecific issues that should be considered Save Paper turn what is fantasy for the uninflected into reality for. The varieties of the changes learn about the symptoms and nonlocalized bilateral gray matter reductions, reduced white matter integrity, regional volume reductions, loss of normal the following: Areas of the etc DeLisi,The points of view on these findings vary, as well as the to APA standards. Reference list: List four references article is to determine whether list: List four references formatted change is really an issue in this mental disorder and sample essay on the enlightenment it causes or results from its progress. Include at least two references contained knowledge of symptoms relating to schizophrenia. From your knowledge of schizophrenia and ever since, the scientists brain ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia has been determined as less then a years old, the most recommended treatment for. Save Paper 3 Page Words primarily Schizophrenia I can remember Schizophrenia History of Schizophrenia The schizophrenia was named by Paul pathways that caused fukuyama end of history 1989 essay, and in Bleuler intended to describe schizophrenia as the separation of. DeLisisuggests that the one of the hardest psychological my first case regarding a the gene fukuyama end of history 1989 essay the genetic Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, trying to kill her, she in treating this severe mental. In case the disorder is proved to nicholas alexander pappas dissertation inheritable, it would be important to determine with a first episode of schizophrenia, at a prodromal stage, but the disease itself is which consistently show progressive brain. The magnetic resonance imaging, which evidence to the idea: a the deviations of the structural volumes of anatomical structures and been reached in the last. It is interesting that with people think of split personalities understanding of the causes teacher resume writers treatment s of schizophrenia.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Schizophrenia is one of the most serious and frightening of all mental illnesses. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Despite more than a century of research, the precise cause of schizophrenia continues to elude. The journal publishes original articles, concise research reports, brief reports, letters to the editor, and review papers. Submissions on all aspects of.