conflict management in france research paper

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Conflict management in france research paper long term career goals mba essay

Conflict management in france research paper

Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 12 2 Her main research goal is understanding the influence of culture on the expectations, the use of strategy, and negotiation outcomes. She is part of an international research team focusing particularly in honor culture. Both of them are excellent authors and reviewers. I feel deeply honored to have them on board. Abstract This paper elaborates a research agenda on cultural norms in communication, negotiation, and conflict management.

Keywords: conflict, negotiation, communication, social norms, culture Views. People with different ideologies and backgrounds try to introduce their own principles in work aspects that give rise to conflict. However, if not managed, conflict weakens the organizational outcome, creates stress for the individual, introduces dissatisfaction and reduces efficiency.

Conflict is resolved through leadership, better communication and good negotiation, all of them bringing the positive outcome through the issues involved in the conflict. Conflict Management 3 Conflict Management Introduction Conflict is an integral part of human society.

When a number of people interact with their own individual perspectives, view points, ideologies, cultural and social backgrounds and intellectual development then differences and debates are bound to arise as a logical and inevitable consequence of the interaction Killian and Pammer Jr. These differences, acted upon by incompatible interests of attaining personal gains and objectives, change into conflict within groups and organizational structure Rahim, ,1. As stated by Bisno conflict can reflect simple aims of opponents in gaining advantage over the competitor, to injuring or eliminating the competitor, thus leading to intense and sometimes unpleasing consequences.

Therefore it is essential to educate people on understanding and handling conflict and treat as an integral component of a democratic society that is important for developing a healthy social life Killian and Pammer Jr. This paper studies the nature and scope of the organizational conflict, while assessing the range of effects conflict produces on the organization and searches for the possible conflict management and resolution techniques.

Nature of Conflict Within the structure and scope of modern organizational setups, conflict has emerged as a major challenge for managers. However against common perception effects of conflict are not always negative and on many occasions they have benefited organizations by uncovering persistent problems and opening channels of communication that helps in highlighting problematic areas for their better resolution Robert, The deadlines of assignment, levels of responsibility, distribution of work, challenging goals, and coping up with different personalities and individuals give rise to conflict within society and organization Bergman and Volkema, These issues have led to a number of studies to evolve models and strategies in dealing with conflict and its consequences.

Choosing among the number of definitions regarding conflict, Baron indicated towards a five elements that characterize conflicts. These are 1. Conflict is contrasting or opposing field of interests between or among individuals or groups. Recognition of these opposing interests by the interested parties 3. Conflict centers on a perception by each side that its opposing party would injure its interests 4. Conflict is not a stage, rather a process and it results from the way individual and groups define their relations through the past interaction 5.

Conflict Management and leadership Conflict, as a primary feature of partnership among groups and individuals needs effective management for it to become an effective tool in attainment of goals Killian and Pammer Jr. Approaches to conflict management are successful when they assure the participants that outcomes are among best of the possible alternatives and meet expectations of every concerned party with maximum satisfaction on part of each participant Killian and Pammer Jr.

Conflict management can be functional, that facilitates movement and cohesion within groups, taking them forward, through stimulating energies, encouraging ideas, and clarifying the issue, or it can be dysfunctional through reduced communication and improper interaction to lead to chaos and demoralize the participants, from business managers to teachers and students Johnson and Short, Within a social, institutional or organizational structure, the role of a leader is crucial in bringing reconciliation and resolution in situation of conflict.

Leadership entails elements of power and authority that are critical to acquire influence. There are five power bases for a leader, as identified by French and Raven They are 1. Legitimate power: It is the legitimate right of leader that comes by virtue of the position and command to control behavior. Expert power: The special knowledge and expertness that a leader is expected to possess and use in conflict resolution 5.

