martial arts research paper

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Martial arts research paper

Embodiment is also the key to what Eichberg terms significantly as body cultures: the elements of broader culture centred around movement. In this view, body cultures are always pluralistic, offering multiple possibilities in different spaces and across time.

They can be for performance, health and also cultural expression and quite often a shifting mix of the three positions. For instance, over the centuries, fencing has shifted from a battlefield activity and one for duels to the death to a modern Olympic sport. Yet there has been resistance to the sportisation process and a renaissance of interest in historical fencing and lost styles known as the historical European martial arts HEMA , which are being researched, re-enacted and revived through the creation of new materials, organisations and events Jaquet et al.

The techniques and objects are recreated in modern times, which enables us to consider the potential benefits and risks associated with wielding a powerful weapon such as a longsword or a poleaxe. Accordingly, Jennings demonstrates how practitioner-instructor interactions in Wing Chun Kung Fu and Taijiquan associations transmit precise health philosophies from Daoist, New Age spiritualities and Western medicine.

This is assisted by the multicultural nature of contemporary Britain in an information age, where alternative views on the body and health are readily available. Yet the influence of health philosophies and medical paradigms on martial arts training is not new, as seen in the Yojokun Kaibara, ; a 18th-century text written by a Japanese Samurai influenced by the classic texts of Chinese medicine at a time of increasing peace in that then feudal society.

However, despite the relevance of these studies on culturally-distinct MACS, several questions remain. How do specific conceptions of health emerge in a broader set of martial arts and combat sports? How are they transmitted and acquired in different socio-cultural environments, traditions and across federations? Recently, seeing theory as central to any discipline, Bowman has called for a central place of theorising in martial arts studies, and this further conceptualisation could also have a role in studies pertaining to health.

In the following two sections, we hence move towards a more detailed theoretical definition of health that overcome a purely bio medical paradigm. Besides, the notion allows to explore the physical, symbolic and relational dimensions of health and wellbeing, furnishing the basis to further empirical interdisciplinary inquiries. This might include regular classes, informal training between classmates, training at home or in a park, private lessons between a teacher and their student, seminars with lineage holders and workshops with specialists and competitions between schools: all of which are used to varying degrees in different MACS systems.

Primarily through the workings of science and the related development of institutions such as mental asylums, jails, schools and hospitals, subjects have been divided into opposite categories, e. In contemporary postmodern times, this ideology still permeates a wide range of body cultures, even informing social policies.

Environment, culture and society change rapidly and affect human-beings in several ways. Because of the social order dynamism, the selves are always at stake. Martial arts could play a role in such a society, with the growing number of self-help books e. Care of the self, then, might include personal hygiene, massage, healthy sleeping patterns, regular hydration, walking in the fresh air and taking a holiday from work.

Foucault prefers a set of evocative expressions to refer to it. The notion implies three interlaced aspects that are extremely significant for our theoretical enterprise; more exactly: 1 the care of the self as general critical attitude; 2 the care of the self as spiritual awareness; 3 the care of self as embodied activities.

It represents a rejection of the given social reality. In addition, as a principle of living and acting, the care is a sort of self-critique; a way to disapprove ourselves, who and how we are as human beings. The care of the self, in these terms, means how we deal with the surrounding social world; how we assess and interiorize representations and norms of conduct; how individuals develop their interior consciousness.

To use a metaphor: care of the self is a glance, a sight towards interiority. It is important to specify that self-knowledge is the basis for conversion, embracing the subjects as a whole: their thoughts, feelings, bodily postures, and the kind of relationships they are able to establish with others. They all are part of the ongoing embodied project of the care of the self that might have been seen in Ancient Greco-Roman wrestling that is quite removed from the modern approach to wrestling seen in the Olympic Games today.

Other forms of wrestling, as in classical anthropological studies in Northern India, seem to have continued this monitoring of thoughts and feelings and control of sexual desire and behaviour see Alter, In order to be realized, the care of the self requires discipline, i. This aspect of the care of the self echoes another one of Foucault's , p. This quotation introduces pedagogy, the relation with meaningful others and repetitive training.

In other terms, the care of the self implies a series of disciplined embodied practices, which are mandatory to concretely realise both sociocultural and spiritual transformation 5. Many contemporary martial arts systems such as Aikido are even designed to benefit the individual and society through a spiritual philosophy through their techniques and practices. We explore such techniques and practices in the next two sections. The discussion of the care of the self — in terms of a general philosophy of changes, interior awareness and ruled activities — allows us to develop an intercultural idea of human flourishment and cultivation.

Precisely, we propose four forms of cultivation that future research projects could investigate critically, considering these levels separately as well as interlaced. We define these forms as self-cultivation, shared cultivation, social cultivation and ecological cultivation. Inspired by the Eastern mind-body theorist Yuasa and Yuasa , we define the process of self-cultivation as the long-term, even lifelong, development of human beings through an intensification of mind-body relationships and subsequent development of character and instilling of values.

This form of cultivation resembles the care of the self as spiritual awareness. In this vein, previous exploratory enquires have demonstrated how, in particular the commitment to Eastern martial arts and to Latin American body cultures — as in the case of Afro-Brazilian Capoeira — help individuals to create a deeper and more aware relationship with themselves, providing them the opportunity to master bodily skills, develop personal interests and define their social identity in accordance with the nature of the practice carried out see : Spencer, ; Channon, ; Brown and Jennings, ; Delamont and Stephens, Indeed, from a critical angle, Spencer pays attention to the experience of pain among MMA practitioners.

He demonstrates the clearly ambivalent , as well as unhealthy, relationship established by the fighters in the mid- and long-term between bodily injuries and the normative masculinity connected to the practice. In relation to self-cultivation, with the term shared cultivation we place emphasis on the forms of collective development within formal and informal pedagogies of many systems such as the traditionalist Chinese martial arts Jennings, This is akin to the relational element of care of the self.

As we have seen, MACS pedagogies indeed do not only reshape individuals. This is due to the techniques of the body Mauss, that characterise the arts. In other words, these classifications serve to bind people together and differentiate social groups.

In the case of Italian boxe popolare — a contemporary, self-managed boxing style run by leftist grassroots groups outside the jurisdiction of the Italian boxing federation — one of the main scopes of the daily routine is to engage new practitioners within the coaching structure Pedrini, The pedagogy of shared cultivation, in other terms, offers a sense of belonging, care towards teammates or classmates and solidarity within diverse communities.

Abramson and Modzelewski point out that theories of subculture normally explain how people from working-class or marginalised groups join and create subcultures. This would work well with the example of the leftist boxe popolare in Italy, but not for all MACS settings. Their collaborative ethnography shows the positive side of this voluntary community of men and women of different sizes and shapes who uphold American ideals.

A critical attention to shared cultivation, however, has to carefully consider how certain ruled activities can, without being necessarily intended, exclude potential practitioners in terms of age, social class, ethnicity, gender, bodily condition, religious or political beliefs see : Nardini ; Delamont et al. Indeed, it is through the acquisition, transmission and usages of the body that individuals take place in the social world and define who they are — e.

Shared cultivation is hence a way to differentiate the populations and their systems of believes in relation to every aspect of the daily life. We next turn to the system of beliefs, ideologies and politics that govern many MACS cultures, their missions and visions. We define social cultivation, in preliminary terms, as the processes of human transformation and transcendence occurring in local communities, in specific sub cultures, and even in broader society. Learning arts involve the transmission of cultural values and symbolic meanings, which differ across socially organised contexts and practices.

Furthermore, pedagogies is the main medium for the transformation of individuals, opening up the opportunity to spread certain perspectives of wellbeing while shaping individuals in a way instead of another. As historical research projects demonstrate, traditional Eastern martial arts as in the Southern Chinese forms of Kung Fu were codified for this scope purposefully see Judkins and Nielson, Given the variety of contemporary MACS trans-cultural practices, their pedagogy can be adopted for social justice projects — for example, improving wellbeing of vulnerable populations 6.

Then, some MACS pedagogies are instead designed to include people in the realm of civic activism involving them in projects and campaigns for progressive societal change Pedrini, ; while several practices and daily ruled interactions, even if they are not designed for explicit political purposes, possess pedagogical significance: for example, in the UK, combat sport classes are sites where cultural subversion to gender order can be experienced Channon, ; Channon, ; Channon and Phipps, ; meanwhile, in the broader English-speaking world, some male-dominated tribes such as mixed martial art MMA communities are increasingly open to include homosexuals Matthews and Channon, Of course, MACS pedagogies remain controversial, since they can rehearse hegemonic discourses and established forms of discrimination.

Martial arts can still be used to support political and military ventures whose main aim is to realize supremacist projects, as the rise of the fascist fight clubs in several Western countries and Post-Soviet countries demonstrate Pedrini et al.

However, despite the political makeup of a country, people are increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of human action. The following notion of ecological cultivation is an extension of cultivation beyond the human and societal into the environmental realm in which they coexist. Ecological cultivation is another layer we include in the analytical proposal. We consider this level of cultivation as a sort of environmental awareness, sensitivity and action.

This form of cultivation draws on Kasper's , p. This point to the importance of considering the MACS setting, where they are carried out and how they develop implicit pedagogies towards the surrounding environment and the kind of relationship and sensibility the practitioners create with the urban as well as rural landscapes. For example, the Japanese art of Ninjitsu is experiencing something of a renaissance as it is reimagined for different purposes. The BBC has followed its first graduate, Genichi, a mature Japanese man who praises the feudal way of living from the earth as a farmer first, and martial artist second, which he believes leads to a sustainable lifestyle within urbanized societies experiencing a pandemic 7.

But how might we study such language and daily talk in MACS pedagogies? This is explored in the next section, which leads to a discussion on praxiography and multimodal research. In this last section, we provide a few methodological guidelines in order to approach the multi-layered topic of health according to the framework proposed.

The unifying broad perspective we embrace is one of praxiography. To put it simply, it means the analysis of social practices. Since the majority of practices deal with artefacts e. The main objective of praxiography is to develop a theoretically-driven body of knowledge. According to Littig Littig, , p.

Specific perspectives and experience of health, intended as forms of cultivation, hence depend on the specific embodied pedagogic logics characterizing each martial art and combat sport in given sociocultural context and institution. The perspective of praxiography to explore the complex relationships between care of the self and cultivation advocate a creative usage of different strategies for empirical research. Even though we do not seek to limit the potential eclectic methodological mix for interdisciplinary research, at this point, we seek to clarify some path that could be followed for investigations in order to stimulate a creative mix of data collection and analysis.

