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Mini thesis

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Brains that get more exercises will be more dynamic and stimulated. But I can see it being definitely a competitive activity. We are now offered great choices of entertainment devices TV, video games, virtual gaming gadgets and consoles, internet, etc. It is easier that today we have online Sudoku and Sudoku application on mobile phones which is more convenient for us to play anytime. After being promoted to be published in The Times in Britain on November 12, by Wayne Gould, a retired Hong Kong judge, Sudoku rapidly appears in many other British newspapers and magazines and then its popularity came across to the US.

Schulten, Doyne, Ojalvo According to The New York Times, up to , Sudoku has appeared in more than newspapers in 66 countries, become the topic of more than books that have sold 20 million copies worldwide. First of all, because of its simplicity in rules and terms of play, unlike crossword which requires players to have basic or wide range of knowledge and vocabularies or at least we have to do some research to get the right answer , Sudoku also not requires any special mathematical ability myhealthdeck.

You just need to be logic, patient, time and concentrate to complete the grid of numbers. Another factor that makes Sudoku spread so quickly is it has no language barrier, everyone can play in anywhere, and it is rather easy to create a Sudoku that leads to a vast variety supply of Sudoku puzzle to meet the demand. Moreover, the appeal of Sudoku in the players is the feeling of accomplishment Stevenson as Sudoku is designed in different levels of difficulty, which can be solved in just five minutes or one hour.

It can be frustrated but since you complete one, you just want to do another Bennett As long as newspapers and magazines still have a space for Sudoku, there are still people who want to solve it. More recently, addiction was realized to spread to a more complex behaviour disorder. Any activity, hobby, subject, substance, from gambling, pornography to even quite ordinary and essential activities such as eating, reading, watching TV, exercising, shopping, idolizing, video games, computer, internet, etc.

Engs Addiction is the consequence of the relationship between a person and the object of their addiction Shaffer Physical addict can leads to psychological dependence. As people are addicted to something, they are always in need of it, then think all the time about it and craving for it.

They become dependent, spending more and more time and energy concentrate on holding on their substance. Addiction grows over time hbo. People who addict they make themselves physically and mentally nerd as if there is no other way for them to enjoy rather than engage their life in that object.

While not all symptom of addiction is visible, many people with addictions do not believe or even refuse that they are addicted since they are still enjoying themselves and their lives Hartney People who are lack of supportive from the others like family and friends, who usually feel bad about themselves and have low self-concept, are mostly have a higher rate of being an addict friendsofnarconon.

Since they find something to make them feel good and relief, regain mental peace, to soothe their sorrows, giving them the feeling of victory, and as their problem or their lives get worse, they may use or do it more often.

It could be their imaginative motivation in life. The more they do it, the more likely it leads to addiction. According to Dr. And it really is that process that defines addiction. This involves research in forums of Sudoku players, pages where they ask questions about Sudoku addicts and communities where Sudoku players express themselves and their stories. It is easy to access to Sudoku, buy books, play on the internet or on mobile phones, etc.

Sudoku does not have any specific genre or age of player, it appeals to everyone who like logical challenges. There are people who never get bored of Sudoku despite of its quiet simple design with just grid and number, compared to other computer games. There are different variations on top of the different skill level. To them, they love Sudoku because more than just fun, there is a feeling of smart, pride and accomplishment when they finish one grid of number despite how much time it takes.

I feel like a great mathematician myself! However, it will become a game with spirit of cooperation when you do it with your wife. Thanks to Sudoku, my everyday life is filled with joy. I play Sudoku in the afternoon. It is easy for players to deny that they have an addiction in Sudoku because Sudoku is a mental game and they encourage using logic skills, which is developing and good for the brain.

However, putting any behaviour to an extreme is not always good. Like many kind of addiction, Sudoku addict has some of the symptoms listed below:. Vranken They will easily gain irritability aggressiveness, and that lead to stress and depression Ross, Kincaid, Spurrett They just keep solving Sudoku without any specific reason despite any problem and harm awareness.

