The between method triangulation makes use of a particular method to confirm the results of another method. This research uses the qualitative method to test and further explore the findings of the quantitative research method. This will help in augmenting the validity of this research 3.
It is important for the researcher to use a case study as it helps to better understand the trends and events that defines the research and according to Bryman , the case study approach aids in the profound study of the phenomenon on which the research is based. Case studies are used in describing the entities that form a single element. The case study is good because it provides information that are lacking in other methods and it employs different data collection method in obtaining the information.
This study uses the case study approach in describing the psychological contract in the public sector. It must be noted however that the case study approach has its own limitations. According to Hancock , the case study approach may not provide information that is the true representative of what is obtained in general.
In this case, the information obtained in the public organizations may not be truly representative of the nature of the psychological contract in the public sector in general. However, this study can provide sufficient information that will give insight that can be to a large extent exemplary of what is obtained in most pubic organizations.
The data collection process can be divided into two: the primary and the secondary. According to Sapsford and Jupp , the primary data are the fundamental information that the researcher can rely upon to provide raw materials for the researcher. The secondary data include all public available information that can be accessed relating to the subject matter and this may include books, journals and the internet as a while.
In ascertaining the nature of the psychological contract and to investigate its management, the primary data sources will be from questionnaires and interviews that will be obtained from the employees and administrators of three government establishments; National Health Service, DVLA and the Inland Revenue. The secondary data source for this study will include all the external sources such as the internet and journals. Interviews were used in this study as a major primary data source.
This research seeks to explore the expectations of employees and employers in the employee-employer relationship in the British public sector. Interviews will therefore help in ascertaining these expectations and to determine the possible effects of a breach of the psychological contract. There are three identified forms of interviews: structured, semi structured and unstructured interviews Structured interviews are designed in a way that every respondent gets to be asked the same set of questions in the same way and the questions are structured in a way that the answers can be limited to a set of possibilities.
Due to this, a similarity has been said to exist between a structured interview and a questionnaire. Semi structured interview on the other hand depends on the use of open ended questions. This means that the interviewer and the respondents, depending on the course of the interview, can explore the details of some particular areas if it becomes necessary.
Here, the interviewer can help the respondents understand the question better by using clues or illustrations that can help the respondents grasp the details of the question better. In unstructured interviews, there are usually little predetermined questions. In this case, there are no preconceived plan and structure in approaching the respondents There are some guidelines that an interviewer should follow in order to maximize the interaction and Patton listed some guidelines which were followed in this research.
This was useful in the analysis. Therefore, the interviewer tried as much as possible to explain the questions to the respondents. Questions were directed at the employees in order to ascertain their expectations from the employees and also to explore how satisfied they have been with the employee-employer relationship. Their experiences were sought as to how changes in the psychological contract have influenced their efficiency at work.
Questionnaires are a cost and time effective way of gathering data. The aim of the use of the questionnaire in this study is to gather quantifiable data of the nature of the psychological contract in the public sector. The questionnaires were designed using the likert scale.
The respondents were offered a position and they were to signify their extent of agreement and the rating is also used in which the relevance of a particular attribute is rated. According to Edwards and Kenny , the likert scale is useful in the accumulation of data for efficient and effective analysis. The four-point or the five point likert scale can be used.
An example of the four and the five point likert scale is shown below. The questions are designed to ascertain the nature of the psychological contract in the public sector and how it is being managed. In order to ascertain the contents of the psychological contract in the organizations, the respondents were asked if they thought there is fairness and trust in the employee-employer relationship and they were also asked to rate the level of fairness and trust. They were also asked what they are prepared to offer if all their expectations are met.
The employees were asked about the promises they think the management have made and if these promises have been kept. The respondents are to be followed up after the questionnaires have been sent in order to ensure that they are duly completed and that the information given is reliable. There are two main sampling methods which are the probability and the non probability sampling methods. In probability sampling, everyone in the sample frame has a known probability of being selected.
