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Thesis in elt

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Bilingualism of Arab children in the U. Increasing multimedia literacy in composition for multilingual writers: a case study of art analysis , Sony Nicole De Paula. Multilingual writers' unintentional plagiarism: action research in college composition , Jacqueline D. Games for vocabulary enrichment: teaching multilingual writers at the college level , Jennifer Hawkins. Identifying as author: exploring the pedagogical basis for assisting diverse students to discover their identities through creatively defined literacy narratives , Amber D.

Saltine box full of dreams: one Mexican immigrant woman's journey to academic success , Adriana C. Teaching the biography of Laura Ingalls Wilder: fostering a media literacy approach for multilingual writers , Kelly G. Implementing a modified intercultural competency curriculum in an integrated English classroom , Kathryn C.

Peer editing in composition for multilingual writers at the college level , Benjamin J. Educating Ana: a retrospective diary study of pre-literate refugee students , Renee Black. Social pressure to speak English and the effect of English language learning for ESL composition students in higher education , Trevor Duston. Learning how to learn: teaching preliterate and nonliterate learners of English , Jennifer L.

Non-cognitive factors in second language acquisition and language variety: a single case study of a Saudi male English for academic purposes student in the United States , Nicholas Stephens. English as a second language learners and spelling performance in university multilingual writers , Nada Yousef Asiri. The communal diary, " Sangho Lee.

In the current study, perceptions of Turkish EFL instructors and their students on native and non-native accents of English and English as a lingua franca ELF were explored. Moreover, how the EFL instructors and students Edmodo, Quizlet, Canva. This study was conducted with 90 participants at an English This correlational quantitative It also This study investigated flow experiences of EFL instructors in Turkey by focusing on absorption, work enjoyment, intrinsic work motivation, skills, activities, and time of the day through age, ethnicity, educational The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of English as a foreign language EFL teachers on the use of webinars in teaching EFL and for professional development purposes.

This quantitative study was conducted This study aimed to examine the academic discourse socialization of undergraduate English language and literature ELIT students through literature circles. In this respect, the researcher explored the expectations of To this end, the current study focused on finding out the preferred CPD activities of the This quantitative method study was conducted with thirty-six EFL learners studying Login Register.

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Use short headings and subheadings to make the structure of your article clear. If appropriate, illustrate your article with examples, diagrams, tables, etc. If you introduce a term which you think may not be familiar to some readers, give a short definition in a note at the end of the article. The use of 'he' and 'his', 'she' and 'her' is acceptable only when a definite person is being referred to. Numbers One to ten in words , 11, 12, and so on in figures, unless these appear at the beginning of a sentence or when both a small and large number appear in the same sentence, e.

When using thousands, please use a comma separator, e. Fractions should be written in words and hyphenated. Percentages in the text are normally given as whole numbers, e. Lists First level lists should be numbered first, with lower-level lists being alphabetized. Alphabetized lists: a The house they lived in was green. Bulletted lists should have no punctuation at the end except for the final point:.

No full points. Foreign characters These appear most commonly in names, and should be marked up for the typesetters. Foreign language words should appear in italics without single quote marks, e. Title and abstract Please give your article a brief, clear, and informative title. Titles should preferably be no more than 50 characters long, with an absolute maximum of 70, including spaces.

Begin your article with an abstract of no more than words summarizing your main points. Please do not make reference to other publications in the abstract; any abbreviations defined in the abstract other than those listed above should be spelt out again on first mention in the text. Format See the separate file ELTJ template for guidance on formatting your article with the correct layout.

It is not necessary to format first submissions. Headings and subheadings Headings and subheadings should be on a separate line, ranged left. Underline main headings, but do not underline subheadings. Do not use a numbering or lettering system for headings. Do not try to format your submission in the style of a published article. Kramsch If the reference is to a general argument or topic covered by the author, you may omit the page number.