Firstly, since there is no such medicine to cure the Puzzle addiction, it is important that the people have to face with their addiction and to decide changing themselves from their addiction. People can go for years without realizing how dependent they are on their addiction Hartney Put the Sudoku puzzle away for a few days. Focus on returning to their ordinary schedule. Reconnect with important people in life before the Sudoku addiction. Priddy Consider to talk to professional health care for the rehab can be another way as the people have recognized their addiction to Sudoku but cannot stop themselves from it.

Preventing from relapse is one more important thing. The Sudoku puzzles are still available everywhere. Know how to control their need and desire in Sudoku is a need to avoid oneself from getting addict again. All depend on the people and their self-control to get away from their addiction. Today, as phone cameras and DSLR cameras have made a huge change in the movie industry, especially the Canon 5D Mark II and Canon 7D, which give high quality images, have become top choice for indie filmmakers.

Anybody with a DSLR could become an amateur or indie filmmaker. However, making a short film is not as easy as it seems, particularly when you want to make your one stand out from the market. A great short film starts with a great script filmindustrynetwork.

Whether it is a student film or an Oscar nominee, an original idea of your film is what the others do not have. Watching finalists from Tropfest, the world largest short film festival, and some other short films on Vimeo, video sharing service, whatever genre it is, I see the essential elements that make each of them stand out from the others are their concept, creativity style, simplicity, the conflict, emotion and original. None of the idea is completely original as there are numerous of films are being made day by day and it not really easy for an original one to come by.

Even with a typical plot but with distinctive features such as using different style, experiment new camera technique, look at the subject from a different angle that will help you develop your film in a distinctive way. In short film, a single, simple theme or idea works best as you do not have much time to develop a complex and detailed storyline Hooker Nevertheless, it should be meaningful to convey your main thought to the audience.

Tight idea together along with building up the conflict and tension for the character, make the solution creative and unique, no matter how short it is, three or fifteen minutes, you must have the beginning, middle and an end for the film filmindustrynetwork. Since I tend to make my short film with as less dialogue as possible because the story focuses mainly on the main character struggles with himself, yet it must have a strong visual impact.

Building up a character, a situation, how the character interacts with the environment filmindustrynetwork. Getting a good actor is another important factor. Ability of me as a director is to convey my idea to the actor, and his ability to catch my idea, expresses it in his acting to convey the dramatic emotion to the audience to make a big different for my short film. Like many short filmmakers, I am trying to create a high concept and original one, hoping to get it out to short film festivals and be recognized in the industry.

The fastest and simplest way to let people know about my film is uploading it to online video sharing services such as Youtube, Vimeo, Facebook, etc. By adding tags and putting categories, there will be people randomly search and get in to my short film. First is to grab attention from wide range of viewers. The internet provides a huge accessibility to reach millions of people. There are several students who have the same major as mine, short filmmakers, indie filmmakers out there including my friends as well.

They could have a look at my film at least because they want to compare mine with their product. Then my film will be noticed and if they like it, it could be spread more widely. Moreover, this particular theme is about a Sudoku addict, the amount of people who play Sudoku in the world is numerous, they would be curious to see the thing they are already into will appears on screen.

Therefore it is one more potential audience for my short film. Although short film market cannot be compared to feature-length film Alexander , but if you could achieve a high level of creation, the audience still barely exists. It receives low minimum rainfall hence crop production and livestock decline due to poor, deteriorated rangeland, overstocking and intensive drought condition ATPS, Mafeteng had been chosen to be the study area because it has received so many interventions than any other districts.

World Vision assisted in relief and food security, nutrition and education. Send A Cow Lesotho had assisted in improvement of household food security by establishing broiler and piggery enterprises. The target group consisted of people who were either landless, below subsistence, or small-scale farmers working on less than 2 hectares of land IFAD, The principal components the programme comprised three components, namely: i agricultural diversification and intensification; ii land and water management; and iii local capacity building SANReMP, Interventions included activities for conservation farming under traditional rain-fed system, vegetable production in community gardens, micro-scale irrigation, broiler production enterprise, wool and mohair production, rehabilitation of woolsheds, establishment of orchards, reseeding of rangelands and donga reclamation SANReMP, Members of the project coordinating team were programme coordinator, monitoring and evaluation officer, procurement officer, assistant accountant, District Agricultural Officer.