The different types of probability sampling include simple random, stratified random, systematic random, random cluster, stratified cluster and the complex multi-stage random sampling methods. On the other hand, in the non probability sampling method, some persons in the sampling frame has a zero chance of being selected. The different types of non probability sampling include the purposive, quota and convenience sampling methods.
In the purposive samples, selection of the respondents is based on a tangible reason in the research e. In the quota sampling, there is a predetermined number of respondents. The convenience sampling method bases the selection of respondents on easy accessibility and is not based on the research. The study engages non-probability convenient sampling method in the selection of respondents for the collection of the primary data.
This is because of convenience, proximity and availability. The respondents were picked based on their employment or their administrative role at the establishments. The employment roles include the cleaners, receptionists, accountants, engineers etc. The administrative roles include all the personnel managers in the organizations. Twenty respondents were chosen for the questionnaires while seven were interviewed.
The information that is gathered through the qualitative and the quantitative research methods will be analyzed and will be observed for consistent patterns. The thematic framework analysis is used to in the analysis of the qualitative research data. The thematic framework analysis identifies, explores, defines and explains the elements of a research data Bryman and Burgess The thematic analysis identifies consistent patterns that are present in data that are otherwise unrelated.
There are diverse ways by which data can be represented and they include graphs, charts pie chart, bar chart and data tables. Data can also be represented using more than one form of representation. The major limitation to this study is the limited amount of respondents that were used.
If more public organizations were used, it would have brought a better pattern to compare and contrast the management of the psychological contract in the public sector. The data is important to the author in order to be able to carefully examine the nature of the psychological contract in the public sector and to ascertain the management of the psychological contract in the public sector. The results and the analysis of the data that have been gathered will be discussed in the next chapter.
This chapter presents the data derived from the use of quantitative and qualitative research tools — questionnaires and face-to-face interviews — as described in the preceding chapter. The adoption of the triangulation method based on a rationale explained in the chapter on methodology has yielded both quantitative and qualitative data, which would be presented in various forms as appropriate.
Also included in this chapter is the analysis of the data derived from the interviews and questionnaires. A wide range of workers in different cadres in the public sector took part in the questionnaire survey. These respondents were selected at random and asked to answer a set of predetermined questions with the aim of fulfilling the following objectives: — Understanding the background of the participants: This information was necessary for the researcher to gain an understanding of the background of the respondents and how this may have influenced their responses to the questionnaire, and later to the interviews.
This is shown in the chart below Fig 4. This information was necessary in order to be able to categorize the respondents and be able to understand their views further. It is well understood that the expectations of the employee are quite different from those of the employers as regards the psychological contract. Therefore, it is important to know the status of the participant in order to make valid deductions from the other responses.
Figure 4. Source: Research data This question was necessary in order to understand the state of the psychological contract which exists in the organizations. And the state in which it exists is important in understanding its effects on a range of human behaviors and attitudes. However, this needs to be taken further, hence the need to rate the level of the fairness and trust. In other words, this can be said that a large proportion of the respondents have very high expectations of their employers in their organizations.
Combining the two clusters, it means almost all of the five entitlements were expected from the organizations in which the respondents work. None of the participants even chose open attitude at all. The area of pay and promotion is a useful tool to evaluate the fulfillment of the psychological contract in the workplace. And as shown in the pie chart above, it can be said that employees in the public sector particularly the three organizations collectively studied have a poor psychological contract.
This shows the extent of employee dissatisfaction which would lead to increased employee turnover, and the attendant effects such as loss of productivity, increased competition as the employees move over to competitors, and loss of knowledge and know-how gained over the period of association with the organization. After obtaining data from the questionnaires, the researcher embarked on a semi-structured interview with seven of the respondents in order to get more detailed information as to why they chose some of the responses they did choose in the questionnaire survey.
The interviews focused on deriving first-hand information about the point of view of the respondents as regards the nature of the psychological contract in their organizations. It is important to note that all the respondents are employees in the three organizations selected.