However, a quotation or a specific point made by an author must be supported by a page number reference. If you refer to the same publication twice or more in quick succession, please use the following form on the second or subsequent occasion, e. Kramsch ibid. If you refer to the same publication more than once, but not on the same page, then please use the following form on the second or subsequent occasion, e.

Kramsch op. Please remember not to over-reference your article either in relation to specific points you make in the text maximum of two references to support any specific point , or overall maximum of 15 references overall. In your article, please make sure you refer to no more than two of your own previous publications. List of references Please give full bibliographical details of references and list them in alphabetical order of author, following the style of the examples given below.

Page numbers for journal articles should be truncated where possible e. However, no page ranges are required for books. British Council. Available to download as a pdf. Donato, R. Johnson, K. Harlow: Pearson Longman. Littlejohn, A. Nunan, D. Richards and D. Nunan eds. Pennington, M. Richards, J. Second Language Teacher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Swales, J. Johnson ed.

The Second Language Curriculum. Wenden, A. Footnotes Short notes can appear in the text within brackets; longer ones should be collected together at the end of the article. There will be no footnotes on individual pages. Please number your notes consecutively, giving clear superscript numbers in the appropriate places. You should not include more footnotes than are absolutely necessary. Acknowledgements Please do not include acknowledgements to colleagues or students who may have helped you during the writing of the article.

It is often difficult to find space to credit all those who might be credited and we have therefore decided to leave it to authors to express their thanks personally. Illustrations If your article is to contain essential illustrations including diagrams, tables, charts, etc. References to illustrations should be clearly indicated in parentheses in the text, e.

Insert Figure 1 here. Copyright Please indicate clearly the holders of copyright in any illustrations, extracts, diagrams, etc. It will be your responsibility to approach them to gain permission for copyright material to be used, and you will have to pay any costs involved. Biographical note It is not necessary to include biographical details with a first submission. Data collection materials ELTJ encourages authors to consider uploading their data collection materials to the IRIS database which is an online repository for data collection materials used for second language research.

This includes data elicitation instruments such as interview and observation schedules, language tests, pictures, questionnaires, software scripts, url links, word lists, teaching intervention activities, amongst many other types of materials used to elicit data. Please see the IRIS webpage for more information and to upload.

Any questions may be addressed to iris iris-database. Where ethically feasible, ELTJ strongly encourages authors to make all data and software code on which the conclusions of the paper rely available to readers. We suggest that data be presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files, or deposited in a public repository whenever possible.

For information on general repositories for all data types, and a list of recommended repositories by subject area, please see Choosing where to archive your data. ELTJ supports the Force 11 Data Citation Principles and requires that all publicly available datasets be fully referenced in the reference list with an accession number or unique identifier such as a digital object identifier DOI.

Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite :. This tag will be removed from the citation published in the reference list. For further information see our Online Licensing, Copyright and Permissions policies. If your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication.

For further information on this service, please see the language services webpage. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services. ELT Journal offers the option of publishing under either a standard licence or an open access licence. Please note that some funders require open access publication as a condition of funding.

If you are unsure whether you are required to publish open access, please do clarify any such requirements with your funder or institution. Should you wish to publish your article open access, you should select your choice of open access licence in our online system after your article has been accepted for publication. You will need to pay an open access charge to publish under an open access licence. Details of the open access licences and open access charges. OUP has a growing number of Read and Publish agreements with institutions and consortia which provide funding for open access publishing.

This means authors from participating institutions can publish open access, and the institution may pay the charge. Find out if your institution is participating. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder. In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process.

Most data on ELF interactions has been drawn from the domains of business and higher education, [27] and that in largely European contexts, perhaps factors accounting for the relatively rare instances of miscommunication. A research study of MELF interactions where nurses negotiated a patient handover simulation indicated that areas of unintelligibility represented a potential threat to patient safety, through misrecognition of vocabulary related to medication, as well as other areas of lexical imprecision.