Other key partners from the Ministry of Agriculture; the principal secretary, director of planning and policy analysis, chief economic planner and director of field services, from the Ministry of Forestry and Land Reclamation; chief forestry officer, director of conservation and principal range management officer, from World Bank; senior operations officer and operation officer and from FAO; Assistant FAO representative SANReMP, Relevant secondary data sources and publications were reviewed that provided data and information on environmental, social and institutional challenges of SANReMP project in Mafeteng.

The secondary documents that were reviewed were Annual work plan and budget, midterm progress review, main report, audit report on the financial statements and closing report. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire. The design of the questionnaire was guided by the research questions outlined in chapter one. The research questions, problems, solutions, methods and alternatives from literature reviews were used to design a questionnaire aimed at capturing various opinions and attitudes in the study group.

The sustainability survey was constructed based on information obtained from quantitative data. Such studies includes items pertaining to program status, goals, programs, and beneficiaries, ministry and extension involvement, stakeholders, and facilitators and obstacles to sustainability. The questionnaires had structured closed ended questions. The close ended ones were used to get quantitative data. The questionnaires were administered by the researcher with the help of area extension officer.

Each interview took approximately 25 minutes. The sample was selected purposively targeting people who resided in these places who were there during implementation including beneficiaries and informant non- beneficiaries. Qualitative data was then analysed and reported in the appropriate sections throughout the report to provide more descriptive responses to accompany the quantitative results. Sustainability approach was used to measure relationship between the three pillars of sustainability; social, environment and economic.

The three pillars have served as standards of sustainability figure 2 , and reliable tool for defining impact of sustainability problem. Project performance was rated on effectiveness, efficiency, impact and relevance supported interventions. Figure 2. This is not surprising as the funding agency for the SANReMP program IFAD has a deliberate policy for targeting women as a way of addressing gender imbalances in economic development and food security.

Table 1 shows the age distribution of the respondents. The table indicates that the majority of the respondents fell in the years The analysis of age was done to find out representation of members in various projects. Older people are the ones engaged in agricultural activities as most of the younger generation migrated to towns in search for non- farming jobs which are believed to pay more than agricultural activities.

The scenario will likely have negative impacts on the sustainability of the project. Firstly, it has impacts on household labor since some elders may not have enough strength to take part in the running of the project. This will likely affect sustainability of the projects since most of the elderly will not be able to work on the projects for a longer period.

The fact that the projects are being run by elderly will likely have an impact on decision making. Studies conducted by Mather for example indicate a decline in decision making abilities with age, particularly with investments since they become more risk averse. This might negatively affect investments in the future of the SANReMP thus affecting the sustainability of the projects.

This has advantages with regards to capacity building programs as most of them will have the capacity to grasp new concepts. The results indicate Percentage 3. This would also allow the assessment of the impacts of the program compared to previous productivity levels.

The results are shown in Table 2. Interviewing non beneficiaries was important in acting as a control for the study. Percentage According to the results Thus the activities implemented were meant to promote their livelihood by securing food and improving nutrition.

From the beginning of the project, the communities were informed by the local chiefs about SANReMP, indicating effective participation of the donors and implementing partners. That was a prerequisite since the Action Learning Cycle was to be conducted in the villages where the communities identify their problems and suggest how they can be solved.

According to the views of the beneficiaries regarding the intervention is that the program addressed their needs however, they were not fully empowered to sustain the activities but they had a chance of being sustainable. The beneficiaries were unable to continue with the activities due to lack of financial resources and other outputs hence making them aid dependency. It is in such incidents when the project has phase out, then the donor support is withdrawn and implemented interventions are not maintained.

They knew about the organizational structure of the project; how the project worked with them hence the expectation of the developing partners. Their views regarding the achievement of the project objectives being attained and whether the project failed or succeeded indicate taking charge of the activities that were implemented, Interventions implemented include rehabilitations of the gullies, reseeding of rangelands, construction of woolshed, broiler production and procurement of breeding stock rams.

The above provided information indicated ownership of the communities during implementation. At the initial stage of implementation, the activities showed slight element of sustainability as the community got the benefits but they did not last immediately after the donor withdraw the support.