Importantly, we emphasise the opportunity to approach practice from a synchronic or a diachronic standpoint through a multimodal approach. A special issue of Qualitative Research Dicks, Flewitt, Lancaster and Pahl, has imagined the possibilities of uniting the well-established ethnography particularly popular in MACS research with the multimodal research approach, which originally developed in semiotics and linguistics.

This multimodal research draws on a range of data collection techniques and data sources in order to understand human and social meaning as opposed to social order. This might be enacted through the exploration of symbols and visual concepts in martial arts theory as seen in badges and crests of different organisations. The meanings behind these symbols and concepts could thus be explored through observation, interviews and semiotic analysis in many other fighting systems.

Channon et al. In a shocking revelation, this research team revealed a common, even guaranteed, expenditure of ring girls over that on reputed medical professionals. This above examples offer a critical perspective on pedagogy Markula and Pringle Given our attention to the discourses in this article, we wholeheartedly advocate studies on how martial arts instructors be they coaches, sifus , senseis , gurus or gurukkal use specific forms of language within asymmetrical power relations.

Yet at the same time, we are aware of the continued need to study unhealthy and damaging practices such as forced fights, the falsification of medical records and poor hygienic practice during pandemics such as COVID Depending on the culture of the nation-state and the subculture of the art in question, these coach-athlete relationships and group hierarchies will vary tremendously, although like MMA as other forms of physical culture such as surfing, these MACS are very often based around hierarchies and archetypes of emotive masculinity expressed in mundane daily talk Green and Evers, The links between power, space and emotions could be applied in studies on health in terms of the emotional side of pain, injury, recovery and retirement — especially in more physically demanding combat sports such as MMA or the emotionally challenging approaches taken in Israeli Krav Maga and Russian Systema, which work with ideas around survival psychology and breath control.

Talk and emotions can therefore be a key aspect of raw data, which might include the use of humour and changing room banter, text messages, everyday corridor conversations and coaches barking orders from the corner of a ring. Moreover, adopting a different theoretical perspective, Winchester and Green explain how the past, present and future social actions are connected through accounts of motivations.

This adds to the limited research on talk in the martial arts, an approach which could enable scholars to understand the motivations behind healthy and unhealthy practices that are not purely individual or institutional, but are certainly driven by the biographies of the participants. In general, approaching practice synchronically allows researchers to grasp the articulation of un healthy pedagogy in the making, by adopting the huge spectrum of data collection and analysis adopted in social sciences.

The pedagogy of single case-studies can be explored through participant observation adopting several forms of involvement into the field in order to analyse daily interactions see Wacquant, Martial gurus, entrepreneurs, coaches and practitioners can be interviewed by adopting different forms of standardized questions, both from a qualitative and a quantitative perspective.

Investigations could implement martial classes on specific populations and monitor how they respond to the pedagogies of the practices in different ways physically, mentally and socially. Discourse analysis is a powerful tool for inquires that consider pedagogies over time; how discourses about health and wellbeing of established associations and coaches, for example, change in relation to the broader symbolic and political landscape.

Health and care can be approached from critical angles, detailing how certain techniques of the body impact on physical and psychological wellbeing, as well as how certain ideals of wellbeing are being boosted, interiorized, lived or contested by long-standing practitioners. In conclusion, investigations into martial arts and combat sports MACS have been increasing steadily over the last two decades, with specific projects focusing their attention on themes of gender, violence, pedagogy and embodiment.

Within this growing body of inquiry across interconnected areas of social science, there is a need for a critical understand of un healthy pedagogies; a complex topic which remains surprisingly underexplored currently. Drawing on our previous reflections and the existing literature, we have provided a theoretical proposal with a twofold aim. First, we have conceptualized health and its pedagogies by moving beyond a reductionist biomedical paradigm to one focused on subjectivity as seen through the lens of care of the self.

Second, we have set up a framework on cultivation in order to conduct future analysis on the pedagogies of health, so as to foster interdisciplinary inquiries in order to ask what and how martial arts could improve, or even act as an obstacle to, personal and collective health. Other valued qualities such as empowerment, self-control and social awareness could also be studied using the strands of our theoretical model. Investigations into values, dispositions and other aspects of humanity and society that are cultivated in MACS would add to knowledge on the cultivation of health.

Martial communities can sustain individual and collective projects for improving wellbeing, as they can harbour individual health and progressive societal change. Specific research questions inspired by the theme of martial arts, health and society explored in this special issue and our particular article might include the following: Considering the fluid nature of martial activities between traditions and sports, how can goals of performance and health can be balanced in MACS experience?

How do federations and coaches conceive health in the first place? To what extent could precise health pedagogics be part of coaching programmes and coach education? How do practitioners frame their wellbeing? A lot of work has still to be done to move beyond this early collection of eclectic research projects seen in Frontiers in Sociology. Scholars across the world might wish to expand their research agenda to several different disciplines in order to compare and find general and specific traits of the different pedagogies, facing similar questions.

Our proposal is an invitation to bridge different fields of inquiries so as to establish an open and critical dialogue across subjects with the ultimate goal of creating new research strategies and, hopefully, for policy making.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. George is based in Wales, and he has a longstanding experience in several Eastern martial arts, Mexican Xilam and medieval fencing historical European martial arts or HEMA , with numerous publications on several martial arts from throughout the globe.

In his examinations, the philosophers thus appear to be as ancient gurus who share several features with the modern charismatic figures of the martial artist founders cf. Brown, Accordingly, Pierre Hadot sustains that the main objective of the ancient Greek schools of philosophy did not consist in elaborating, or even the teaching, theories.

On the contrary, they were more concerned about the transformation of individuals. Abramson, C. Caged morality: moral worlds, subculture and stratification among middle-class cage-fighters. Allen Collinson, J. Body Soc. Online Early. Alston, R. Foucault Stud. Alter, J.

The wrestler's body: identity and ideology in North India. Bates, C. Vital bodies: living with illness. CrossRef Full Text. Berni, S. Google Scholar. Bourdieu, P. The social space and the genesis of groups. Bowman, P. Martial arts studies: disrupting disciplinary boundaries. The definition of martial arts studies. Martial Arts Stud. The martial arts studies reader. Brown, D. Embodying charismatic affect If : the example of Bruce Lee.

Corpus Mundi 1, 14— Cultures of combat: body, culture identity. Societies 4, — Bueger, C. Pathways to practice: praxiography and international politics. Channon, A. Asia Pac. This latter is a set of choreographed movements, the mastery of which requires th Finnish Kullervo and chinese martial arts stories.

Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish Analysis of injury types for mixed martial arts athletes. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The convenience sampling method was used, based on the non-probability sampling extraction method.

This combat sport joins athletes from a wide variety of martial art disciplines, each with characteristic and distinguishing injury profiles, together in competition. Because of increasing participation by professionals and amateurs alike, injuries sustained by MMA athletes have been on the rise. Evidence Acquisition: A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts an Title: Pains and Injuries Caused by Practicing Martial Arts Objective: To ascertain, by the means of survey, the most common kinetic system pains and sports injuries as a result of practicing martial arts.

Additionally, to collect the data about warm-up, compensation exercises and regeneration and determine the effectofthese on the frequency ofkinetic system pains and sport injuries. Methods: 81 respondents from 5 different martial arts took part in the survey. Each questionnaire illustrates Effects of martial arts on health status: a systematic review. To systematically summarize the evidence for the effects of martial arts on health and fitness, to show the strengths of different types of martial arts , and to get a more complete picture of the impacts of martial arts on health, and also to provide a basis for future research on martial arts as an exercise prescription in exercise therapy.

Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials on the health effects of martial arts were included in the study. The final analysis included 28 papers one general martial arts , one kung fu, sixteen tai chi, six judo, three karate, and one taekwondo. Among the disciplines of martial arts , tai chi was the most well-studied, followed by judo, karate, and taekwondo. Research topics varied widely, and included health, injuries, competition, morals and psychology, and herbal medicine.

Most found positive effects on health. Tai chi is no-contact, low-impact, soft body and mindfulness exercise, which has been widely adopted by elderly people and proven to be a beneficial health promotion exercise. Research on judo, karate, and taekwondo mainly focused on improvements to athletes' competitive abilities, rather than on health effects.

We did not find any published randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials on aikido, kendo, sumo, kyudo, qi gong, or other disciplines. Since martial arts are widely practiced, their effects on physiology, morphology, immunology, and neurology should be further studied in order to help people to select the best discipline or style to accomplish their purposes. This necessitates categorizing and classifying the disciplines and styles according to their effects on different body systems and levels of contact, as well as standardizing evaluation criteria for martial arts.

Martial arts as an exercise prescription can then move from an experience-based to an evidence-based treatment. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era. Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride.

This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare. Kapoera, a combination of acrobatics and coordinated athletic movement, is believed to have been introduced to South America during the 19th century by transported African slaves. The dance does not involve intentional physical contact, but during 6 months, 3 patients were admitted here for injuries induced by the forceful movements of this dance. Medical personnel should be familiar with the potential hazards of this dance and martial art.

Martial arts intervention decreases pain scores in children with malignancy. Martial arts intervention in disease has been mostly limited to adult inflammatory, musculoskeletal, or motor diseases, where a mechanical intervention effects positive change.

However, the application and benefit to pain management in childhood malignancy are not well described. Here, we assess the effects of defined martial arts intervention in children with cancer with respect to their pain perception and management. Sixty-four children with childhood malignancies were enrolled in a martial arts program , which encompassed both meditation and movement modalities.

Pain scores were recorded pre- and post- 1-hour session intervention. Pain scores were crossed by total visits and tabulated by whether participant pain reduced at least 1 unit, stayed the same, or increased in intensity immediately after post participation session. Differences in pain scores were further compared by age and sex. Prepain and postpain scale data were measured for 64 participants, 43 males Preintervention and postintervention data were obtained for individual session visits.

Mean number of patient participation visits was 1. For the majority Median pain intensity scores had greater reductions with increased age of participants years [-1], years [-2], years [-3], and years [-4]. Martial arts intervention can provide a useful modality to decrease pain in. Taijiquan and Daoism. Full Text Available This study explores the ways in which the construction and deconstruction of a martial arts -Daoism connection has figured in political ideology, national iden-tity, and commercial interest during the past years of Chinese history.

Focusing on the taijiquan-Daoism-Zhang Sanfeng nexus, it traces the wrapping of a martial art in indigenous religious garb during the periods of Manchu rule, Japanese occupation, and post-Mao 21st century. It concludes by reporting on a contemporary movement in China to revive the cult of Zhang Sanfeng and to cast taijiquan as a form of religious practice.