Optimism-faith in goodness of humanity. It works on the principle of faith in inherent goodness of humanity with a sense that goals and objective are achievable. Interconnectedness-responsibility for the whole. The principle is extension of sense of responsibility to greater issues affecting the world that connects individual with the entire humanity. The contradictory nature of things. It teaches about recognizing and respecting that contradiction occurs in people, their experience and circumstances.

Life is characterized by crises. Recognition that crises and conflicts are inbuilt of component of life and progress is achieved by incorporating them in the philosophy towards life. Kinship with others. It stresses on building associations and help in realizing that every one is important and deserves equal respect from others. The opposition. It teaches about taking opposition as contradiction, instead of viewing it in negative perspective.

Conflict Management 8 7. It stresses on frank and appreciative acknowledgment of success and achievements of others. According to the model presented by Rahim the core ingredients of effective conflict management are problem solving and learning.

A leader should be informed and educated on these two issues to deal with any crises and problem arising out of varied and sometimes unpredictable causes. A leader should be able to intervene with creative problem solving techniques. The three suggested stages in this process are Rahim, 1. Problem recognition, involving problem sensing and problem formulation 2.

Planning for change, that includes recommending solutions to problems and preparing plans for intervention 3. Implementation that includes putting the plans into action and reviewing the outcome of the plans. Transformational leaders stay focused to the power relationships and continuously monitor the leader-follower relationship to understand the background of various problems, situations, crises and pressures to evolve an effective strategy for conflict management and resolution.

Conflict management and communication Effective communication strategies are keys to resolve conflict by providing channels that provide expression of grievances and bring conflicting parties together. In the field of conflict management, communication strategies help through the channels of 1. Negotiation: Negotiation has emerged as an important form of conflict management within organizational and social setups.

As such research in communication theory in conflict management has started to pay close attention to communication behaviors, types and strategies towards successful negotiation. Negotiation, as a part of managing conflict, requires interested parties to trade proposals for settlement that include, out of court settlements, business contracts, collective bargaining contract etc Womack, , As Womack further elaborates, generally the process of negotiation proceeds through motives that are both competitive and cooperative.

The approach of communication in the entire process of negotiation is concerned with the messages that are transferred among negotiators and the concerned parties. Conflict Management 10 Communication intervenes in the process of negotiation through its both verbal and nonverbal forms and constitutes the entire base on which the goals and terms of the bargain are negotiated.

Communication plays the central role in not only developing the relationship among the parties in conflict, but also in determining its direction.

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As a clear example, some individuals immediately communicate their displeasure in working within the organization while others take a more laid back approach and resurface their anguish after some time Kumar Thus, the managers should be able to analyses effectively the disparities in behavior and attributes among the employees in the teams.

The HR and Line managers should ensure that they generate effective ways in which they can have regular communication to assist them in picking up on issues that have been festering beneath the team surface. Quickly picking up on squabbles before they result into conflicts Majority of the conflicts commence from innocuous disagreements among the employees that usually appear as forgotten or resolved.

However, there are squabbles that cur on a regular mandate and the HR and Line managers should intervene and converse with the individuals concerned regarding what is going on and how mitigation of the problem will prevail. Accepting or acknowledging that the team member is causing stress to others In most instances, it only takes one individual to cause mayhem or disharmony within the team due to their negative behavior. As such, the clear behaviors that can generate stress include: Individual being over critical Individuals exuding short temper Team member taking out personal problems at home on the team members Making negative personal remarks HR and Line managers should be ready to step in and converse to their individual team members as soon as it is obvious they are generating problems.

In most instances, the team members may be unaware of their behavioral impact on the others. A more quiet approach in mitigating of the issues is imperative as the HR and Line managers. However, in the instance that the initiatives do not bear fruits, it is advisable that removal of the individual from the team is a proper resolve Kumar Maintenance of professionalism Within the operational mandate, it is imperative that HR and Line managers maintain professionalism in handling conflicts in teams.

As such, compliance to the evident policy statements and procedures within the organization is imperative for plausible outcomes. In the social situations, it is imperative that HR and Line managers do not show favoritism Kumar The prospect of favoritism is highly impactful on employee morale. Thus the inculcation of a more neutral approach in socializing with team members is highly important.