When participants were asked whether there were any training to help keep the project sustainable, the response were; no Hence that suggested that even though they participated during the running of the activities, there were no sense of community resilience considered before phase out. That was the view of The trainings conducted were for production purposes such as broiler production.

There were no other plans done to ensure continuation of the activities such as the financial resources. Proper phasing out was not practised by the donors, that resulted in lack of community resilience and collapsing of implemented activities. Almost half of the implemented activities failed to continue, suggesting that the donors failed to plan, design and implement proper exit strategies that enhance sustainability.

Proper phasing out influences empowerment, which has impact on donor intervention; thus the community will be able to sustain their activities if they are fully empowered through capacity building and organisational development. The trainings were done to empower the community with the expectation of equipping them with skills to enable sustainability.

However these training were said to be inadequate as they did not address sustainable issues. Only extension staff was trained so that they may supervise the implemented activities when the programme closes. Monitoring and follow ups after closing of the programme declined from the extension staff.

It is believed that it contributed a lot to the performance of the projects as the government policy enforce staff to be transferred to other districts or location and new staff may lack motive for follow ups, and human resource usually takes time to fill extension staff vacancies, so there may be places left without extension staff. However they are still producing for subsistence since they have to secure food and improve nutrition at household level. Only Through the project intervention, most of the beneficiaries Communities have gained through construction and renovation of woolsheds, conservation activities to protect the environment and rangelands, establishment of community gardens, and very low per cent were income generating activities.

The high number of respondents They believed that if they were trained on sustainable issues then they would have not depended on presence of staff supervision. ALC exercise was conducted at village level where farmers were involved so that they identify their needs, prioritize them and come up with solutions to their problems. This exercise was conducted by facilitators and data collected was used to develop community action plan CAP.

These CAPs were implemented into various projects such as establishment of community gardens and orchards, production of broilers, piggery etc. During its implementation phase, the respondents were given hand outs as stipulated by The follow up was done after phase out by the extension workers while the project staff was no longer available. This is a good indication of proper monitoring for sustainability purposes after donor have left the programme since the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security as well as Ministry of Forestry and Land Reclamation were the developing partners IFAD, and took part in the implementation process by providing extension staff to implemented areas and trained farmers.

Trainings conducted were for production purposes. Only extension staff was trained regarding those issues. Through government policy to transfer staff, capacitated staff would leave and new staff were unable to continue to guide with sustainable strategies.

The resulted conflict was due to lack of stipulated roles by each party. The misunderstanding resulted in lack of participation on both parties in the activities of the project. Most of the respondents Project interventions included conservation farming under traditional rain-fed system, vegetable production in community gardens, training of farmers on production, production of broilers, layers, pigs and fruit trees, and reseeding of rangelands, construction of woolsheds and rehabilitation of existing ones, provision of rams and ewes to improve wool and mohair clips.

From the implemented activities established, 50 percent are still functional while 50 percent failed. Hence the activities implemented were meant to attain the set objectives; improve food security, family nutrition and income for household throughout the implementation period. In terms of effectiveness of the programme, the outcome results have been beneficial. Trainings for farmers were conducted to handle established projects, on crop production, animal production, and fruit trees and improve management.

However, due to lack of measurable data, the evidence showed overall output with mixed results, negative and positive results. The findings from the conclusion report IFAD on sustainability, activities such as vegetable and fruit product, broiler production, layer production, pig, wool and mohair improvement run by individual promised a continuous output in the long run.

The overall results of the programme concluded that not all intervention were sustainable, there were evident data, but for some such as direct beneficiaries were continuing to produce vegetable and fruits, buy inputs with their own funds, consume the produce and sell surplus.

Rangelands were upgraded and woolshed rehabilitation, wool and mohair got improved. Evidence sourced from impact assessment was rated satisfactory on the criteria of rural impact on poverty reduction. Selling of broilers, pigs, eggs, vegetables and fruits secured income. On natural resource management activities the rating was moderately satisfactory; reseeding of rangelands, removal of invaders, water harvesting and gully reclamation IFAD, The evident factors were ownership, participation and exit strategy.

