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Pay to get investments critical thinking

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I went nearly ten years in college getting ll three of mine and to tall you the truth I would have been better off going to a trade school and getting my cert in washing machine repair or something. Total bull crap. In my own research I found people who claim to have gone to schol over there and guess what? Interesting, working now in Silicone Valley. So, how do you get that masters degree from an American school if you never took calculus, physics, advanced algebra, etc.

But, whose got he job? I can still get jobs. Usually they are quite stupid. For top students at elite universities, management consulting and investment banking represent careers that provide opportunities to earn a lot of money right out of school, often with only a bachelor's degree.

Unlike careers in medicine, law, or pharmacy, neither management consulting nor investment banking imposes hard-and-fast educational requirements on entrants; the individual firms doing the hiring decide what to require of prospective employees. That said, most of the top firms that pay the biggest salaries generate fierce competition in the application and interview process, with only the brightest students from the most reputable schools being hired.

Having a Master of Business Administration MBAparticularly from a top program, has never hurt anyone's prospects for either career. A management consultant must be able to analyze a company's operations and determine where inefficiencies exist and where processes can be streamlined or eliminated. While having good people skills confers a significant advantage in either career, it is an absolute must for management consulting. Myriad behind-the-scenes positions exist for lawyers who excel in logic and problem solving but who are introverts or otherwise lack negotiation skills.

Management consultants, by contrast, have to solve problems and present their findings persuasively to the client. It is not a career for the timid or for misanthropes. While some are lucky enough to land gigs in which they service local clients exclusively, or at least travel infrequently, most management consultants are road warriors, often flying out on Sunday night to be at work in a city across the country on Monday morning, not to return until Friday afternoon.

Firms expect new associates to be flexible with travel, and when local clients become available, senior employees receive first pick. That said, many recent college and MBA grads who are unencumbered by kids or family obligations consider such work travel to be a bonus, not an imposition. In addition to a generous salary, big consulting firms pay for their employees' airfare, hotel accommodations, and food while the employees are on the road.

Each requires its own education and skills background. A degree in finance, economics, accounting, or mathematics is a good start for any banking career. In fact, this may be all you need for many entry-level commercial banking positions, such as a personal banker or teller. Those interested in investment banking should strongly consider pursuing an MBA or other professional qualifications. Great people skills are a huge positive in any banking position.

Even dedicated research analysts spend a lot of time working as part of a team or consulting clients. Some positions require more of a sales touch than others, but comfort in a professional social environment is key. Other important skills include communication skills explaining concepts to clients or other departments and a high degree of initiative. However, it is not uncommon for an investment banking associate to work between 65 and 75 hours a week, and sometimes that does not even cover the enormous amount of research required.

Even if a bank does not require junior bankers to come into the office on weekends—Citigroup famously made this change in —it will still expect employees to be accessible via email and phone. Whether seeking a career in management consulting or investment banking, a person needs strong skills in problem solving and diplomacy. Management consulting requires learning the entirety of a client's frequently complex management structureidentifying inefficiencies and areas where improvements can be made, devising solutions to these problems, and then breaking everything down into terms the client can understand so that these changes can be implemented.

Consultants must have excellent critical thinking skills and they certainly must be good with people. Investment banking requires many of the same skills. Since investment bankers handle vast sums of money, they need excellent quantitative skills and discipline. Simple mistakes routinely cost firms millions of dollars. The field is broad, with personal interaction more common in some areas than others.

Having great people skills expands an investment banker's cachet and makes him more in demand. The good news is that critical thinking is a learned behavior. There are three simple things you can do to train yourself to become a more effective critical thinker: question assumptions, reason through logic, and diversify your thought and perspectives.

They may sound obvious, but deliberately cultivating these three key habits of mind go a long way in helping you become better at clear and robust reasoning. A few years ago, a CEO assured me that his company was the market leader.

Sometimes they reach out because they have been mismanaged. Sometimes they have not stayed in front of changing technologies. In a few cases, members of the senior team were simply negligent. But in my experience, these organizational problems shared a root cause: A lack of critical thinking. Too many business leaders are simply not reasoning through pressing issues, taking the time to evaluate a topic from all sides.

Leaders often jump to the first conclusion, whatever the evidence. Even worse, C-suite leaders will just choose the evidence that supports their prior beliefs. A lack of metacognition — or thinking about thinking — is also a major driver, making people simply overconfident. The good news is that critical thinking is a learned skill. To help people get better at it, I recently started the nonprofit Reboot Foundation.

Cultivating these three key habits of mind go a long way in helping you become better at an increasingly desired skill in the job market. I once visited dozens of stores of a retail chain, posing as a shopper. I soon discovered that the company had presumed that its customers had far more disposable income than they really had.