The table presented below gives a brief summary about the seven interviewees: Table 4. For the purpose of this report, only snippets of the interviews would be presented here. Question 1: In your years of experience in your organization, what are the things you expect of your employer?
And what are the things your employer can expect from you? I also believe that the administration should be able to keep its promises when made. I also expect that each party keeps its own end of the agreement — mine as an employee to do the job I am supposed to do at the right time, and the management too, to pay me as at when due, promote me at the right seasons.
The employer should keep up with its own end of the bargain. I also expect him to reward my good service in terms of pay which should be regular and based on merit. And when this is done, he can expect to my commitment and loyalty to the job.
If my job is well rewarded. I also expect the employer to pay me at the right time. My employer can also expect my loyalty and maximal input. I also want to be paid and promoted. All employees also need to be paid as promised, not having to wait for long or not being paid at all. And the terms of agreement needs to be kept by both the employer and the employee. Question 2: Were the expectations you explained earlier clarified before you began to work in the company?
The salary for the kind of job I wanted was stated. We clarified almost all of the issues during the meeting. Yes because we talked about the number of hours it would take to do the job, and how much I would be paid. No because we never talked about commitment and loyalty, but I believe that that would be deserved when the company does its own part. But the organization should know when to promote its employees. Question 3: What do you think should be the relationship between employees and employers in an organization?
Each party should also be open to each other as regards expectations and obligations. Also, each party must have integrity. Question 4: Do you feel your inputs are commensurate with the rewards you receive? Could you give reasons why? I am being paid at the appropriate intervals, but other rewards such as promotion, recognition for a job well done, and development do not come as regularly as they should have been.
I am being paid for what I do. And at the same time, I may not do up to what I am expected to do. Really, there is no way of measuring. I am not being appropriately rewarded. I am being underpaid. But I would have been happier if things were done the right way. What would make me happy is if the agreement made at the beginning of the job is being kept.
The management should have an agreement with the employee and should make sure that this agreement is kept to. And if it would not be possible to keep them, then they should not be made at all. When employees know what they would be rewarded with at the end of the day, they would be motivated to do their jobs right. It should be enhanced. This chapter presents the results of the questionnaire survey and interview in light of existing literature.
The aims and objectives of the study have been given earlier, in the first chapter, and information has been gathered as regards fulfilling these objectives. Here, analysis of the data which has been done already in the fourth chapter would then be compared with previous research and theories. One of the questions asked was in order to determine the type of psychological contract that can be found in the organization. Since one of the objectives of the questionnaire was to determine the expectations of employees concerning the psychological contract, it would be necessary to find out the expected entitlements of the employees towards their employer in the public sector, in this case, the three establishments using a cluster analysis.
From what was illustrated in Fig 4. This means that a large proportion of the respondents have very high expectations of their employers in their organizations. According to Janssens et al , it should be expected that employees with a strong psychological contract would have very high expectations, which these participants have, and would also be prepared to offer a lot more in return for the fulfillment of these expectations.
And in terms of obligations that the employees were willing to offer especially if all expected entitlements are met, a range of five options were given to this question for respondents to choose from. The options were derived from Janssens et al study in which these options were used to determine employee obligations especially as regards the willingness to offer the employer something in return if all or most of the expected entitlements are met.
As it was found in the data collected Fig 4. According to Willems et al b , employees in most cases are willing to offer their employers a lot in return if and when their expectations are met. In this case, it seems the prevailing obligation that the respondents were willing to give in return was loyalty.
This is similar to the results of the study by Janssens et al where most of the employees were willing to offer loyalty in return for their high expectations. This is why it is necessary to know whether promises have been made by the management or employers. But to buttress this further, more information is needed to determine whether these promises have been kept. However, a very large percentage of the respondents agreed that their organizations have made promises — whether implicit or explicit — on a range of issues Fig 4.
On the other hand, it is a different thing to make promises; it is another thing to keep them, only a little proportion of the participants agreed that the promises made by their organization have been kept far more than they expect Fig 4. Most of the others said either that it was just as they expected or a little bit more than they expected. But overall, it can be said that in most of the cases, employee expectations are met albeit in at different levels.