With regard to the mentioned factors of sustainability, the SANReMP agricultural projects had the potential to be sustainable since the communities showed some commitment to the project activities, however they were not equipped enough to be able to continue with their various activities.

Yes, the objectives of the project were met in terms of relevance, efficiency, effectiveness and impact, but the programme output data was limited and not evident. The approach used for exit was phase out; hence the donor was no longer engaged in the projects after the objectives were met. Without further support of the donor or developing partners, most beneficiaries lost interest on their engaged activities. According to the findings of the study, the SANReMP agricultural donor projects were not sustainable at all, why because the programme was implemented for more than six years now and the evident data for sustainability is not convincing.

And mostly again, the same Mafeteng district, have been chosen again among the 10 districts for another on-going project Smallholder Agricultural Development Project SADP to address same challenges since , hence why Mafeteng was chosen as the study area. Adam, O. International Journal of Technical Research and Application. Promoting Practical Sustainability. Batchelor, S. Gamos Ltd. Blewitt, J.

Sustainability Assessment and Appraisals. Understanding Sustainable Development. Earthscan, London. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. University of Rome. Directory of International Donor and Development Organizations. Davis, N. Discussion Paper No. Gardner, A. What We Know about Exit Strategies. Rome, Italy. Tango International.

IFAD a. Project Performance Assessment. Kingdom of Lesotho IFAD b. International Journal of Project Management 30; pp — Kingdom of Lesotho. Document of the World Bank, Report no. Lesotho Aid Effectiveness. Progress in Implementing the Paris Declaration. Vol II. Country Chapters. Lyson, M. Smut, C. Participation, Empowerment and Sustainability: How do the links work?

Urban Studies. Mancini, J. Proceeding of the 20th Annual Conference Dublin, Ireland. A, Aging, Affect and Decision Making. Mausuri, G. Mazibuko J. Enhancing Project Sustainability beyond Donor Support. Analysis of Grassroots Democratisation as a Possible Alternative. University of South Africa. Misi J. Mkomagi J. Effectiveness of exit strategies on sustainability of development projects in Tanzania: A case study of selected World Vision Tanzania projects.

Sokoine University of Agriculture. Mmuriungi, K. European Journal of Business Management, 2 1 , Evaluation of home gardens Project Reports. Morelli, J Environmental Sustainability. A definition for Environmental Professional. Journal of Environmental Sustainability.

Vol 1, Issue 1. Article 2. Pp 2 48 Njuguna, H. University of Nairobi. NMTIP Vol 1 of V. OECD Element 4. Paper 1. Vol 2 4 pp Okafor, C. Olukotun, G. Achieving Project Sustainability through Community Participation. Oslo Handbook in Assessment of Institutional Sustainability. P7 Roman, S. Agricultural Sustainability, Principles, Processes and Prospects. Food Product Press. New York. Rogers, L. Spielman D. F and Flaherty.

K Evidence from Africa. Conference Working Paper 8. Accra, Ghana. The African Union Commission Agenda The Africa we want. Draft Document. United Nations We can End Poverty. Millennium Development Goals and Beyond Fact Sheet. World Bank, The main objective is to find out whether donor agricultural projects are sustainable after phase out. The beneficiaries will give their opinions on the mission, achievement, problems, failure and their involvement regarding the project and whether they benefited as well as the impact it has on the communities; socially, economically and environmentally.

Please note, information provided will be treated with the highest degree of confidentiality. I declare that all responses which have been recorded are the true responses of the respondent and that I have fully checked the questionnaire. Signature: ………………………………………………………………………. I understand that my responses to this survey will be treated with the strictest confidence.

I further understand that I will not receive any compensation for taking part in this study. For office use 1. Gender a Male 1 A1 b Female 2 2. Age a 1 b 2 c 3 d 4 e 5 f 6 g 7 A2 h 61 or older 8 3. What is your highest level of education? How long have you been farming in this area? Which problems were associated with the project?

Can choose more than one option. B8 b Farmers became dependent on donors 2 aid. Can you suggest possible solutions to those problems? How did the project work with the farmers? Did the Project achieve its objectives?