Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented the rise of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in our study. High fat diet feeding in rats further develops inflammation, steatosis and increased fibrosis in liver.
Our histological analysis confirmed the inflammatory cells infiltration in liver and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Hepatocyte damage and infiltrating inflammatory cells may release inflammatory cytokines and activates hepatic Kuffer cells and hepatic stellate cells HSCs. Another finding of this study is the increased fibrous tissue accumulation in portal vein and bile duct areas.
Activated HSCs are considered the main source of hepatic collagens in fibrosis [ 50 ]. Our investigation also showed increased iron accumulation in liver sections of high fat diet fed rats. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation ameliorated the inflammatory cells infiltration, fibrosis and iron over load in high fat diet fed rats. Polyphenol rich extract and pure antioxidants supplementation showed beneficial effect in high fat diet fed obese animals in experimental condition [ 51 , 52 ].
Some of the phenolic antioxidants such as gallic acid and ellagic acid may prevent pre-adipocyte differentiation to adipocyte [ 53 , 54 ]. The phenolic antioxidants gallic acid and ellagic acid present in Syzygium cumini seed powder could be responsible for the less adipose tissue deposition in high fat diet fed rats. Moreover, gallic acid may also prevent hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in experimental animals [ 17 , 46 ].
Previous experiment also suggests that ellagic acid may also regulate fat metabolism in liver and prevent obesity and hyperlipidemia in obese rats [ 18 ]. In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, shows the ameliorative potential of Syzygium cumini seed powder on HFD induced glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in liver. The observed results are attributed to high amount of phenolic antioxidant present in Syzygium cumini seed powder.
Further studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism of action mainly focused on fat metabolizing enzyme activities and gene regulation in this model. This research was partially supported by Research Grant Special allocation grant , to Dr. Hasan Mahmud Reza and Dr. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the logistic support provided by the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North South University Bangladesh.
This research was partially supported by Research Grant Special allocation grant , — to Dr. All authors read and approved the final content of the manuscript. The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper.
All authors read and approved the final content of this manuscript for publication. The whole study protocol to carry out the experiments on animals was approved by Ethical Committee, North South University, Bangladesh. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Anayt Ulla, Email: moc. Md Ashraful Alam, Email: moc. Biswajit Sikder, Email: moc. Farzana Akter Sumi, Email: moc. Md Mizanur Rahman, Email: moc.
Zaki Farhad Habib, Email: ude. Mostafe Khalid Mohammed, Email: moc. Nusrat Subhan, Email: moc. Hemayet Hossain, Email: moc. Hasan Mahmud Reza, Email: ude. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jun 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Sep 9; Accepted May This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Associated Data Data Availability Statement All data generated in this study are given in the tables of this manuscript. Abstract Background Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Results Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration.
Conclusion Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. Background Obesity is one of the most prevalent heath conditions which may foster various diseases such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension and increased risks of cardiovascular mortality [ 1 ]. Materials Chemicals The beef tallow was used as a source of high fat in the diet which was obtained from the local beef market and processed well by heating to solidify it for using in the high carbohydrate high fat HCHF diet formulation.
Plant material Syzygium cumini seeds were collected from the local market of Dhaka, Bangladesh. HPLC detection and quantification of polyphenolic compounds Detection and quantification of selected phenolic compounds in the ethanol extract were determined by HPLC-DAD analysis followed by as previously described method [ 19 ]. Composition of foods used in this study Two types of foods were used in this study.
Table 1 Composition of normal and high carbohydrate high fat diet used in this study for g. Open in a separate window. Animals and treatment All experimental protocols were approved by the Ethical Committee of North South University for animal care and experimentation. Oral glucose tolerance test At the end of the feeding protocol, rats were kept starved overnight 12 h and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Plasma biochemistry Blood was centrifuged at rpm for 15 min within 30 min of collection into citrate buffer containing tubes.
Preparation of tissue sample for the assessment of oxidative stress markers For determination of oxidative stress markers, liver tissue was homogenized in 10 volumes of Phosphate buffer containing pH 7. Estimation of lipid peroxidation Lipid peroxidation in liver was estimated calorimetrically measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS followed by previously described method [ 20 ]. Estimation of superoxide dismutase SOD activity SOD was assayed in plasma and tissue homogenates by using previously described method [ 25 ].
Effect on body weight, food and water intake The body weight of each rat was noted every day during the experimental period. Table 3 Effects of HCHF diet and Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation on body weight, food and water intake and organ wet weight of rats. Effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on oral glucose tolerance test The results of oral glucose tolerance test of the control and experimental obese rats are shown in Fig.
Table 4 Effects of high fat diet and Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation on various biochemical parameters in plasma and liver of diet induced obese rats. Histological assessment of liver tissue High fat diet fed rats showed increased hepatic lipid deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration compared to control rats Fig. Discussion Obesity is considered as a major health risk and is associated with various health disorders such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases hypertension and cardiovascular dysfunction [ 28 ].
Conclusion In conclusion, the present study, for the first time, shows the ameliorative potential of Syzygium cumini seed powder on HFD induced glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in liver. Acknowledgement This research was partially supported by Research Grant Special allocation grant , to Dr. Funding This research was partially supported by Research Grant Special allocation grant , — to Dr.
Availability of data and materials All data generated in this study are given in the tables of this manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper.
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