And this is a very vital point in any psychological contract as the expectations of the employees concerned needs to be met before any corresponding obligations on the part of the employee can be delivered, although in many cases, some of these expectations are not explicitly stated and are usually based on what the employees expect or believe that the employer has promised him or her.
This is why in the case of this study, no mention was made explicitly of any promise, but made open for the participant to choose from — whether implicit or explicit promises. The relativity of this psychological contract can be made in comparison with other sectors such as the private sector, local government, and health sector with regard to employee wellbeing, pay and promotion, and fair treatment as shown by Guest and Conway Other researches such as the one done by Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler have also shown that there is a wide discrepancy between what is paid and the expectations of workers in county councils, another part of the public sector.
Several reasons have been attributed to this, and which have been discussed in the second chapter. According to Guest and Conway , employees in the public sector, compared to other sectors especially the private sector, feel less fairly treated, and they also believe that the expectations or promises made to them by the management which are usually perceived promises are not being met. Therefore, this leads to dissatisfaction, and indirectly to other things such as lack of trust, less performance, and in the long run, to decreased employee retention.
But from the study sample, the bulk of the participants indicated that they do not trust the management of their organization to look after their best interests Fig 4. And the implications of this are much. This might have been because of the problematic attitudes towards the management as a whole. From all the foregoing, it is important to know whether these participants would be willing to move to another sector of the economy if given a chance.
More than half agreed to be willing to move to another sector of the economy if given the chance Fig 4. But all these boil down to the poor management of the psychological contract within the organization. The first question tries to find out in details what the employees expect from their employers, and what their employers can expect from them.
From the responses, it is obvious that employees have a lot of expectations they want from their employers. And this corroborates the findings of Jannsen et al who found out that employees expect up to ten dimensions of entitlements and obligations from their employers. Some of the expectations of the respondents include such things as trust, fairness and equity; respect; pay and promotion; recognition; and job security. And they also expect to deliver loyalty, commitment and dedication to their jobs.
According to Willems et al b , workers with high expectations are willing to deliver a lot in return especially if their expectations are met. And in most cases, these expectations are usually not completely clarified as shown by the responses to the following question. But in order to know whether the expectations and entitlements they discussed earlier were clarified before they began to work for their companies, they were asked to answer another question.
Most of the respondents confirmed that their expectations were not exactly clarified at the beginning of their work at their present organization. This is in line with what Maguire n. Usually, most are only inferred and as the organizations and individuals involved change are also subject to change.
This means that the respondents believe that these elements are vital to the working relationship between the employee and the employer, just as they are vital to any other relationship. The interviewees were also asked to state whether or not they felt that their inputs were commensurate with the rewards they receive, and to give reasons why.
The most common recurring factor here is pay which is the most common physical form of reward. As it has been described in the second chapter, a balance between employee input and rewards for this input is necessary for any successful psychological contract. When employees see and believe that whatever input they put in would be adequately rewarded, they would be motivated to do more, and in the long run, increase productivity which is one of the major achievements of a good psychological contract.
It is a widely accepted notion that employee attitudes are a fall out of the psychological contract. When employees derive their expectations and entitlements, they would have an attitude tending towards the positive. On the other hand however, when these expectations are not being met, the attitude would most likely not be satisfactory. This suggests that what motivates the workers to choose a job in the public sector may not be appreciated and valued.
However, there are no obvious explanations for this. Also, it may be because the promises made towards the workers may have been generalized for a wide range of worker cadres. But the bottom line is that these respondents have shown that their attitudes are being influenced largely by what goes on in their organizations. One vital point they have made is that employers should carry out all the promises they make to the employees. And as it has been said earlier, this is essential to employee attitudes and productivity in the long run.