This erroneous belief made the company overprice its clothing. They would have made millions more each year if they had sold lower-priced shirts and pants. Imagine going through your day asking yourself: Is the sky really blue? The first step in questioning assumptions, then, is figuring out when to question assumptions. Turns out, a questioning approach is particularly helpful when the stakes are high. So if you are in a discussion about long-term company strategy upon which years of effort and expense will be based, be sure to ask basic questions about your beliefs: How do you know that business will increase?

What does the research say about your expectations about the future of the market? Another way to question your assumptions is to consider alternatives. You might ask: What if our clients changed? What if our suppliers went out of business? These sorts of questions help you gain new and important perspectives that help hone your thinking.

Years ago, I took on the task of turning around the division of a large lingerie company. The growth of one of its major product lines had been declining for years. No one could figure out why. It turned out that the company had made the reasoning mistake of over-generalization, drawing a sweeping conclusion based on limited or insufficient evidence. Namely, the company believed that all of their international customers had similar preferences in lingerie.

So it shipped the same styles of brassieres to every store across Europe. When my team started talking to staff and consumers, we realized that customers in different countries reported very distinct tastes and preferences.

British women, for example, tended to buy lacy bras in bright colors. Italian women preferred beige bras, with no lace. And those in the United States led the world in sports bra purchases. For this lingerie company, improving their reasoning helped the firm dramatically improve its bottom line.

The good news is that the formal practice of logic dates back at least 2, years to Aristotle. It will pay good interest. We want them to think critically about interpreting problems, designing solutions, and analyzing and evaluating solutions. One of the challenges in an introductory finance course is how to help students learn the tools of analysis, but more importantly to help them understand intuitively what they are doing in that analysis.

First, students gather company information by downloading the financial statements from Thomson Reuters. Second, they calculate historical yearly sales growth rates, identify analyst estimates of growth, and perform a regression analysis of sales growth. Students use the regression output to forecast future sales. Third, students perform discounted cash flow DCF analysis using the two estimated sales forecasts.

The ultimate goal is to estimate the stock price of their company using the DCF model. To conduct this analysis and forecast the future and discount those cash flows, they must make many assumptions about specific variables. Once the analysis is done, the student must compare their forecasted stock price to the actual stock price and articulate why the two values may be different.

In other words, they must identify the variables that may have affected the stock value by doing a sensitivity analysis. This is the part of the project where many students struggle because they need to think critically about what they have done in the analysis and articulate it in a one-page description backed up by their analysis. It is not the tools of analysis where students struggle, but it is the articulation and understanding of what they did with the tools that is difficult for them.

This is exactly where the eight elements of critical thinking can be integrated into the assignment to help students develop that ability to think critically and thus, better understand intuitively what they are doing in the finance project. To promote this critical thinking, we ask the students to answer the following questions based on the eight elements of critical thinking and incorporate it into their description:.

Purpose: What is your goal in doing the discounted cash flow analysis? Question at Issue: What is are the key question s you are trying to answer in this project? Information: What data did you use to answer the question s and where did you get it? Interpretation and inference: Does your evidence and data support the valuation of the company you analyzed?

Concepts: What techniques and concepts did you use to analyze and value your company? Assumptions: What assumptions did you make in coming up with your calculated value and stock price of your company? Why are your assumptions reasonable? Implications: Did you perform a sensitivity analysis and what variables from that analysis showed the biggest effect on the stock price? As a result, what is your recommendation about the variables affecting the stock value? Point of View: From what point of view are you analyzing the stock value?

In other words, might there be some inherent biases in your overall analysis? But the other thing that comes out in this quote is that critical thinkers are people who can admit when they're wrong, and accept information that challenges their worldview. They don't try to massage the sources to try and get everything to support what they already think.

They are willing to accept new information and change their minds. Maxfield: To that point, Gaby, when you're thinking about taking that new information in, you have to not only take the right information and exclude the bad information, but also process it appropriately. But one of the things that you learn in law school, and one of the things that underlies the legal profession -- which, when you think about what law school is and what law is, it really is just a study of logic, and an application of logic and persuasion and things like that.

What it's grounded in is an idea of a hierarchy of precedent. Everything you read doesn't deserve the same amount of authority. In the legal context, the Supreme Court gets more authority than appellate courts, which get more authority than district courts, which get more authority than state courts, and then you have the hierarchy within state courts. So, it's not only what information you're using, but it's how you organize it and process it that really differentiates somebody like Warren Buffett, who has made massive amounts of money really by just thinking extremely rationally, relative to these investors who have a tendency to underperform the market.

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5 tips to improve your critical thinking - Samantha Agoos

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There is no investment strategy anywhere that pays off as well as, or with less risk than, merely paying off all high interest debt you may d-frag.comal thinking is. Could other things make sense? In contrast, in logical thinking, you are constructing an argument. A is true, thus B should be true, thus C is. I am not receiving compensation for it. I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.