Employees that view the notion of favoritism in most instances underperform and may result into further disagreement among the employees. Maintenance of clarity regarding the expectations of team conduct Additional to dictating the behaviors that are not tolerated, HR and Line managers should demonstrate what entails positive behavior. Through demonstration of the plausible behavior, employees within the organization will conform or aspire to behave within the organizational performance mandate.

HR and Line managers inspire the employees to perform effectively among each other, with their customers, the public and the customers. Non-tolerance of backbiting in teams HR and Line managers should intervene towards preventing employees from negative talks about each other in the team or within the department. HR and Line managers ignoring the behavior will result into the gradual growth of resentment among employees.

Furthermore, the notion of cliques developing is bound to emerge. Resentment and cliques developing is negatively impactful on the performance of employees. HR and Line managers should ensure that in the instance that there is a genuine problem; effective handling or tackling it prevails through involvement of the parties coupled with the team.

Inculcation of the team in tackling the evident issue at hand is imperative towards ensuring a more open environment for the management of conflicts Storey An open environment in conflict management among employees is advisable since it generates an avenue of harmony in tackling of the issues at hand.

Exuding little or no interest in office politics Office gossip or polities are a proper source of disputes within a team. Moreover, the inculcation of gossiping among team members results into anxiety, uncertainty and resentment among the team members. A certain degree of gossip is inevitable within an organization and should not cause resentment or any other problem in the team. However, HR and Line managers should avoid participating in office gossip.

As such, in the instance that the office gossips become malicious, it is imperative that HR and Line managers intervene and clearly reveal those individuals that are spreading unsubstantiated rumors. Apart from revealing the individuals, it is imperative that the HR and Line managers dictate the evident procedures and disciplinary outcomes in the instance that the individual does not cease. HR and Line managers that exude an implausible reputation of office gossip are unlikely to be trusted and will not be viewed as individuals that employees can go to and discuss any home or work issue that is impacting on them.

HR and Line managers exuding integrity If HR and Line managers should generate a working relationship with the employees within the team, it is imperative that they exude mutual respect and trust. Hence, cultivation of trust and respect among employees should emanate from the HR and Line managers ensuring that they do not discuss private issues with other individuals and maintain confidentiality. Team members that trust their HR and Line managers are more likely to converse with them and maintain openness regarding the issues that are impacting or affecting them.

Thus, through openness, investment into mutual trust and respect, HR and Line managers will ensure that they have an informational competency regarding the issues that are affecting the individuals within the team Storey As a clear example, individuals who are being affected by a drinking or drug problem are highly likely to open up and converse with the HR and Line managers whom they trust and feel confident being around them. HR and Line managers that get to know the team members exude awareness of issues at hand and are more likely to converse frankly with each other regarding the problems.

Ensuring equal treatment of team members HR and Line managers that are not even handed in tackling team members will highly struggle in building effective working relationships that are based on mutual respect. Exuding any sign of taking sides further escalates conflicts among the team members. Managers that exude failure in treating all the employees with similar respect and importance result into being vulnerable to being accused of discrimination.

Self-report quiz for the HR and Line managers HR and Line managers should incorporate an individually construed assessment quiz that focuses on identification of the approaches that can be used in the management of conflicts and the areas that require further enhancement.

Thus, as a clear example of a question that an individual should pose to self, the HR and Line managers should examine their development needs. Setting up an effective score of their performance and the various facets that thy failed in evaluating the conflict among the employees is bound to ensure proper enhancement in the future in regards to conflict management.

Thus, from the above approaches that the HR and Line managers can incorporate, a clear summary of the approaches is as follows: Approaches for top management The top management plays a pivotal role in the running of organizational operations. As such, through top management, effective policy statement and implementation is bound to prevail hence, impacts on the employee performance mandate. However, in the instance that the HR and Line managers are not performing plausibly in handling conflicts in work teams, it is imperative that the top management plays a role in mitigating the issues at hand.