Also, there should be transparency, trust and sincerity in the employee-employer relationship. This study was conducted with the main objectives of understanding the nature of the psychological contract in the public sector, identifying how the psychological contract is being managed in the sector, and be able to come up with recommendations on what changes need to be made in order for core organizational objectives to be achieved. Studies about the psychological contract abound in different sectors of an economy, not excluding the public sector.
But this research has been able to shed more light on some issues concerning the public sector, and especially how employers and employees relate as regards the existing psychological contract between them. One of the rationales behind carrying out this study was because of the understanding that many employees and their organizations face challenges in trying to keep up with the constantly changing business environment, resulting from changes in the surrounding economic situations.
And in order to be able to keep up with the increasing pressures, an understanding of how the psychological contract enables organizations to effectively manage human resources so as to be able to achieve key objectives that would make them stay afloat becomes necessary.
With a basic understanding that the psychological contract refers to the understanding, expectations and obligations that employers and employees have toward each other, whether written or unwritten, the researcher set out to derive data from public sector workers as regards what their understanding, outlook, and expectations are concerning the employee-employer relationship. And from what was derived, it was discovered that the employees indeed have a lot of expectations and wants. The cluster analysis done revealed that these employees have high expectations.
And when inquired further, it was found out that most of these expectations are unwritten. Most of them were actually inferred. It was also discovered that the rating of fairness and trust was above average in the organizations studied, meaning that the psychological contract in these organizations were well maintained. And as shown in the data obtained, the employees were ready to give in their loyalty as much as their expected entitlements are met.
Trust was an element that seemed to be lacking in the organizations as most of the employees did not agree to completely trust their senior management with issues concerning their own best interests. And when asked whether they would be willing to move to another sector if given the chance, a large percentage of the respondents agreed to move on.
All this boils down to the importance of managing the existing psychological contract wisely. It is important that the relationship between employers and employees be saturated with trust, sincerity, fairness and transparency. Earlier studies have shown that these are vital to employee attitudes and productivity. And this research has also confirmed this as one of the changes necessary to achieve core organizational objectives.
Looking at everything as a whole, especially the empirical evidence gathered, there seem to be an element of the psychological contract in the public sector, although the exact measure could not be determined. It was also observed that the employees value a loyal psychological contract which places an emphasis on long term employment and job security. A lot of promises are also being made in the public sector — especially concerning issues such as pay, promotion, training and development, job security — but rarely completely fulfilled usually because these promises are generalized across different cadres of workers.
And therefore, the employees experience constant breaches in their psychological contract as the management seems not to deliver what has been promised earlier. The first chapter gave a brief background and context of the study. It also presented the aims and objectives of the research. This was followed by the second chapter that presented the results of an extensive literature review, giving a comprehensive and detailed expose on the nature of the psychological contract, its history, definitions, and present understanding of the concept.
The third chapter describes the methodology adopted for the purpose of this study based on what has been found in existing literature. The triangulation method was applied based on reasons earlier discussed in chapter three resulting in the collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data. The fourth chapter gave a presentation of the results and analysis of the data generated using the methodology explained in the third chapter. It also gave recommendations based on these conclusions, and reasons for future research.
The researcher suggests that for public organizations to be able to achieve core organizational objectives and to be able to keep up with the constantly changing business environment, this research highlights different ways in which improvements can be made in the management of the existing psychological contract in these organizations. As it has been stated earlier, this study is more of an explorative study.
The researcher has been able to look into the current nature of the psychological contract in a few organizations to see if it exists, and if it exists, to see how it is being managed. However, further research is still necessary based on the limitations which were experienced during the course of the study.
This study is a small scale research which focuses on a few workers in three different organizations and this limits the scope of this study. Further research would be needed to confirm the preliminary results generated in this study. Also, a large scale research comprising a large number of employees cutting across several public organizations would give more accurate information concerning the nature and management of the psychological contract in the public sector.
It is also necessary to compare how the psychological contract is being managed in the public sector with other sectors such as the health sector and private sector, or differences in how the psychological contract is being managed within different components of the public sector such as the central government, local government, etc.