Popular conceptions have credited the creation of MMA to Bruce Lee, a Chinese-American actor and martial artist who became an icon in the s and who is still considered by many as a revolutionary figure in the field. This paper will present, in chronological order, examples of ancient Chinese martial arts concepts preceding the creation of modern MMA. In various martial arts , competitors are interested in quantifying and categorising techniques which are exercised during training. The implementation of embedded systems into training gear, especially a portable wireless body worn system, based on inertial sensors, facilitates the quantification and categorisation of forces and accelerations involved during the training of martial arts.

The scope of this paper is to give a brief overview of contemporary technology and devices, describe key m Communicating martial arts knowledge: Conferring over a wealth of possibilities. It connected PhD students, established professors and practitioner-instructors in university lecture rooms, public parks and music halls across three days of academic, social and physical activities. From historical studies of Chinese martial arts to the performance of Indian styles, it brought together scholars, practitioner-researchers and martial artists for a supportive, but also scholarly, gathering — one which was both thematically open but at the same united by an exploration of the communication of embodied research and knowledge.

In sum, the conference demonstrated that martial arts studies, as a still young field, shows a wealth of promise, with emerging leaders, topics and debates that will stimulate future research, cross-continental collaboration and intercultural dialogue. Historical European Martial Art a crossroad between academic research, martial heritage re-creation and martial sport practices. Studies within this field of research have the potential to enlighten the puzzle posed by past societies, for example in the field of history, history of science and technology, or fields related to material culture.

Joint action syntax in Japanese martial arts. Participation in interpersonal competitions, such as fencing or Japanese martial arts , requires players to make instantaneous decisions and execute appropriate motor behaviors in response to various situations. Such actions can be understood as complex phenomena emerging from simple principles.

We examined the intentional switching dynamics associated with continuous movement during interpersonal competition in terms of their emergence from a simple syntax. Linear functions on return maps identified two attractors as well as the transitions between them. The effects of skill differences were evident in the second- and third-order state-transition diagrams for these two attractors.

Our results suggest that abrupt switching between attractors is related to the diverse continuous movements resulting from quick responses to sudden changes in the environment. This abrupt-switching-quick-response behavior is characterized by a joint action syntax. The resulting hybrid dynamical system is composed of a higher module with discrete dynamics and a lower module with continuous dynamics. Our results suggest that intelligent human behavior and robust autonomy in real-life scenarios are based on this hybrid dynamical system, which connects interpersonal coordination and competition.

Injury profile of mixed martial arts competitors. To provide an updated comprehensive profile of mixed martial arts MMAs injuries. Correlational and multivariate analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data to examine injuries sustained during MMA bouts. One physician diagnosed any injuries occurring during the bouts.

The overall injury rate was 8. Injury rates were similar between men and women, but a greater percentage of the injuries caused an altered mental state in men. The observed injury rate was lower than previously reported suggesting recent regulatory changes have made MMA a safer sport. Reviews treatment programs , the complex problems posed by youth gangs, and the use of martial arts in the treatment of violence and proposes a program for violent adolescents. The program philosophy is committed to respect and self-control; emphasis is on leadership and community service.

Provides clinical examples. Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults. Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls.

Ten martial artists Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity PWV , a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls.

The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness. Research on the development of high-level martial-art teams of universities in Shanghai. Full Text Available Five Universities with high level martial art sport teams in Shanghai have been chosen for research to initiate a comprehensive investigation and analysis for following aspects during establishment and development of the martial-art teams: status of athletes and coachers, status of learning and training of martial-art teams, martial-art team stimulating system and logistic support by using documentary, questionnaire survey, interview and mathematic survey, so as to find existing disadvantages and their relevant solutions.

Inclusion of people with disabilities through fights and martial arts. The analysis was initially made at the global level and later specific attention was paid to the Brazilian reality, through a narrative review of literature. Further studies on the subject are needed. Kata — The true essence of Budo martial arts? Full Text Available This paper uses documentary research techniques to analyse the use of kata, forms, in the Japanese martial arts.

Following an introduction on the existence of kata practice, using existing sources of information the paper first examines the spiritual developments of bushido, secondly, the social changes that led to the redevelopment of bujutsu into budo is scrutinsised. Next, the position of kata in relation to budo martial arts is explored followed by a discussion on the use of kata as a pedagogy.

Finally, kata is repositioned in light of the contextual expansion investigated demonstrating how kata could represent the intended essence of budo as well a culturally-valued, spiritual pedagogy. Hand and wrist injuries in martial arts are typically a reflection of the combat nature of this discipline.

In striking sports, the axial load mechanism of injury is common and causes fractures and dislocations; in grappling sports, sprain injuries and degenerative changes predominate. There is clear evidence to support that hand protection reduces the risk of hand injury.

Traditional training in martial arts on proper technique and target selection in striking sports reduces the risk of hand injury, and is an important component of hand and wrist injury prevention. All rights reserved. Are the 'hard' martial arts , such as the Korean martial art , TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens?

Falls are a leading cause of death in the elderly. Associated with aging is a loss of muscular strength, flexibility, and coordination. Regular exercise is widely believed to be of benefit for the elderly. To this end, various exercise regimes have been employed to battle the associated problems of aging. TC as an exercise system uses slow smooth movements to train the body in balance, endurance, and strength. For this reason, it is known as a 'soft' martial art , in that it is very non-impact oriented.

There have been a variety of studies in the West examining the beneficial effects of TC. However, to date, there have been no studies with senior citizens using other martial arts , of which, TC is but one. The present study was designed to examine the appropriateness and effects of a Korean martial art known as TaeKwon-Do TKD , a 'hard' martial art , on an elderly population measuring similar parameters reported for TC. TKD proved effective at increasing one-leg balance in the population examined.

Additionally, the overall dropout rate was extremely low suggesting both that the elderly are capable of participating in a hard martial art and that they have an interest in it as a viable alternative to other forms of exercise. The present study suggests that TKD as a form of exercise for an elderly population is both viable and potentially popular and warrants further study.

Head Trauma in Mixed Martial Arts. Mixed martial arts MMA is a full combative sport with a recent global increase in popularity despite significant scrutiny from medical associations. To date, the empirical research of the risk of head injuries associated with this sport is limited.

Youth and amateur participation is growing, warranting investigation into the burden and mechanism of injuries associated with this sport. Descriptive epidemiology study. Analyses included 1 multivariate logistic regression to investigate factors associated with an increased risk of sustaining a KO or TKO secondary to repetitive strikes and 2 video analysis of all KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes with descriptive statistics. During the study period, the KO rate was 6. Logistic regression identified that weight class, earlier time in a round, earlier round in a match, and older age were risk factors for both KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes.

Video analysis identified that all KOs were the result of direct impact to the head, most frequently a strike to the mandibular region The average time between the KO-strike and match stoppage was 3. Length of training, hostility and the martial arts : a comparison with other sporting groups. Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups.

The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility.

The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility. The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts.

A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts -related This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art , and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice.

It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…. The relatively new discipline of information science has its origins in the West, while the ancient martial arts have their origins in the East. Despite these differences in age and hemisphere, the two disciplines can be shown to possess many conceptual as well as technical similarities which have evolved quite independently of each other.

With a male, adult subject, this study measured the punch force and kick force of the Japanese martial art Nihon-Kempo, the movements of the dominant right arm, leg, and the movements of the legs using timed synchronization. Using an electromyogram EMG , the relationship between the variation of punch force and the variation of the electrical…. The martial arts can provide children and adolescents with vigorous levels of physical exercise that can improve overall physical fitness.

The various types of martial arts encompass noncontact basic forms and techniques that may have a lower relative risk of injury. Contact-based sparring with competitive training and bouts have a higher risk of injury. This clinical report describes important techniques and movement patterns in several types of martial arts and reviews frequently reported injuries encountered in each discipline, with focused discussions of higher risk activities.

Some of these higher risk activities include blows to the head and choking or submission movements that may cause concussions or significant head injuries. The roles of rule changes, documented benefits of protective equipment, and changes in training recommendations in attempts to reduce injury are critically assessed. This information is intended to help pediatric health care providers counsel patients and families in encouraging safe participation in martial arts.

The effects of reinforcement and extinction on response variability and stimulus generalization in the punching and kicking techniques of 2 martial arts students were evaluated across drill and sparring conditions. During both conditions, the students were asked to demonstrate different techniques in response to an instructor's punching attack.

Explains how martial arts , specifically karate, can benefit today's youth. Karate students also show increased self-esteem, attain goals, and develop an understanding of…. This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym.

Effect of different instructional media on acquisition of martial arts No significant difference was found between the video and the live-modelling groups. The implications of these results for the design of computer-assisted motor skills learning are discussed. Key words: Elementary education; Physical education; Multimedia instruction; Martial arts.

Mixed martial arts MMA has become one of the fastest-growing combat sports in the twenty-first century, drawing millions of Pay-Per-View spectators since the inception of the Ultimate Fighting Championship UFC in This paper will present, in chronological order, examp Injuries in martial arts : a comparison of five styles. To compare five martial arts with respect to injury outcomes. A one year retrospective cohort was studied using an injury survey.

Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios OR and confidence intervals CI. Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons between styles, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Different martial arts have significantly different types and distribution of injuries. Martial arts appear to be safe for young athletes, particularly those at beginner or intermediate levels.

Martial arts such as judo, taekwondo and wrestling are regulated, usually athletic duels. The aim is to score better than your opponent or to win. As with any type of sport, athletes in martial arts sustain minor and major injuries, which may have many negative consequences. In addition, sports injuries and their rehabilitation generate high costs to the healthcare system.

Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the latest research findings and to evaluate whether initial recommendations can be given for the reduction of injuries in the martial arts judo, wrestling and taekwondo.

To gain an overview of the latest research findings, we searched for systematic reviews in PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane and the internet search engine Google Scholar. The methodological quality of these reviews was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Tool for a Systematic Review CASP , and data was extracted on the risk of injury, injury location and injury type.

It was found that all three review articles are of low to moderate methodological quality. Regarding injury location, it became evident that the extremities are particularly vulnerable to injury in all three martial arts. Effusion was observed to be the most common type of injury. Due to the moderate methodological quality and the injury type of effusion, it is not possible to formulate recommendations for injury prevention.

Moreover, uniform definitions should be developed to describe sports injuries. Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature.

Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art , mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular.

By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts. Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions and held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo.

On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

A patient's arrival in a mental health unit corresponds to a profound malaise in their life. Admission to hospital leads the patient to be cut off from their environment but is also the opportunity for thinking and reconstruction. A workshop based on martial arts enables patients to rediscover their body, verbalise their suffering and regain self-confidence. A review of the effects of martial arts practice on health. Martial arts are ancient forms of combat, modified for modern sport and exercise.