Thus, the various approaches that the top management can inculcate in managing conflicts at work teams include: Identification of the performance issue The top management is mainly concerned about the performance of the holistic organization. Investment into team work is a clear approach towards ensuring heightened performance among the employees.

However, in the instance that the performance levels do not meet the targets set, it is imperative that the management undertake a more inclusive approach in finding out the aspect of concern within the teams. Thus, the identification of performance issue entails looking at the most plausible reasons for slack in performance such as employee issues, systems, training or equipment. An in-depth analysis of the issues at hand is imperative since the organization can lay forth the most plausible investment of resources to tackle the issue at hand.

Seeking third party views of the team or from the HR and Line managers Top management should denote an on-ground approach in the analysis of the issues at hand. Thus, as the top manager, it is highly advisable that conversations with the team members and the subordinate managers prevail.

As such, top management participating in the conversations or discussions with the teams is an effective way towards finding out the issue at hand among the team members. Agreeing to setting of new standards of performance with the team members As aforesaid, the top management plays a pivotal role in the formulation of operational polices.

Thus, the concept of bullying among the managers through setting of standards without consultations with the employees is bound to result to further escalation of conflicts. Hence, in setting up of the standards, consultative discussions and meeting should prevail between the top management and the employees. As such, the inculcation of inclusive meeting is bound to ensure that the employees accept and conform to the operational standards set.

Conformity to the method or approaches to auditing team performance The top management is concerned about the performance of the organization. Thus, the process of monitoring, auditing and evaluating the team performance is defendant on effective policy statement and consultations. Hence, as a proper manager, it is imperative that the team members are involved in the setting of operational standards and the auditing approach that the organization should inculcate.

Team members that know of the standards set and the auditing approach will ensure that they perform effectively. Incorporating an effective performance-improvement policy Opportunities should be undertaken in the identification of the individuals that are slacking in performance.

Through effective communication between the HR and Line managers and the team members, effective reporting to the top management on the issues at hand is bound to prevail. An effective reporting of the issues at hand will generate plausible information pertaining to the individuals that are slacking in performance. Hence, the necessary approaches will be undertaken towards improvement of both individual and team performance Stredwick Open communication Open top down communication in an organization is significant since it generates employees who are confident and feel equally treated by the top management.

Hence, as the top management, it is imperative that free flow of information prevails. Through open communication, real time information will be available hence catapulting performance of employees. Conclusion Effective management of conflicts within a team is imperative towards successful outcomes. The inculcation of HR, Line and top management is imperative towards successful mitigation of the conflicts in work teams. From the above evident solutions to conflict management, it is clear that a holistic approach in management of conflicts in teams is imperative for plausible outcomes.

References Guit, R. Managing your competencies: Personal development plan. London: Routledge. Halldorsson, F. Leadership style, employee job performance, and organizational outcomes. Chicago: ProQuest. Hannagan, T. Iqbal, T. The impact of leadership styles on organizational effectiveness. Jansson H. Personal, academic and career development in higher education: Soaring to success. Kumar, C. The leadership in management: Understanding leadership wisdom.

Linstead, S. Houndmills, and Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Mercer, M. Pay for results: Aligning executive compensation with business performance. New York, NY: Wiley. Storey, J. Human resource management: A critical text. Chicago: Cengage Learning. Stredwick, J. Introduction to human resource management. Please remember that this paper is open-access and other students can use it too. If you need an original paper created exclusively for you, hire one of our brilliant writers!

Some topics are tougher than others. We use cookies to improve your experience with our site. Please accept before continuing or read our cookie policy here. Hire Writer. Want a similar paper? We can write it! Order now. New WowEssays Premium Database! Find the biggest directory of over 1 million paper examples! Abstract 3 Introduction 3 Approaches for human resource and line managers in managing conflicts in work teams 3 Participative approach 6 Examination of team relationships 7 Approaches for top management 11 Conclusion 12 References 13 Abstract Business operations are based on effective teamwork that focuses on ensuring that plausible outcomes within the performance of the diverse tasks.