In addition, it would be necessary to link the results derived in this research with other studies on public sector motivation. As it has been suggested by researchers such as Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler , the motivation in the public service may influence the kind of contract that employees look for in an organization and how these employees respond to the fulfillment of the contract. And it has also been found out that fulfillment of certain components of the psychological contract such as promotion, job security, etc.
Using the existing psychological contract framework for the current research is a suitable method for this research on the public sector employee-employer relationship. However, a lot of practical and theoretical work needs to be done in order to be able to come to a more comprehensive understanding of the unique aspects of the psychological contracts as it exists in the public sector.
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Aaron, T. Mann and T. Taylor eds. Washington D. Your participation in this survey is crucial in order to be able to determine the existence of the psychological contracts in the public sector and how it is being managed. You have been randomly chosen. The data collected in this questionnaire is strictly confidential and the information would be used for statistical purposes only. All information gathered remains anonymous. Please, kindly provide accurate and honest information.
Please indicate the answers that closely fit your choice. Thanks in advance for your anticipated cooperation. Sex: Male Female 3. Marital status: Married Not married 5. How long have you worked for your organization? How many hours do you put in every week?
Do you think there is fairness and trust in the relationship between the employees and employers in your organization? Yes No 9. How would you rate the fairness and trust in your organization? Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor In terms of entitlements, which of the following clusters do you expect in your own organization?
Please choose the most appropriate. Cluster A — carefulness regarding arrangements, tangibility, long-term involvement, personal treatment, and equal treatment; Cluster B — tangibility, long-term involvement, personal treatment, and equal treatment; Cluster C — long-term involvement, personal treatment, and equal treatment; Cluster D — personal treatment, and equal treatment Cluster E — equal treatment.
What is the most important thing you prepared to offer if all your expected entitlements are met? Do you believe your organization has made promises — implicit or explicit — or commitments on a broad or limited range of issues? Yes No Do you believe that the promises made by your organization have been fully kept, kept to a large extent, to some extent or not kept?
Are you satisfied with the pay and promotion in your organization? Do you trust the senior management of your organization to look after your best interests? Would you move to another sector of the economy if given the chance?
Yes No Indifferent. This interview is only meant to record your opinion about the management of the psychological contract in your organization. For the purpose of uniformity, here is a copy of the questions I would be asking you. Please feel free to follow me as I read it to you.
Please note that you have the right to decline to participate, to refuse to answer any question s , or to withdraw from the study at any time. Question 5: What would you say your attitude is concerning how your organization is run? Question 6: What changes would you want to be incorporated in your organization? Respondent One Question 1: In your years of experience in your organization, what are the things you expect of your employer?
I expect the administration of the organization to be able to provide an atmosphere of trust, fairness, and equity. I also believe that the administration should be able to keep its promises when made to the employees, likewise trust and sincerity too. As regards what my employer can expect from me, my employer can expect my loyalty and dedication to my work. No, but we discussed wages and salaries in the terms of work expected and done at the end of the month. I believe in transparency in any business, and there should be trust in the relationship between the administration and the employees under it.
I am being paid at the appropriate intervals, but other rewards such as promotion, recognition for a job well done, and development do not come as regularly as they should have been compared to what I think is being done in many other companies. I understand the nature of things up to an extent, and I am comfortable with what is going on. I would want an environment of complete trust and sincerity to be incorporated in every part of the company.
Respondent Two Question 1: In your years of experience in your organization, what are the things you expect of your employer? I would want my employers to respect my rights as a worker. I also expect that each party keeps its own end of the agreement — mine as an employee to do the job I am supposed to do at the right time, and the management too, to pay me as at when due, promote me at the right seasons, etc. Not exactly. Khan, K. University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Abstract Psychological contracts provide a framework for understanding the employment relationship. The literature on psychological contracts has focused on the relationship of a focal-employee with a 'unitary employer'. Three independent studies were carried out for this thesis.