One study of a Japanese Medical English as a Lingua Franca MELF context [32] showed that student doctors made use of empathic accommodation and solicitation strategies to make interactions more intelligible. Applying nonverbal cues was seen as being of importance to encourage simulated patients to express concerns, because silence may be interpreted as a sign of potential problems.

Empathic doctor-patient communication then means not only mean understanding and sympathizing but having the ability to bridge the gap when patients are not willing to talk. An important issue when discussing ELF is the notion of speakers of ELF being active language users in their own right, who do not need to adhere to native speaker norms but use ELF to meet their communicative needs.

Several attitude studies on the topic of ELF have already been conducted. One overarching factor seems to be a discrepancy between perceptions on the role of ELF in everyday interactions all over the globe on the one hand, and the dominance of as well as reliance on native speaker norms on the other hand. In contrast, English as Lingua Franca users tend to focus on effective communication with speakers of other linguistic backgrounds.

In ELF interactions, intelligibility is key, which may not necessitate an advantage for native speakers see above. Colin Sowden [44] opened the debate with a paper in which he discusses which version of English to teach to second language L2 learners. Sowden claims that Standard English, especially British English, has a colonial baggage that still affects the status of English in post-colonial countries and it is this negative value that has led ELF researchers to an attempt to describe and posit a neutralized version of English and to make it a universal one that belongs to every speaker, both native and second language speakers.

Sowden argues that introducing ELF in ELT will lead to differences between schools where this is implemented, and schools which have the freedom to use a native standard model, favouring the latter. For Sowden, the use of multilingual and local teachers can also be beneficial for L2 learners, as these teachers have knowledge of the local culture and spoken languages and the constraints they have on learning English.

The way forward according to Sowden is to focus on communicative ability, not on universal conformity. Secondly, Cogo draws on the importance of studying accommodation in ELF interactions by emphasising the different ways in which people adjust their English at the level of words, grammar and discourse in ELF communication instead of focusing on the core features of ELF as suggested by Sowden.

Here, the speaker's ability to move away from the traditional speech patterns of the native varieties is argued to be an important part of ELF research. Sowden argues that ELF researchers encourage ELF speakers to use specific varieties of English over others, an argument that Cogo refutes by stating that researchers only use empirical data to show what happens in ELF interactions, and never to tell speakers what to use.

Cogo further cites various studies in the field that have demonstrated that ELF communication is fluid and innovative, with an emphasis on highly variable linguistic forms. Sewell [46] argued that the debate about ELF between Sowden and Cogo fails to acknowledge the variation that characterises language use today. He claims that it is counterproductive to polarise ELF and non-ELF and native and non-native speakers, as there is great diversity in all areas of English language usage.

Whilst recognising Cogo's clarifications regarding several misconceptions of ELF, Sewell also points out and discusses some of the questions Cogo's article arises. He disagrees with the definition of ELF being based on a distinction between non-native and native language use. He claims that Cogo's approach is too essentialist, because her definition of ELF is based on language features. The approach to ELF should be more non-essentialist according to Sewell who points out that ELF does not involve a set of features or skills that distinguishes it from languages in general, as all language usage is varied.

Sewell then considers the implications of the ELF debate for ELT professionals and learners of English, and he highlights the importance of acknowledging language variation when teaching and learning English. Furthermore, he emphasises the importance of presenting this variation to learners, at the appropriate level, and he wishes that this dynamic relationship between ELF and ENL English as a Native Language will be central to how we view language usage.

Dewey [47] criticises Sewell's critical position on the debate, showing how it lacks substance and largely misrepresents the field. However, Sewell's paper, according to Dewey, does raise awareness of the need to rethink the terms used when talking about ELF. The distinctiveness of ELF comes from the rapid pace of language evolution and innovation, enhanced in the ELF context due to the linguistic and cultural diversity of English speakers, where understanding is more important than using Standard features.