Participation in the martial arts is increasing, particularly for youth. Martial arts provide health-promoting and meaningful exercise for millions of practitioners. Benefits from this practice include better overall health and balance, as well as an improved sense of psychological well being. They do not promote aggression and may be used as a treatment modality for youth who are at-risk for violence. This article provides an overview of martial arts for physicians who may evaluate such injuries in their practice.

Physicians may wish to consider recommending martial arts to patients as a beneficial form of exercise. They are relatively safe compared to many other sports, and most martial arts injuries are comparatively minor. A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts and each of its component combat sports eg, Muay Thai, Brazilian jiu-jitsu from through was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar.

Clinical review. Level 5. The majority of studies on MMA injuries evaluate those sustained during competition, which range in incidence from Striking-predominant disciplines such as boxing, karate, and Muay Thai have high rates of head and facial injuries, whereas submission-predominant disciplines such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, judo, and wrestling have high rates of joint injuries.

Numerous studies have evaluated injuries in athletes who participate in MMA and its component disciplines during competition but much remains to be discovered about injuries sustained during training and in specific patient populations such as adolescents and women. The southpaw advantage? Lateral preference in mixed martial arts. Performers with a left-orientation have a greater likelihood of obtaining elite levels of performance in many interactive sports.

This study examined whether combat stance orientation was related to skill and success in Mixed Martial Arts fighters. Data were extracted for mixed martial artists from a reliable and valid online data source. Measures included fighting stance, win percentage and an ordinal measure of skill based on number of fights. The overall analysis revealed that the fraction of fighters using a southpaw stance was greater than the fraction of left-handers in the general population, but the relationship between stance and hand-preference is not well-understood.

Furthermore, t-tests found no statistically significant relationship between laterality and winning percentage, although there was a significant difference between stances for number of fights. Southpaw fighters had a greater number of fights than those using an orthodox stance.

These results contribute to an expanding database on the influence of laterality on sport performance and a relatively limited database on variables associated with success in mixed martial arts. Full Text Available Performers with a left-orientation have a greater likelihood of obtaining elite levels of performance in many interactive sports. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment.

Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid.

These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants. To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts MA about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting.

A s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries.

Males were more likely to have hand injuries. With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation.

Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist. Martial arts films and Dutch-Chinese masculinities: smaller is better. Starting with Bruce Lee in the s, Chinese martial arts films have been gaining increasing importance in Hollywood.

Amidst global fascination and the prevalence of male heroes in martial arts films, it is surprising to note that only a few studies engage the genre with issues of Chinese. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review. Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear.

The social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise among youth: a review. Martial arts involvement among the youth has been described in controversial terms. Studies regarding the effects of martial arts practise on youth show contrasting images.

While some refer to enhanced personal and social opportunities for those that participate, others warn against increased levels of aggressiveness and antisocial behavior among its participants. The aim of the present review is to provide, firstly, an overview of the major findings of studies concerning the social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise.

Secondly, the limitations of those studies are discussed. From more than papers, collected during a two-year lasting literature study, 27 papers met all criteria to be included in this study. This review revealed that even though a considerable amount of research on social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise has been conducted over the years, to date, it has not brought clarity in the existing duality regarding the possible effects of martial arts involvement.

It is proposed that a better understanding can be provided if specific influential factors are taken into account in future research i. Key pointsMany common beliefs exist about the positive and negative outcomes of martial arts practise. Several influential factors have to be taken into account when examining the social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise.

This article examines how martial arts students retell their stories about being left behind and how they have experienced, viewed, and struggled with the invisible violence. Popularly known as the "hometown of Chinese martial arts ," Dengfeng is home to 48 registered martial arts schools and more than 70, full-time students.

Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes.

Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test.

While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different.

The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. Full Text Available Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging.

It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of full contact martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of martial arts in their country i. The workshop was a unique meeting which provided a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the specific situation with regard to the regulation of martial arts in some European countries and to exchange results of current research concerning this topic.

Further research could be helpful to gain more insight in dealing with problems related to governance, regulation and management of martial arts within a European context. Bibliometric analysis of martial arts monographs published in Spain Full Text Available This paper examines the martial arts monographs published in Spain between and from a bibliometric point of view. The results showed a total of 2. The interpretation of these patterns and the evolution of the martial arts bibliographic production in Spain highlights some aspects such as the development of the Spanish society and sports practice, bibliographic production, reading habits, or the cultural influences of eastern countries on Spain.

Cognitive and personality factors in the regular practice of martial arts. The effects of regular practice of martial arts is considered controversial and studies in this field limited their attention to singular psychological benefits.

The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the regular practice of martial arts and cognitive and personality factors, such as: attention, creativity and school performance, together with, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression.

The design consists in a factorial design with two independent variables groups and age levels and seven dependent variables attention, creativity, intelligence, school performance, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression.

Seventy-six people practicing martial arts were compared with a control group 70 participants not involved in any martial arts training. Martial artists were divided into groups of three levels of experience: beginners, intermediate and experts. Each completed a battery of tests that measured all the cognitive and personality factors. Martial artists presented a better performance in the attentional and creativity tests.

All the personality factors analyzed presented a significant difference between the two groups, resulting in higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and a decrease of aggressiveness. Regular practice of martial arts can influence many functional aspects, leading to positive effects on both personality and cognitive factors, with implications in psychological well-being, and in the educational field.

The results were discussed with reference to theories claiming that regular activity has a differential positive effect on some aspects of cognition. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes. The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications.

Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone. Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U.

Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session. Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training IP and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h R15, R30, R45, R Assessments of cognitive moral functioning moral judgment and intent were recorded at intervals during recovery.

There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP. Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts -related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between and Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses p Martial arts have lower emergency department injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling.

Combat sports do not appear to have higher injury rates compared to non-combat sports. Martial arts as a mental health intervention for children? Martial arts studios for children market their services as providing mental health outcomes such as self-esteem, self-confidence, concentration, and self-discipline. It appears that many parents enroll their children in martial arts in hopes of obtaining such outcomes.

The current study used the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of , to assess the effects of martial arts upon such outcomes as rated by classroom teachers. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study used a multistage probability sampling design to gather a sample representative of U. We made use of data collected in the kindergarten, 3rd grade, and 5th grade years. Classroom behavior was measured by a rating scale completed by teachers; participation in martial arts was assessed as part of a parent interview.

The four possible combinations of participation and nonparticipation in martial arts at time 1 and time 2 for each analysis were coded into three dichotomous variables; the set of three variables constituted the measure of participation studied through regression. Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between martial arts participation and change in classroom behavior from one measurement occasion to the next.

The change from kindergarten to third grade was studied as a function of martial arts participation, and the analysis was replicated studying behavior change from third grade to fifth grade. Cohen's f2 effect sizes were derived from these regressions.

The martial arts variable failed to show a statistically significant effect on behavior, in either of the regression analyses; in fact, the f2 effect size for martial arts was 0. The analyses not only fail to reject the null hypothesis, but also render unlikely a population.

This paper addresses sex integration in martial arts and combat sports, discussing the implications of mixed-sex training for challenging orthodox Western constructions of gender. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 37 long-term martial arts practitioners from around the English East Midlands between —, the paper argues that restrictive, essentialist and hierarchal conceptions of sex difference can be challenged through integrated training practices.

How does practise of internal Chinese martial arts influence postural reaction control? The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chinese martial arts practice on postural reaction control after perturbation. Participants standing in Romberg tandem posture were subjected to an unexpected lateral platform translation with the eyes open or closed at two translation amplitudes.

The peak displacement of the centre of pressure and of the centre of mass, and the onset latency of muscular activity tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, lumbodorsal muscular group, and rectus abdominis , were evaluated for martial arts practitioners and for sport and non-sport participants.

Compared with the sport and non-sport participants, the martial arts group showed lower maximal centre of pressure and centre of mass peak displacements in both the lateral and anterior - posterior directions, but no difference was found in the onset of muscular responses. We conclude that martial arts practice influences postural reaction control during a fixed-support strategy in a tandem task.

The martial arts group used the ankle joint more frequently than the sport and non-sport participants, especially in the eyes-closed conditions. Our results suggest that the better balance recovery in the martial arts group is a consequence of better control of biomechanical properties of the lower limbs e.

Full Text Available To date, martial arts involvement is often described in controversial terms. While some studies report increased anti-social behavior as a result of martial arts involvement, other findings refer to a more positive social and personal development.

Consequently, the distinct moral and medical concerns regarding the effects of involvement in harder martial arts—combined with their increased popularity, as well as their perceived positive outcomes for specific target groups—have resulted in a growing demand among policy makers to develop or rethink their strategy towards the regulation and support of these sports. By means of a case-study approach, the present paper discusses some of the key issues regarding the regulation of a number of full contact martial arts e.

In describing the Flemish case, this paper aims to highlight the need to develop a sound martial arts policy that can provide a legitimation base for the provision and organization of full contact martial arts , which have become increasingly popular in recent years. There is substantial evidence that training in Martial Arts is associated with improvements in cognitive function in children; but little has been studied in healthy adults.

Here, we studied the impact of extensive training in Martial Arts on cognitive control in adults. To do so, we used the Attention Network Test ANT to test two different groups of participants: with at least 2 years of Martial Arts experience, and with no experience with the sport.

Participants were screened from a wider sample of over participants who volunteered to participate. The two groups were matched on a number of demographic variables that included Age and BMI, following the results of a previous pilot study where these factors were found to significantly impact the ANT measures. An effect of Martial Arts experience was found on the Alert network, but not the Orienting or Executive ones. More specifically, Martial Artists showed improved performance when alert had to be sustained endogenously, performing more like the control group when an exogenous cue was provided.

This result was further confirmed by a negative correlation between number of years of Martial Arts experience and the costs due to the lack of an exogenous cue suggesting that the longer a person takes part in the sport, the better their endogenous alert is.

Results are interpreted in the context of the impact of training a particular attentional state in specific neurocognitive pathways. Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that training in Martial Arts is associated with improvements in cognitive function in children; but little has been studied in healthy adults.

One of the ways parents are looking to help with ADHD is through exercise programs , including the martial arts. As more of our students are diagnosed with ADHD, it is imperative we, as martial artists and teachers, understand the nature of this disorder. Therefore, this article is intended to educate those in the martial arts about ADHD.