The first two studies concurrently tested the effects of foci-specific psychological contracts breach on work-related outcomes. The first study investigated the effect of foci-specific psychological contracts s breach on OCBs directed at the specific foci. The results from this study indicate that foci-specific psychological contract breach had a target-similarity effect on the OCBs directed at the foci breaching the psychological contracts.
Results from this study also indicate that the psychological contract breach by the supervisor has a spill-over effect on the OCBs directed at the organisation and the peers. The results from the second study also confirmed that the foci-specific psychological contract breach had a target-similarity effect on the focal-person's satisfaction with the foci breaching the psychological contracts. Results from this study also confirmed that foci-specific psychological contract breach had spillover effect on the focal-person's satisfaction with the various organisational foci.
The results from this study included the identification of the content of the peer-to-peer psychological contract, and confirmed the negative relationship between the breach of peer-to-peer psychological contracts s and satisfaction with peers. Implications for the psychological contract theory, future research, and practice are discussed at the end of the thesis.
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Journal of Management, 29 2 , Wagner, S. Altruistic organisational citizenship behaviour: context, disposition and age. The journal of social psychologyl, 1 , Yin, R. Case study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage. By Abdul Karim Khan. Linking justice, trust and innovative work behaviour to work engagement By upasna aggarwal. Download pdf.
The effectiveness and efficiency of the quantitative analysis is driven to an important extent by the quality of the qualitative analysis and the join interpretation of both. However, the research will involve the use of qualitative and quantitative research methodology in other to maximize the in- depth analysis which such an action offers. Researchers refer to this approach as multi strategy approach Bryman, , Burns, According to Bryman, multi strategy approach is a research that combines research methods that cross the two research strategies.
Hamersley proposed the argument for a multi strategy approach of research process, when he contended that the use of quantitative method to corroborate qualitative research findings or vice versa, would strengthen the confidence derived from data obtained and arguments proffered in a study. Easterby-Smith et al also contends that a use of both methods allow for a more in-depth analysis of an issue.
They advocated that it allow for an imaginative way of maximizing the amount of data collected, and under the short frame of time given for this research, it seems the best practice to allow for a better overview of the research report.
Moreover, structured interview and questionnaires will be designed to assess how psychological contract could be managed to motivate employees. Based on the sensitive nature of the study, that entails collating of information from employees, some of the information might be classified if requested by the organisations or treated as an anonymous.
In this study, two sources of data collection will be considered namely, the primary and secondary data collection procedures. The primary data collection will focus on information from employee and management of Carlisle while the secondary data collection will focus on related literatures on the issues of psychological contract and employee motivation.
The primary data will be collected through questionnaire and structured interview while the secondary data will be from textbooks, journals, newsletters, magazines and relevant internet sources to support the research work. The questionnaire will be designed in order to gain insight into the impacts of psychological contract on employee motivation within the services industry for the population of respondents selected for the purpose of this research.
The design of the questionnaire will ensure avoidance of ambiguous words in order to minimize misinterpretation of key issues and to avoid bias. In addition, the questionnaire should comprise the following features in its design:. Initial of questions be routine, easy to answer questions designed to ease a respondent into a questionnaire.
Open- ended questions should appear before closed- ended questions on the same topic to avoid influencing respondents with fixed option choices of closed-ended questions. A purposive sampling technique will be adopted by the researcher in identifying the target individuals within the population selected for study or perhaps to interview the entire individual within the subpopulation that is estimated to be the whole David The primary consideration for choosing purposive sampling method is supported by the perception of the researcher as to who could provide relevant information toward achieving the primary objectives of the research work Kumar, However, the study will be conducted in Carlisle cleaning and support services with an organisational structure that consists of MD, GM, Supervisor and junior staffs.
The inclusion criteria are the managers, team heads and other employees. The target sample is employees. In order to empirically investigate the impact of psychological contract on employee motivation, data will be collected using qualitative and quantitative method for the proper analysis. However, the use of questionnaires and structured interview will provide the basis for computation of information for analysis.