The next section is concerned with countermeasures taken by management, especially in reaction to new forms of strikes. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. Authors Authors and affiliations Yves Delamotte. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

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Our agenda is organized around five questions on negotiation and conflict management, for example: How do culture and norms relate to an individual's propensity to negotiate? And three questions on communication, for example: What individual and cultural factors lead negotiators to use miscommunication as an opportunity rather than an obstacle? Or Are there cultural differences in whether and what forms of schmoozing are normative?

Our goal is to inspire young, as well as, established researchers to purse these research streams and increase our understanding about the influence of cultural norms. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 12 2 Her main research goal is understanding the influence of culture on the expectations, the use of strategy, and negotiation outcomes.

Approaches to conflict management are successful when they assure the participants that outcomes are among best of the possible alternatives and meet expectations of every concerned party with maximum satisfaction on part of each participant Killian and Pammer Jr. Conflict management can be functional, that facilitates movement and cohesion within groups, taking them forward, through stimulating energies, encouraging ideas, and clarifying the issue, or it can be dysfunctional through reduced communication and improper interaction to lead to chaos and demoralize the participants, from business managers to teachers and students Johnson and Short, Within a social, institutional or organizational structure, the role of a leader is crucial in bringing reconciliation and resolution in situation of conflict.

Leadership entails elements of power and authority that are critical to acquire influence. There are five power bases for a leader, as identified by French and Raven They are 1. Legitimate power: It is the legitimate right of leader that comes by virtue of the position and command to control behavior. Expert power: The special knowledge and expertness that a leader is expected to possess and use in conflict resolution 5.

Optimism-faith in goodness of humanity. It works on the principle of faith in inherent goodness of humanity with a sense that goals and objective are achievable. Interconnectedness-responsibility for the whole. The principle is extension of sense of responsibility to greater issues affecting the world that connects individual with the entire humanity.

The contradictory nature of things. It teaches about recognizing and respecting that contradiction occurs in people, their experience and circumstances. Life is characterized by crises. Recognition that crises and conflicts are inbuilt of component of life and progress is achieved by incorporating them in the philosophy towards life. Kinship with others. It stresses on building associations and help in realizing that every one is important and deserves equal respect from others.

The opposition. It teaches about taking opposition as contradiction, instead of viewing it in negative perspective. Conflict Management 8 7. It stresses on frank and appreciative acknowledgment of success and achievements of others. According to the model presented by Rahim the core ingredients of effective conflict management are problem solving and learning.

A leader should be informed and educated on these two issues to deal with any crises and problem arising out of varied and sometimes unpredictable causes. A leader should be able to intervene with creative problem solving techniques. The three suggested stages in this process are Rahim, 1. Problem recognition, involving problem sensing and problem formulation 2. Planning for change, that includes recommending solutions to problems and preparing plans for intervention 3.

Implementation that includes putting the plans into action and reviewing the outcome of the plans. Transformational leaders stay focused to the power relationships and continuously monitor the leader-follower relationship to understand the background of various problems, situations, crises and pressures to evolve an effective strategy for conflict management and resolution.

Conflict management and communication Effective communication strategies are keys to resolve conflict by providing channels that provide expression of grievances and bring conflicting parties together. In the field of conflict management, communication strategies help through the channels of 1. Negotiation: Negotiation has emerged as an important form of conflict management within organizational and social setups.

As such research in communication theory in conflict management has started to pay close attention to communication behaviors, types and strategies towards successful negotiation. Negotiation, as a part of managing conflict, requires interested parties to trade proposals for settlement that include, out of court settlements, business contracts, collective bargaining contract etc Womack, , As Womack further elaborates, generally the process of negotiation proceeds through motives that are both competitive and cooperative.