Criticism of ELF generally falls into three camps: [ citation needed ] Those who argue that the language studied consists of learner errors rather than authentic variation; those who argue that ELF scholars are perpetuating the idea that ELF is a reified variety of English; and those who feel it is upholding notions of neutrality in the face of global domination through languages and discourse.

Regarding the first stance, some linguists claim that variation in ELF is completely haphazard and devoid of any patterns, and therefore not worth studying. Most importantly, proponents of this view reject the idea that emerging insights into how English is used as a lingua franca can provide useful input with regard to the aims and methods of English language teaching.

Regarding the criticism of ELF and variety building, some claim that ELF research has inherited the legacies of traditional linguistics, which contain some obstacles when considering language use in context. For example, there are claims that variationist discourses have entered into some ELF accounts, creating too much emphasis on accounting for language forms and authenticating them numerically, rather than considering all the contextual factors and variations that constitute communicative practices across ELF settings.

It also creates a focus on what is different rather than what is there, which moves from a descriptive agenda to a pragmatic and, arguably, problematic one. Such criticisms tend to be cooperative and complementary to the ELF field of enquiry, and not as overtly confrontational as those who either take the previous or following stance. The other line of criticism argues that concepts such as ELF provide a useful terminological veneer for continued linguistic domination by English-speaking countries through their political, educational, and cultural institutions.

This concept of linguistic imperialism has been developed and heavily used by Robert Phillipson. Another example is the case of Juliane House, [52] a German scholar who explains in her article "English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism? ELF, looking at situated communicative use of English.

One of the key aspects of terminology used in the ELF field of enquiry is that a standardized version of any English variety is not implied, with the dynamic, situated and complex nature of language brought to the fore. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

ISBN Oxford University Press. University of Helsinki. Retrieved Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved 31 May Web of Conferrences : Barbara Seidlhofer. Implications for Translator and Interpreter Education], —20 [review article].

Form follows function. From pragmatic motives to lexico-grammatical innovation. World Englishes. Critical Concepts in Linguistics. Volume III. London: Routledge, Lingua franca communication. Frankfurt am Main: Peter,

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Submissions, which must be a maximum of 1, words, will be considered by the Editorial Panel before being accepted for publication. Correspondence We welcome letters from readers in response to published articles, features, and reviews. Letters must be a maximum of words and may be edited for length or content.

Authors Because of space and layout constraints, we cannot list more than two authors for an article on the contents page. However, all authors will be listed on the first page of the article. In the case of multiple authorship, names will appear in the order in which contributors give them, even if that order is not alphabetical. For purposes of online tagging, please ensure author names are supplied with the first name first, followed by the surname or family name.

Length Articles of around 3, words in length are preferred. It is not possible for us to accept articles over 4, words long. Please give a word count at the end of your article. Word counts should include tables and appendices, but may exclude the abstract and the list of references. Style Please try to make your article as easy to read as possible. Use short headings and subheadings to make the structure of your article clear.

If appropriate, illustrate your article with examples, diagrams, tables, etc. If you introduce a term which you think may not be familiar to some readers, give a short definition in a note at the end of the article. The use of 'he' and 'his', 'she' and 'her' is acceptable only when a definite person is being referred to.

Numbers One to ten in words , 11, 12, and so on in figures, unless these appear at the beginning of a sentence or when both a small and large number appear in the same sentence, e. When using thousands, please use a comma separator, e. Fractions should be written in words and hyphenated. Percentages in the text are normally given as whole numbers, e. Lists First level lists should be numbered first, with lower-level lists being alphabetized.

Alphabetized lists: a The house they lived in was green. Bulletted lists should have no punctuation at the end except for the final point:. No full points. Foreign characters These appear most commonly in names, and should be marked up for the typesetters. Foreign language words should appear in italics without single quote marks, e. Title and abstract Please give your article a brief, clear, and informative title.