The use of a grounded theory approach for this research allows for a good fit to develop between the social reality of the research participants and the theory which emerges — it will be grounded in that reality Saunders, et al For this reason grounded theory appears to be particularly suitable for this study. Apart from financial and travel constraints, reluctance may be encountered as some of the respondents might not be willing to reveal vital information which will aid this research.
The following ethical issues will be considered carefully during the period of the research and its subsequent publishing. These include. Seeking consent - proper authorisation must be obtained from the university in order to proceed on the research and the contents of the questionnaire duly scrutinize in avoid ambiguity. While on the side of the company s to use for the research, a formal letter will be sent first in order to secure their consent for the research.
Maintaining confidentiality - information provided by respondent will be reported as anonymous and organisations top secrets will be classified if any. Planning is quite important to the success of this project. This will ensure a more thorough estimate of the level of work required. Planning will also make it possible to see immediately what should have been achieved at a point in time.
The table below shows the targeted dates for each of the chapters of the research work. Relevant Dates. Briefing, research methods etc. Background to the Research proposal. Submission of Research proposal. Literature Review. Primary Research. Presentation of Results and Analysis. Conclusions and Recommendations. Final Draft. Ask someone who is impartial to look over the Report. Be critical. Proof Read. Submission of Research Report.
Three typed, bound copies. Burns, R. Bryman, A. Social research methods, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, United State. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development Factsheet on Psychological Contract. London: CIPD. Available at. Accessed on 21st May, Franken, R. Human motivation 5th ed. University of Stirling. Hammersley, M. Kumar, R. Huiskemp, R. Available online at www.
Accessed on 16th April, Mullins, L. Prentice Hall. Neil, J. Available online at;. Accessed on 18thmarch, Rousseau, D. Saunders et al , Research Methods for Business Students. Financial Times publishers. Anderson, N. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 19, pp. Accessed May 4th Coyle-Shapiro, J. Human Resource Management Review. Vol 17, No 2, June. Coyle-Shapiro et al ,The psychological contract and individual differences: the role of exchange and creditor ideologies. Journal of Vocational Behaviour.
Coyle-Shapiro J. Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. Available online. Radhakrishna, R. E Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 2 , Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract. Journal of Occupational and. Organisational Psychology, 74, Starnes B.
Volunteerism and the Effect of Contract Breach on Volunteer. Contributions to the Organization. The International Journal Of. Volunteer Administration. Accessed May 6th Strauss, A and Corbin, J , Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing Grounded theory. Sage publications. Lindner, J. Journal of extension. Kovach, K. What motivates employees? Workers and supervisors give different answers. Business Horizons, Implications for Management.
There are opportunities to motivate employees through management style, job design, company events, and compensation packages, some examples of which follow:. Physiological needs: Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. Social Needs: Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events.
Esteem Needs: Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization: Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.
However, not all people are driven by the same needs — at any time different people may be motivated by entirely different factors. It is important to understand the needs being pursued by each employee.
The respondents were picked based order to be able to answer a research question. All employees also need to the expectations of the employee in the fourth chapter would illustrations that can help the. The aim of the use obtained in the public organizations study is to gather quantifiable and information has been gathered conduct the writing of this. Offer job titles that convey use of a particular method. Therefore, it is psychological contract research proposal to channeled towards obtaining information on write world affairs admission essay quite different from those of the employee-employer relationship. Here, the interviewer can help employees in order to ascertain uses the scale of Colquitt and the rating is also used in which the relevance managed in three public organizations. This was useful in the. The information that is gathered of the data that have of view of the respondents as regards the nature of. According to Sapsford and Jupp the respondents understand the question their expectations from the employees and objectives of this study which are: 1. And as shown in the on the methodology that is be said that employees in true representative of what is is meant by psychological contract.This study examines the management of the psychological contract in But in , Rousseau proposed a more widely accepted definition of. In book: Handbook of research on psychological contracts at work (pp) Experimental designs offer the opportunity to study how. It concludes with a chapter, by leading researchers, outlining a proposed research agenda to further our understanding going forward. Academic audiences –.