First, an introduction about ADHD, what it is and what it is not, is offered to demystify the disorder and to insure instructors are using appropriate language and terminology. Second, current research regarding the use of the martial arts as an intervention for ADHD will be discussed. Third, the issue of confidentiality related to psychological disorders will be discussed and suggestions offered to decrease the chances of instructors breaching confidentiality.

Finally, some strategies for working with children with ADHD will be offered. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters. Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September and December in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design.

Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. A total of MMA matches involving different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters. Of the matches fought, 69 The overall injury rate was Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury.

The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. MMA competitions have an overall high rate of injury. MMA must continue to be supervised by properly. Incidence of injury in professional mixed martial arts competitions.

MMA must continue to be supervised by properly trained. This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship UFC stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators.

Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and kn The aim of this paper is to identify predictors of serum muscle damage marker MDM response following mixed martial arts MMA matches. The number of performed upright punches and kicks UKF that failed the opponent, the number of obtained hits to the upper and lower body LBH , as well as the total fight duration TFD were evaluated as potential predictors from video recordings. Furthermore, eccentric contractions to decelerate kicks that missed the opponent and the TFD seem to contribute to the MDM response.

Physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts athletes. Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts MMA athletes and the correlations between these variables. They were submitted to anthropometric measurements and the following tests: adapted flexitest, sit-ups, push-ups, long jump, flexed arm hang, 1RM bench press and squat.

Results: Main results are as follows: body mass kg: Conclusion: MMA athletes involved in this investigation have showed poor neuromuscular performance. Body fat was negatively correlated with both power and strength endurance performance, while arm circumference was positively related to upper body maximum strength.

Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: a descriptive epidemiological study. Full Text Available Abstract Background The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. Methods We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention.

Results cases were identified. Incidence rates were initially estimated using census data as denominators. We then imputed annual injury rates per using a range of published estimates of martial arts participation available from a national survey. Rates of injury in males and females were and per 0. Conclusions Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma.

The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma.

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Of course, MACS pedagogies remain controversial, since they can rehearse hegemonic discourses and established forms of discrimination. Martial arts can still be used to support political and military ventures whose main aim is to realize supremacist projects, as the rise of the fascist fight clubs in several Western countries and Post-Soviet countries demonstrate Pedrini et al. However, despite the political makeup of a country, people are increasingly aware of the environmental consequences of human action.

The following notion of ecological cultivation is an extension of cultivation beyond the human and societal into the environmental realm in which they coexist. Ecological cultivation is another layer we include in the analytical proposal. We consider this level of cultivation as a sort of environmental awareness, sensitivity and action. This form of cultivation draws on Kasper's , p. This point to the importance of considering the MACS setting, where they are carried out and how they develop implicit pedagogies towards the surrounding environment and the kind of relationship and sensibility the practitioners create with the urban as well as rural landscapes.

For example, the Japanese art of Ninjitsu is experiencing something of a renaissance as it is reimagined for different purposes. The BBC has followed its first graduate, Genichi, a mature Japanese man who praises the feudal way of living from the earth as a farmer first, and martial artist second, which he believes leads to a sustainable lifestyle within urbanized societies experiencing a pandemic 7. But how might we study such language and daily talk in MACS pedagogies?

This is explored in the next section, which leads to a discussion on praxiography and multimodal research. In this last section, we provide a few methodological guidelines in order to approach the multi-layered topic of health according to the framework proposed. The unifying broad perspective we embrace is one of praxiography. To put it simply, it means the analysis of social practices.

Since the majority of practices deal with artefacts e. The main objective of praxiography is to develop a theoretically-driven body of knowledge. According to Littig Littig, , p. Specific perspectives and experience of health, intended as forms of cultivation, hence depend on the specific embodied pedagogic logics characterizing each martial art and combat sport in given sociocultural context and institution.

The perspective of praxiography to explore the complex relationships between care of the self and cultivation advocate a creative usage of different strategies for empirical research. Even though we do not seek to limit the potential eclectic methodological mix for interdisciplinary research, at this point, we seek to clarify some path that could be followed for investigations in order to stimulate a creative mix of data collection and analysis.

Importantly, we emphasise the opportunity to approach practice from a synchronic or a diachronic standpoint through a multimodal approach. A special issue of Qualitative Research Dicks, Flewitt, Lancaster and Pahl, has imagined the possibilities of uniting the well-established ethnography particularly popular in MACS research with the multimodal research approach, which originally developed in semiotics and linguistics.

This multimodal research draws on a range of data collection techniques and data sources in order to understand human and social meaning as opposed to social order. This might be enacted through the exploration of symbols and visual concepts in martial arts theory as seen in badges and crests of different organisations.

The meanings behind these symbols and concepts could thus be explored through observation, interviews and semiotic analysis in many other fighting systems. Channon et al. In a shocking revelation, this research team revealed a common, even guaranteed, expenditure of ring girls over that on reputed medical professionals.

This above examples offer a critical perspective on pedagogy Markula and Pringle Given our attention to the discourses in this article, we wholeheartedly advocate studies on how martial arts instructors be they coaches, sifus , senseis , gurus or gurukkal use specific forms of language within asymmetrical power relations. Yet at the same time, we are aware of the continued need to study unhealthy and damaging practices such as forced fights, the falsification of medical records and poor hygienic practice during pandemics such as COVID Depending on the culture of the nation-state and the subculture of the art in question, these coach-athlete relationships and group hierarchies will vary tremendously, although like MMA as other forms of physical culture such as surfing, these MACS are very often based around hierarchies and archetypes of emotive masculinity expressed in mundane daily talk Green and Evers, The links between power, space and emotions could be applied in studies on health in terms of the emotional side of pain, injury, recovery and retirement — especially in more physically demanding combat sports such as MMA or the emotionally challenging approaches taken in Israeli Krav Maga and Russian Systema, which work with ideas around survival psychology and breath control.

Talk and emotions can therefore be a key aspect of raw data, which might include the use of humour and changing room banter, text messages, everyday corridor conversations and coaches barking orders from the corner of a ring. Moreover, adopting a different theoretical perspective, Winchester and Green explain how the past, present and future social actions are connected through accounts of motivations. This adds to the limited research on talk in the martial arts, an approach which could enable scholars to understand the motivations behind healthy and unhealthy practices that are not purely individual or institutional, but are certainly driven by the biographies of the participants.

In general, approaching practice synchronically allows researchers to grasp the articulation of un healthy pedagogy in the making, by adopting the huge spectrum of data collection and analysis adopted in social sciences. The pedagogy of single case-studies can be explored through participant observation adopting several forms of involvement into the field in order to analyse daily interactions see Wacquant, Martial gurus, entrepreneurs, coaches and practitioners can be interviewed by adopting different forms of standardized questions, both from a qualitative and a quantitative perspective.

Investigations could implement martial classes on specific populations and monitor how they respond to the pedagogies of the practices in different ways physically, mentally and socially. Discourse analysis is a powerful tool for inquires that consider pedagogies over time; how discourses about health and wellbeing of established associations and coaches, for example, change in relation to the broader symbolic and political landscape. Health and care can be approached from critical angles, detailing how certain techniques of the body impact on physical and psychological wellbeing, as well as how certain ideals of wellbeing are being boosted, interiorized, lived or contested by long-standing practitioners.

In conclusion, investigations into martial arts and combat sports MACS have been increasing steadily over the last two decades, with specific projects focusing their attention on themes of gender, violence, pedagogy and embodiment. Within this growing body of inquiry across interconnected areas of social science, there is a need for a critical understand of un healthy pedagogies; a complex topic which remains surprisingly underexplored currently. Drawing on our previous reflections and the existing literature, we have provided a theoretical proposal with a twofold aim.

First, we have conceptualized health and its pedagogies by moving beyond a reductionist biomedical paradigm to one focused on subjectivity as seen through the lens of care of the self. Second, we have set up a framework on cultivation in order to conduct future analysis on the pedagogies of health, so as to foster interdisciplinary inquiries in order to ask what and how martial arts could improve, or even act as an obstacle to, personal and collective health.

Other valued qualities such as empowerment, self-control and social awareness could also be studied using the strands of our theoretical model. Investigations into values, dispositions and other aspects of humanity and society that are cultivated in MACS would add to knowledge on the cultivation of health. Martial communities can sustain individual and collective projects for improving wellbeing, as they can harbour individual health and progressive societal change.

Specific research questions inspired by the theme of martial arts, health and society explored in this special issue and our particular article might include the following: Considering the fluid nature of martial activities between traditions and sports, how can goals of performance and health can be balanced in MACS experience?

How do federations and coaches conceive health in the first place? To what extent could precise health pedagogics be part of coaching programmes and coach education? How do practitioners frame their wellbeing? A lot of work has still to be done to move beyond this early collection of eclectic research projects seen in Frontiers in Sociology. Scholars across the world might wish to expand their research agenda to several different disciplines in order to compare and find general and specific traits of the different pedagogies, facing similar questions.

Our proposal is an invitation to bridge different fields of inquiries so as to establish an open and critical dialogue across subjects with the ultimate goal of creating new research strategies and, hopefully, for policy making.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. George is based in Wales, and he has a longstanding experience in several Eastern martial arts, Mexican Xilam and medieval fencing historical European martial arts or HEMA , with numerous publications on several martial arts from throughout the globe.

In his examinations, the philosophers thus appear to be as ancient gurus who share several features with the modern charismatic figures of the martial artist founders cf. Brown, Accordingly, Pierre Hadot sustains that the main objective of the ancient Greek schools of philosophy did not consist in elaborating, or even the teaching, theories. On the contrary, they were more concerned about the transformation of individuals. Abramson, C. Caged morality: moral worlds, subculture and stratification among middle-class cage-fighters.

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London, UK: Thorsons. Judkins, B. Kaibara, E. Yojokun: life lessons from a Samurai. London, UK: Kodansha International. Kasper, D. Ecological habitus: toward a better understanding of socioecological relations, Organ. Littig, B. On high heels: a praxiography of doing Argentine tango. Markula, P. Foucault, sport and exercise: power, knowledge, and transforming the self. Matthews, C. There is clear evidence to support that hand protection reduces the risk of hand injury.

Traditional training in martial arts on proper technique and target selection in striking sports reduces the risk of hand injury, and is an important component of hand and wrist injury prevention. All rights reserved. Are the 'hard' martial arts , such as the Korean martial art , TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens? Falls are a leading cause of death in the elderly.

Associated with aging is a loss of muscular strength, flexibility, and coordination. Regular exercise is widely believed to be of benefit for the elderly. To this end, various exercise regimes have been employed to battle the associated problems of aging.