Titles should preferably be no more than 50 characters long, with an absolute maximum of 70, including spaces. Begin your article with an abstract of no more than words summarizing your main points. Please do not make reference to other publications in the abstract; any abbreviations defined in the abstract other than those listed above should be spelt out again on first mention in the text.

Format See the separate file ELTJ template for guidance on formatting your article with the correct layout. It is not necessary to format first submissions. Headings and subheadings Headings and subheadings should be on a separate line, ranged left. Underline main headings, but do not underline subheadings. Do not use a numbering or lettering system for headings. Do not try to format your submission in the style of a published article. Kramsch If the reference is to a general argument or topic covered by the author, you may omit the page number.

However, a quotation or a specific point made by an author must be supported by a page number reference. If you refer to the same publication twice or more in quick succession, please use the following form on the second or subsequent occasion, e. Kramsch ibid. If you refer to the same publication more than once, but not on the same page, then please use the following form on the second or subsequent occasion, e.

Kramsch op. Please remember not to over-reference your article either in relation to specific points you make in the text maximum of two references to support any specific point , or overall maximum of 15 references overall. In your article, please make sure you refer to no more than two of your own previous publications.

List of references Please give full bibliographical details of references and list them in alphabetical order of author, following the style of the examples given below. Page numbers for journal articles should be truncated where possible e. However, no page ranges are required for books. British Council. Available to download as a pdf. Donato, R. Johnson, K. Harlow: Pearson Longman. Littlejohn, A. Nunan, D. Richards and D. Nunan eds.

Pennington, M. Richards, J. Second Language Teacher Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Swales, J. Johnson ed. The Second Language Curriculum. Wenden, A. Footnotes Short notes can appear in the text within brackets; longer ones should be collected together at the end of the article. There will be no footnotes on individual pages. Please number your notes consecutively, giving clear superscript numbers in the appropriate places. You should not include more footnotes than are absolutely necessary.

Acknowledgements Please do not include acknowledgements to colleagues or students who may have helped you during the writing of the article. It is often difficult to find space to credit all those who might be credited and we have therefore decided to leave it to authors to express their thanks personally.

Illustrations If your article is to contain essential illustrations including diagrams, tables, charts, etc. References to illustrations should be clearly indicated in parentheses in the text, e. Insert Figure 1 here.

Copyright Please indicate clearly the holders of copyright in any illustrations, extracts, diagrams, etc. It will be your responsibility to approach them to gain permission for copyright material to be used, and you will have to pay any costs involved. Biographical note It is not necessary to include biographical details with a first submission. Data collection materials ELTJ encourages authors to consider uploading their data collection materials to the IRIS database which is an online repository for data collection materials used for second language research.

This includes data elicitation instruments such as interview and observation schedules, language tests, pictures, questionnaires, software scripts, url links, word lists, teaching intervention activities, amongst many other types of materials used to elicit data. Please see the IRIS webpage for more information and to upload. Any questions may be addressed to iris iris-database. Where ethically feasible, ELTJ strongly encourages authors to make all data and software code on which the conclusions of the paper rely available to readers.

We suggest that data be presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files, or deposited in a public repository whenever possible. For information on general repositories for all data types, and a list of recommended repositories by subject area, please see Choosing where to archive your data. ELTJ supports the Force 11 Data Citation Principles and requires that all publicly available datasets be fully referenced in the reference list with an accession number or unique identifier such as a digital object identifier DOI.

Data citations should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite :. This tag will be removed from the citation published in the reference list. For further information see our Online Licensing, Copyright and Permissions policies. If your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional.

Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. For further information on this service, please see the language services webpage. Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and you can also use any of these. Home M.

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ELT Theses and Dissertations Analyses of the English language testing and evaluation course in English language teaching programs in. The structure of the thesis: an empirical research paper · specify the point/topic of the study · explain why the topic is relevant/interesting · explain how the. Thesis For The Degree of Master Of Arts. In Teaching English As A F0reign. Language Learning English Vocabulary. By Iranian Students: The Role Of Context.