TC as an exercise system uses slow smooth movements to train the body in balance, endurance, and strength. For this reason, it is known as a 'soft' martial art , in that it is very non-impact oriented. There have been a variety of studies in the West examining the beneficial effects of TC. However, to date, there have been no studies with senior citizens using other martial arts , of which, TC is but one. The present study was designed to examine the appropriateness and effects of a Korean martial art known as TaeKwon-Do TKD , a 'hard' martial art , on an elderly population measuring similar parameters reported for TC.

TKD proved effective at increasing one-leg balance in the population examined. Additionally, the overall dropout rate was extremely low suggesting both that the elderly are capable of participating in a hard martial art and that they have an interest in it as a viable alternative to other forms of exercise. The present study suggests that TKD as a form of exercise for an elderly population is both viable and potentially popular and warrants further study. Head Trauma in Mixed Martial Arts.

Mixed martial arts MMA is a full combative sport with a recent global increase in popularity despite significant scrutiny from medical associations. To date, the empirical research of the risk of head injuries associated with this sport is limited. Youth and amateur participation is growing, warranting investigation into the burden and mechanism of injuries associated with this sport. Descriptive epidemiology study. Analyses included 1 multivariate logistic regression to investigate factors associated with an increased risk of sustaining a KO or TKO secondary to repetitive strikes and 2 video analysis of all KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes with descriptive statistics.

During the study period, the KO rate was 6. Logistic regression identified that weight class, earlier time in a round, earlier round in a match, and older age were risk factors for both KOs and TKOs secondary to repetitive strikes. Video analysis identified that all KOs were the result of direct impact to the head, most frequently a strike to the mandibular region The average time between the KO-strike and match stoppage was 3.

Length of training, hostility and the martial arts : a comparison with other sporting groups. Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups.

The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility.

The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility. The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs.

This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts -related This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art , and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice.

It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…. The relatively new discipline of information science has its origins in the West, while the ancient martial arts have their origins in the East. Despite these differences in age and hemisphere, the two disciplines can be shown to possess many conceptual as well as technical similarities which have evolved quite independently of each other.

With a male, adult subject, this study measured the punch force and kick force of the Japanese martial art Nihon-Kempo, the movements of the dominant right arm, leg, and the movements of the legs using timed synchronization. Using an electromyogram EMG , the relationship between the variation of punch force and the variation of the electrical…. The martial arts can provide children and adolescents with vigorous levels of physical exercise that can improve overall physical fitness.

The various types of martial arts encompass noncontact basic forms and techniques that may have a lower relative risk of injury. Contact-based sparring with competitive training and bouts have a higher risk of injury. This clinical report describes important techniques and movement patterns in several types of martial arts and reviews frequently reported injuries encountered in each discipline, with focused discussions of higher risk activities. Some of these higher risk activities include blows to the head and choking or submission movements that may cause concussions or significant head injuries.

The roles of rule changes, documented benefits of protective equipment, and changes in training recommendations in attempts to reduce injury are critically assessed. This information is intended to help pediatric health care providers counsel patients and families in encouraging safe participation in martial arts.

The effects of reinforcement and extinction on response variability and stimulus generalization in the punching and kicking techniques of 2 martial arts students were evaluated across drill and sparring conditions. During both conditions, the students were asked to demonstrate different techniques in response to an instructor's punching attack.

Explains how martial arts , specifically karate, can benefit today's youth. Karate students also show increased self-esteem, attain goals, and develop an understanding of…. This podcast discusses an outbreak of vaccinia virus in Maryland in Christine Hughes, a health scientist with the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, and co-author of a paper in the April issue of CDC's journal, discusses vaccinia virus infections in a martial arts gym. Effect of different instructional media on acquisition of martial arts No significant difference was found between the video and the live-modelling groups.

The implications of these results for the design of computer-assisted motor skills learning are discussed. Key words: Elementary education; Physical education; Multimedia instruction; Martial arts. Mixed martial arts MMA has become one of the fastest-growing combat sports in the twenty-first century, drawing millions of Pay-Per-View spectators since the inception of the Ultimate Fighting Championship UFC in This paper will present, in chronological order, examp Injuries in martial arts : a comparison of five styles.

To compare five martial arts with respect to injury outcomes. A one year retrospective cohort was studied using an injury survey. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios OR and confidence intervals CI. Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons between styles, with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Different martial arts have significantly different types and distribution of injuries. Martial arts appear to be safe for young athletes, particularly those at beginner or intermediate levels.

Martial arts such as judo, taekwondo and wrestling are regulated, usually athletic duels. The aim is to score better than your opponent or to win. As with any type of sport, athletes in martial arts sustain minor and major injuries, which may have many negative consequences.

In addition, sports injuries and their rehabilitation generate high costs to the healthcare system. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarise the latest research findings and to evaluate whether initial recommendations can be given for the reduction of injuries in the martial arts judo, wrestling and taekwondo. To gain an overview of the latest research findings, we searched for systematic reviews in PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane and the internet search engine Google Scholar.

The methodological quality of these reviews was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Tool for a Systematic Review CASP , and data was extracted on the risk of injury, injury location and injury type. It was found that all three review articles are of low to moderate methodological quality.

Regarding injury location, it became evident that the extremities are particularly vulnerable to injury in all three martial arts. Effusion was observed to be the most common type of injury. Due to the moderate methodological quality and the injury type of effusion, it is not possible to formulate recommendations for injury prevention. Moreover, uniform definitions should be developed to describe sports injuries.

Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature.

Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art , mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions and held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections.

Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public. A patient's arrival in a mental health unit corresponds to a profound malaise in their life. Admission to hospital leads the patient to be cut off from their environment but is also the opportunity for thinking and reconstruction.

A workshop based on martial arts enables patients to rediscover their body, verbalise their suffering and regain self-confidence. A review of the effects of martial arts practice on health. Martial arts are ancient forms of combat, modified for modern sport and exercise. Participation in the martial arts is increasing, particularly for youth.

Martial arts provide health-promoting and meaningful exercise for millions of practitioners. Benefits from this practice include better overall health and balance, as well as an improved sense of psychological well being. They do not promote aggression and may be used as a treatment modality for youth who are at-risk for violence.

This article provides an overview of martial arts for physicians who may evaluate such injuries in their practice. Physicians may wish to consider recommending martial arts to patients as a beneficial form of exercise. They are relatively safe compared to many other sports, and most martial arts injuries are comparatively minor. A review of relevant publications using the search term mixed martial arts and each of its component combat sports eg, Muay Thai, Brazilian jiu-jitsu from through was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar.

Clinical review. Level 5. The majority of studies on MMA injuries evaluate those sustained during competition, which range in incidence from Striking-predominant disciplines such as boxing, karate, and Muay Thai have high rates of head and facial injuries, whereas submission-predominant disciplines such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu, judo, and wrestling have high rates of joint injuries.

Numerous studies have evaluated injuries in athletes who participate in MMA and its component disciplines during competition but much remains to be discovered about injuries sustained during training and in specific patient populations such as adolescents and women. The southpaw advantage? Lateral preference in mixed martial arts. Performers with a left-orientation have a greater likelihood of obtaining elite levels of performance in many interactive sports. This study examined whether combat stance orientation was related to skill and success in Mixed Martial Arts fighters.

Data were extracted for mixed martial artists from a reliable and valid online data source. Measures included fighting stance, win percentage and an ordinal measure of skill based on number of fights. The overall analysis revealed that the fraction of fighters using a southpaw stance was greater than the fraction of left-handers in the general population, but the relationship between stance and hand-preference is not well-understood.

Furthermore, t-tests found no statistically significant relationship between laterality and winning percentage, although there was a significant difference between stances for number of fights. Southpaw fighters had a greater number of fights than those using an orthodox stance.

These results contribute to an expanding database on the influence of laterality on sport performance and a relatively limited database on variables associated with success in mixed martial arts. Full Text Available Performers with a left-orientation have a greater likelihood of obtaining elite levels of performance in many interactive sports.

Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency. The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment.

Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid.

These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency. Survey of upper extremity injuries among martial arts participants. To survey participants at various experience levels of different martial arts MA about upper extremity injuries sustained during training and fighting.

A s question survey was designed and utilised. The survey was divided into four groups Demographics, Injury Description, Injury Mechanism, and Miscellaneous information to gain knowledge about upper extremity injuries sustained during martial arts participation. Chi-square testing was utilised to assess for significant associations. Females were less likely to require surgery and more likely to have shoulder and elbow injuries. Males were more likely to have hand injuries.

With advanced level of training the likelihood of developing chronic upper extremity symptoms increases, and multiple surgeries were required. Hand protection was associated with a lower risk of hand injuries. Martial arts can be associated with substantial upper extremity injuries that may require surgery and extended time away from participation.

Injuries may result in chronic upper extremity symptoms. Hand protection is important for reducing injuries to the hand and wrist. Martial arts films and Dutch-Chinese masculinities: smaller is better. Starting with Bruce Lee in the s, Chinese martial arts films have been gaining increasing importance in Hollywood.

Amidst global fascination and the prevalence of male heroes in martial arts films, it is surprising to note that only a few studies engage the genre with issues of Chinese. Martial arts participation and externalizing behavior in juveniles : A meta-analytic review. Martial arts are very popular among juveniles all over the world, but the relation between martial arts and externalizing behavior in juveniles remains unclear.

The social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise among youth: a review. Martial arts involvement among the youth has been described in controversial terms. Studies regarding the effects of martial arts practise on youth show contrasting images. While some refer to enhanced personal and social opportunities for those that participate, others warn against increased levels of aggressiveness and antisocial behavior among its participants.

The aim of the present review is to provide, firstly, an overview of the major findings of studies concerning the social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise. Secondly, the limitations of those studies are discussed. From more than papers, collected during a two-year lasting literature study, 27 papers met all criteria to be included in this study.

This review revealed that even though a considerable amount of research on social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise has been conducted over the years, to date, it has not brought clarity in the existing duality regarding the possible effects of martial arts involvement. It is proposed that a better understanding can be provided if specific influential factors are taken into account in future research i.

Key pointsMany common beliefs exist about the positive and negative outcomes of martial arts practise. Several influential factors have to be taken into account when examining the social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise. This article examines how martial arts students retell their stories about being left behind and how they have experienced, viewed, and struggled with the invisible violence.

Popularly known as the "hometown of Chinese martial arts ," Dengfeng is home to 48 registered martial arts schools and more than 70, full-time students. Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging.

Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes.

Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced.

Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different.

The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. Full Text Available Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging.

It was the first scientific workshop with regard to the organisational and policy related aspects of full contact martial arts. During this international meeting four scientists described in-depth the recent history and current situation regarding the organisation and regulation of martial arts in their country i. The workshop was a unique meeting which provided a good opportunity to obtain a better understanding of the specific situation with regard to the regulation of martial arts in some European countries and to exchange results of current research concerning this topic.

Further research could be helpful to gain more insight in dealing with problems related to governance, regulation and management of martial arts within a European context. Bibliometric analysis of martial arts monographs published in Spain Full Text Available This paper examines the martial arts monographs published in Spain between and from a bibliometric point of view. The results showed a total of 2. The interpretation of these patterns and the evolution of the martial arts bibliographic production in Spain highlights some aspects such as the development of the Spanish society and sports practice, bibliographic production, reading habits, or the cultural influences of eastern countries on Spain.

Cognitive and personality factors in the regular practice of martial arts. The effects of regular practice of martial arts is considered controversial and studies in this field limited their attention to singular psychological benefits. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the regular practice of martial arts and cognitive and personality factors, such as: attention, creativity and school performance, together with, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression.

The design consists in a factorial design with two independent variables groups and age levels and seven dependent variables attention, creativity, intelligence, school performance, self-esteem, self-efficacy and aggression. Seventy-six people practicing martial arts were compared with a control group 70 participants not involved in any martial arts training. Martial artists were divided into groups of three levels of experience: beginners, intermediate and experts. Each completed a battery of tests that measured all the cognitive and personality factors.

Martial artists presented a better performance in the attentional and creativity tests. All the personality factors analyzed presented a significant difference between the two groups, resulting in higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and a decrease of aggressiveness. Regular practice of martial arts can influence many functional aspects, leading to positive effects on both personality and cognitive factors, with implications in psychological well-being, and in the educational field.

The results were discussed with reference to theories claiming that regular activity has a differential positive effect on some aspects of cognition. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes. The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes Combined physical and psychological stress events have been associated with exacerbated endocrine responses and increased alterations in immune cell trafficking when compared to exercise stress alone.

Military training programs are rigorous in nature and often purposefully delivered in environments combining high levels of both physical and mental stress. The objective of this study was to assess physiological and cognitive changes following U. Marine Corps Martial Arts training. Seven active-duty, male Marines were observed during a typical Marine Corps Martial Arts training session.

Immune parameters, including immunomodulatory cytokines, and hormone concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained at baseline, immediately post training IP and at 15min intervals post-training to 1h R15, R30, R45, R Assessments of cognitive moral functioning moral judgment and intent were recorded at intervals during recovery.

There were significant fluctuations in immunoendocrine parameters. Peak endocrine measures were observed within the IP-R15 time interval. Distributions of circulating immune cells were significantly altered with neutrophils and all lymphocyte subsets elevated at IP.

Moral functioning was informed by different social identities during the recovery resulting in changes in moral decision-making. The program does, however, induce alterations in moral decision-making ability associated with the observed endocrine responses, even suggesting a potential interaction between one's social identities and endocrine responses upon moral decision-making.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts -related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between and Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses p Martial arts have lower emergency department injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling.

Combat sports do not appear to have higher injury rates compared to non-combat sports. Martial arts as a mental health intervention for children? Martial arts studios for children market their services as providing mental health outcomes such as self-esteem, self-confidence, concentration, and self-discipline.

It appears that many parents enroll their children in martial arts in hopes of obtaining such outcomes. The current study used the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten class of , to assess the effects of martial arts upon such outcomes as rated by classroom teachers. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study used a multistage probability sampling design to gather a sample representative of U.

We made use of data collected in the kindergarten, 3rd grade, and 5th grade years. Classroom behavior was measured by a rating scale completed by teachers; participation in martial arts was assessed as part of a parent interview. The four possible combinations of participation and nonparticipation in martial arts at time 1 and time 2 for each analysis were coded into three dichotomous variables; the set of three variables constituted the measure of participation studied through regression.

Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between martial arts participation and change in classroom behavior from one measurement occasion to the next. The change from kindergarten to third grade was studied as a function of martial arts participation, and the analysis was replicated studying behavior change from third grade to fifth grade.

Cohen's f2 effect sizes were derived from these regressions. The martial arts variable failed to show a statistically significant effect on behavior, in either of the regression analyses; in fact, the f2 effect size for martial arts was 0. The analyses not only fail to reject the null hypothesis, but also render unlikely a population.

This paper addresses sex integration in martial arts and combat sports, discussing the implications of mixed-sex training for challenging orthodox Western constructions of gender. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 37 long-term martial arts practitioners from around the English East Midlands between —, the paper argues that restrictive, essentialist and hierarchal conceptions of sex difference can be challenged through integrated training practices.

How does practise of internal Chinese martial arts influence postural reaction control? The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chinese martial arts practice on postural reaction control after perturbation. Participants standing in Romberg tandem posture were subjected to an unexpected lateral platform translation with the eyes open or closed at two translation amplitudes.

The peak displacement of the centre of pressure and of the centre of mass, and the onset latency of muscular activity tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, lumbodorsal muscular group, and rectus abdominis , were evaluated for martial arts practitioners and for sport and non-sport participants. Compared with the sport and non-sport participants, the martial arts group showed lower maximal centre of pressure and centre of mass peak displacements in both the lateral and anterior - posterior directions, but no difference was found in the onset of muscular responses.

We conclude that martial arts practice influences postural reaction control during a fixed-support strategy in a tandem task. The martial arts group used the ankle joint more frequently than the sport and non-sport participants, especially in the eyes-closed conditions. Our results suggest that the better balance recovery in the martial arts group is a consequence of better control of biomechanical properties of the lower limbs e.

Full Text Available To date, martial arts involvement is often described in controversial terms. While some studies report increased anti-social behavior as a result of martial arts involvement, other findings refer to a more positive social and personal development.

Consequently, the distinct moral and medical concerns regarding the effects of involvement in harder martial arts—combined with their increased popularity, as well as their perceived positive outcomes for specific target groups—have resulted in a growing demand among policy makers to develop or rethink their strategy towards the regulation and support of these sports. By means of a case-study approach, the present paper discusses some of the key issues regarding the regulation of a number of full contact martial arts e.

In describing the Flemish case, this paper aims to highlight the need to develop a sound martial arts policy that can provide a legitimation base for the provision and organization of full contact martial arts , which have become increasingly popular in recent years. There is substantial evidence that training in Martial Arts is associated with improvements in cognitive function in children; but little has been studied in healthy adults.

Here, we studied the impact of extensive training in Martial Arts on cognitive control in adults. To do so, we used the Attention Network Test ANT to test two different groups of participants: with at least 2 years of Martial Arts experience, and with no experience with the sport.

Participants were screened from a wider sample of over participants who volunteered to participate. The two groups were matched on a number of demographic variables that included Age and BMI, following the results of a previous pilot study where these factors were found to significantly impact the ANT measures. An effect of Martial Arts experience was found on the Alert network, but not the Orienting or Executive ones. More specifically, Martial Artists showed improved performance when alert had to be sustained endogenously, performing more like the control group when an exogenous cue was provided.

This result was further confirmed by a negative correlation between number of years of Martial Arts experience and the costs due to the lack of an exogenous cue suggesting that the longer a person takes part in the sport, the better their endogenous alert is. Results are interpreted in the context of the impact of training a particular attentional state in specific neurocognitive pathways. Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that training in Martial Arts is associated with improvements in cognitive function in children; but little has been studied in healthy adults.

One of the ways parents are looking to help with ADHD is through exercise programs , including the martial arts. As more of our students are diagnosed with ADHD, it is imperative we, as martial artists and teachers, understand the nature of this disorder.

Therefore, this article is intended to educate those in the martial arts about ADHD. First, an introduction about ADHD, what it is and what it is not, is offered to demystify the disorder and to insure instructors are using appropriate language and terminology.

Second, current research regarding the use of the martial arts as an intervention for ADHD will be discussed. Third, the issue of confidentiality related to psychological disorders will be discussed and suggestions offered to decrease the chances of instructors breaching confidentiality.

Finally, some strategies for working with children with ADHD will be offered. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injury in professional MMA fighters. Data from all professional MMA events that took place between September and December in the state of Nevada were obtained from the Nevada Athletic Commission. Medical and outcome data from events were analyzed based on a pair-matched case-control design.

Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. A total of MMA matches involving different fighters occurred during the study period. There were a total of 96 injuries to 78 fighters. Of the matches fought, 69 The overall injury rate was Facial laceration was the most common injury accounting for With adjustment for weight and match outcome, older age was associated with significantly increased risk of injury.

The injury rate in MMA competitions is compatible with other combat sports involving striking. MMA competitions have an overall high rate of injury. MMA must continue to be supervised by properly. Incidence of injury in professional mixed martial arts competitions.

MMA must continue to be supervised by properly trained. This article explores the sensuous experience of full contact fighting through ethnographic research in mixed martial arts clubs. Presenting its first card in in Denver, Colorado, the Ultimate Fighting Championship UFC stunned martial artists while thrilling and frightening spectators. Contestants are permitted to kick, punch, elbow and kn The aim of this paper is to identify predictors of serum muscle damage marker MDM response following mixed martial arts MMA matches.

The number of performed upright punches and kicks UKF that failed the opponent, the number of obtained hits to the upper and lower body LBH , as well as the total fight duration TFD were evaluated as potential predictors from video recordings. Furthermore, eccentric contractions to decelerate kicks that missed the opponent and the TFD seem to contribute to the MDM response. Physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts athletes.

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts MMA athletes and the correlations between these variables. They were submitted to anthropometric measurements and the following tests: adapted flexitest, sit-ups, push-ups, long jump, flexed arm hang, 1RM bench press and squat.

Results: Main results are as follows: body mass kg: Conclusion: MMA athletes involved in this investigation have showed poor neuromuscular performance. Body fat was negatively correlated with both power and strength endurance performance, while arm circumference was positively related to upper body maximum strength.

Characteristics of martial art injuries in a defined Canadian population: a descriptive epidemiological study. Full Text Available Abstract Background The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. Methods We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. Results cases were identified. Incidence rates were initially estimated using census data as denominators.

We then imputed annual injury rates per using a range of published estimates of martial arts participation available from a national survey. Rates of injury in males and females were and per 0. Conclusions Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma.

The martial arts have emerged as common activities in the Canadian population, yet few studies have investigated the occurrence of associated injuries on a population basis. We performed such an investigation and suggest potential opportunities for prevention. Results provide a foundation for potential interventions with a focus on falls, the use of weapons, participation in tournaments, as well as head and neck trauma. Peripheral vision and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes and nonathletes.

The present study investigated peripheral vision PV and perceptual asymmetries in young and older martial arts athletes judo and karate athletes and compared their performance with that of young and older nonathletes. Stimuli were dots presented at three different eccentricities along the horizontal, oblique, and vertical diameters and three interstimulus intervals. Experiment 1 showed that although the two athlete groups were faster in almost all conditions, karate athletes performed significantly better than nonathlete participants when stimuli were presented in the peripheral visual field.

Experiment 2 showed that older participants who had practiced a martial art at a competitive level when they were young were significantly faster than sedentary older adults of the same age. The practiced sport judo or karate did not affect performance differentially, suggesting that it is the practice of martial arts that is the crucial factor, rather than the type of martial art.

Importantly, older athletes lose their PV advantage, as compared with young athletes. Finally, we found that physical activity young and older athletes and age young and older adults did not alter the visual asymmetries that vary as a function of spatial location; all participants were faster for stimuli presented along the horizontal than for those presented along the vertical meridian and for those presented at the lower rather than at the upper locations within the vertical meridian.

These results indicate that the practice of these martial arts is an effective way of counteracting the processing speed decline of visual stimuli appearing at any visual location and speed. Full Text Available Martial arts involvement among the youth has been described in controversial terms. Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, japanesse martial arts had, as well as technical and tactical lessons, discourses of peace and non-violence.

Therefore, this study wants to prove whether the practitioners of these martial arts declare lower levels of attitude toward violence than non-practitioners. Statistical analysis confirmed that martial arts practitioners declare significantly lower leves than the control group, both in general violence as gratuitous violence, but were not in violence linked to self-protection. Finally, we discuss the influence that factors such as years of practice or competitive orientation may have on the ability of the japanese martial arts to reduce levels of violence.

Keywords: martial arts , judo, karate, jiujitsu, violence, adolescents. Motion analysis systems as optimization training tools in combat sports and martial arts. Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past years, a few review papers about possibilities of using motion analysis systems in sport were published, but there are no articles that discuss this problem in the field of combat sports and martial arts. Aim: This study presents the diversity of contemporary motion analysis systems both, those that are used in scientific research, as well as those that can be applied in daily work of coaches and athletes in combat sports and martial arts.

An additional aim is the indication of example applications in scientific research and range of applications in optimizing the training process. It presents a brief description of each type of systems that are currently used in sport, specific examples of systems and the main advantages and disadvantages of using them. The presentation and discussion takes place in the following sections: motion analysis utility for combat sports and martial arts , systems using digital video and systems using markers, sensors or transmitters.

Conclusions: Not all types of motion analysis systems used in sport are suitable for combat sports and martial arts. Scientific studies conducted so far showed the usefulness of video-based, optical and electromechanical systems. The use of research results made with complex motion analysis systems, or made with simple systems, local application and immediate visualization is important for the preparation of training and its optimization.

It may lead to technical and tactical improvement in athletes as well as the prevention of injuries in combat sports and martial arts. Aggression in adolescents is harmful and emotionally devastating to youth and surrounding communities.

This article integrates martial arts and therapeutic principles into a culturally sensitive model that cultivates change in the aggressive behaviors of disenfranchised adolescents. The art form of Capoeira is proposed for promoting positive…. In this study, to learn the routine of Tantui, a branch of martial arts was taken as an object of research.

Fitts' stages of motor learning and augmented reality AR were applied to a 3D mobile-assisted learning system for martial arts , which was characterized by free viewing angles. With the new system, learners could rotate the viewing angle of…. Among the many different sessions two specifically addressed historical European martial arts.

The first session discussed and commented upon modern practices and interpretations of historical European martial arts , each paper being based on good practice and the proper criteria for academic research. A non-contact complete knee dislocation with popliteal artery disruption, a rare martial arts injury. It occurs commonly in road traffic accidents and in high velocity trauma where significant contact remains as the usual mode of injury.

We describe a rare case of non-contact knee dislocation with popliteal artery injury sustained while practising Aikido, a type of martial art. This patient successfully underwent closed reduction of the knee with an emergency vein bypass graft. Similar injury in association with Aikido has not been described in the English literature previously. Various martial art injuries are briefly discussed and safety recommendations made.

Full Text Available The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. Pearson's chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses p The martial arts and mental health: the challenge of managing energy.

The effective management of energy is an important dimension in the martial arts as well as the mental health professions. Ki and the transfer of energy is studied through the martial encounter, using concepts borrowed from Japanese swordsmanship. Ki is also discussed from a developmental context as youngsters progress in Tae Kwon Do training. In examining the disciplines of Aikido, Tae Kwon Do, and Karate, it becomes clear that more is involved than kicking, punching, and throwing bodies on the floor.

These martial arts have some important statements to make in the area of mental health, particularly in terms of energy--within our bodies, psyches, interpersonal relationships, and the universe. Systematic review of injuries in mixed martial arts.

To assess injury rates in all mixed martial arts MMA studies. All included studies were entered in Pub Med Single Citation Matcher and all citation chains followed. Abstracts and titles were assessed for relevance, data independently abstracted and risk of bias for all competition studies evaluated independently by two reviewers. There are data for 5, male and female MMA fighters. One study provided data by professional status: professionals Losers can experience large amounts of trauma especially head trauma as matches terminate.

Two studies of competitions provided personally conducted ringside assessments and both pre- and post-match examination results. The other studies reported retrospective assessments of fight records or videos or videos and scorecards. There are no studies of training injuries of professionals or injuries of amateurs or long-term follow-up of musculoskeletal injuries or neurological damage.

Studies are limited to the US and Canada. There are no systematic reviews of newspaper or media accounts of fights to assess rates and numbers of injuries or mortality. The few published surveys and case reports markedly understate the worldwide situation. There are high rates of trauma in MMA.

The authorities who regulate MMA and referees and physicians who monitor MMA fighters have an inadequate database to guide their work. Researchers need to adopt the same set of complete definitions of all possible injuries and measure the high and early rate.

Background: Mixed martial arts MMA has experienced a surge in popularity since emerging in the s, but the sport has also faced concomitant criticism from public, political, and medical holds. Notwithstanding the polarized discourse concerning the sport, no systematic review of the injury problems in MMA has been published to date. Purpose: To systematically review the epidemiologic data on injuries in MMA and to quantitatively estimate injury incidence and risk factor effect sizes.

Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. Heterogeneity was evaluated with the I 2 statistic. Results: A total of 6 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. No studies reported injury severity. The most commonly injured anatomic region was the head range, The most notable risk factors pertained to the outcome of bouts. Losers incurred 3 times as many injuries as winners, and fighters in bouts ending with knockout or technical knockout incurred more than 2 times as many injuries as fighters in bouts ending with submission.

Conclusion: Notwithstanding the paucity of data, the injury incidence in MMA appears to be greater than in most, if not all, other popular and commonly practiced combat sports. In general, the injury pattern in MMA is very similar to that in professional boxing but unlike that found in other combat sports. The origin of the aesthetic elements in traditional forms of Far-eastern martial arts.

Full Text Available In light of the fact that Far-eastern martial arts have to be viewed as an inseparable part of the cultural traditions of China and Japan, their aesthetic character is tied to traditional cultural concepts which dominate these cultures, such as the concept of the unity of opposites, better known as yin and yang; the concept of the Road the Tao as a symbol of continuing self-improvement; the concept of Chi or Qui energy which permeates the cosmos as well as individual beings, etc.

These concepts owe their existence and development first and foremost to the religious and philosophical systems which shaped and influenced all segments of these two great cultures, and not just the martial tradition. Performance arts and martial arts of the Far East had an intertwined history and strongly influenced each other. The aim of this paper will be to give an outline of the basic concepts connected to the aesthetics of the martial arts of China and Japan and point out the similar roots in other segments of cultural tradition.

Martial arts fall techniques decrease the impact forces at the hip during sideways falling. Falls to the side and those with impact on the hip are risky for hip fractures in the elderly. A previous study has indicated that martial arts MA fall techniques can reduce hip impact force, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Furthermore, the high impact forces at the hand used to break the. Martial Arts and Socially Vulnerable Youth. An Analysis of Flemish Initiatives. Notwithstanding the lack of empirical support for its positive socio-psychological effects, numerous educators and welfare workers make use of martial arts in their work with socially vulnerable youth.

Using qualitative methodology, the aims, approaches and personal experiences were analysed of teachers and co-ordinators involved in specific…. Zivin, Gail; Hassan, Nimr R. Replicated and extended the design and outcome measures of several small studies. In these studies, juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts.

Martial arts fall training to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. Hip fractures are a common and serious consequence of falls. Training of proper fall techniques may be useful to prevent hip fractures in the elderly. The results suggested that martial arts fall techniques may be trainable in older individuals.

Better performance resulted in a reduced impact force. Adolescents are particularly open to the influences of interventions that restructure their attitudes and self-concept. This study assesses the influence of martial arts training that incorporates a philosophy of life along with strict discipline.

The hypothesis was that such training could positively influence juvenile delinquents and contribute…. The impact of school-based Tae Kwon Do training on self-regulatory abilities was examined. A self-regulation framework including three domains cognitive, affective, and physical was presented. Omohyoid muscle syndrome is a rare cause of an X-shaped bulging lateral neck mass that occurs on swallowing. This is a diagnostic case report of a year-old mixed martial arts athlete who acquired this condition.

Based on two years of fieldwork and over interviews, we analyze mixed martial arts fighters' fears, how they managed them, and how they adopted intimidating personas to evoke fear in opponents. We conceptualize this process as "managing emotional manhood," which refers to emotion management that signifies, in the dramaturgical sense, masculine…. Could martial arts fall training be safe for persons with osteoporosis?

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Nordic Theatre Scholars, pp. The ancient Hellenic martial-art of based on years of mba business plan software arm-to-arm combat. The studio offers free trial Maga, kids martial arts, Muay to the target, between several to discuss your feedback. Since sources differ in regards into separate, additional contractual arrangements you back in the future. Reputation A history of delighted. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise Exercise, 1: 1, pp. Warriors of the Ultimate Fighting. Kenpo Karate combines traditional Chinese and Japanese martial arts into experience and education. The data is statistically analyzed using SPSS. If you left a return email address we may contact fitness classes at their training.

Limited research suggests martial arts training may be an efficacious sports-based mental health intervention that Peer Review reports. Secondly, the limitations of those studies are discussed. From more than papers, collected during a two-year lasting literature study, PDF | In this article, we problematize sport psychology research on martial artists and offer some suggestions for advancing our knowledge in this area.