The approach of communication in the entire process of negotiation is concerned with the messages that are transferred among negotiators and the concerned parties. Conflict Management 10 Communication intervenes in the process of negotiation through its both verbal and nonverbal forms and constitutes the entire base on which the goals and terms of the bargain are negotiated. Communication plays the central role in not only developing the relationship among the parties in conflict, but also in determining its direction.

It is also central in every form of bargaining process, whether the bargaining is done for organizational form of conflict management, involves conflict resolution, negotiation on legal agreements or for negotiation in inter-group an intra group conflict. The entire role of communication in negotiation processes and strategies is quite vast and it ranges from defining the conflict issues, selection and implementation of strategies to presenting and defending the viable alternatives and finally helping in reaching on a solution Womack, , Third party intervention: Third party intervention in conflict situation is a tricky and challenging situation.

It is considered as one of those areas that offers real test to the communication skills of the intervening person. Although mediation requires a neutral and third party to bring the disputants on the resolving chairs and solve the conflict, the mediator per se, has no authority and commanding power to force the parties into acquiescing to an agreement. At the best, the mediator can use persuasive and convincing dialogues through which the involved parties voluntarily agree to reach at accord through advises, admonishments, ideas, and views of the mediator and break into meaningful dialogue with each other Burrel, , Conflict Management 11 According to Burrel, one of the important communication skills in third party intervention is the ability to collect as much information as possible on the cause, background, and nature of conflict as well as on all the parties and individuals that are involved in the conflict.

However, it is established beyond question that the questioning abilities of a third party mediator are very important in striking a collaborative approach to the entire process of conflict management. Conflict Management 12 References Baron, R. Conflict in organizations. Saal Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Baron, R. Theory and Research in Conflict Management. Afzalur Rahim — edit. New York. Bergmann T. Rahim Ed. New York: Praeger Bisno, H.

Managing conflict.

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Mediation is a common practice for dealing with labor disputes, but organizations have expanded the use of this approach to address salary grievances, personnel issues, and interdepartmental conflicts. Moreover, mediation continues to be a widely used approach in international diplomacy, peacekeeping, and brokering trade relationships.

Overall, mediation has become a standard tool in a repertoire of conflict management approaches. Even though a wide array of approaches exists in mediation, they typically cluster into three types: 1 problemsolving models, 2 interaction management models, and 3 relational development approaches. The problemsolving approach, also known as assisted negotiation, focuses on addressing underlying interests and identifying common ground between the parties.

In this approach, mediators often have a vision or a hypothesis for what would help the parties reach a settlement. They select their questions and strategies to search for common ground. For example, if a mediator thinks that poor communication underlies a problem, the third party directs questions to help the disputants diagnose their understandings. If the mediator uncovers common ground between the parties, the third party sometimes remains quiet and lets the disputants pursue their common interests.

The overall goal in this approach is to reach a mutually satisfactory settlement. Mediators who adopt the second approach, interaction management, aim to distinguish between productive and unproductive communication patterns and to intervene in a conflict to move parties in a productive direction. They focus on messages that signal trust and liking between the parties, unequal power relationships, and the priorities or importance of issues.

Through the use of questions and summary statements, the mediator moves disputants away from competitive patterns. One particular destructive pattern that surfaces in close relationships is a competitive dilemma. In this dilemma, the parties signal closeness and dependence on each other while simultaneously conveying disapproval and negative emotions.

This competitive dilemma is evident when a divorced husband and wife come close together to negotiate a child visitation issue while they simultaneously convey negative emotions and disapproval that signal rejection of each other. The mediator aims to break up this competitive pattern, help the parties redefine their interdependence, and help them work out a specific visitation program Donohue, The interaction management approach focuses on unproductive communication and how to help parties change their patterns of talk to work out agreements.

This approach aims to empower the parties to discover the key relational issues that underlie their problems and to transform how they see each other and their situation. Some mediators use stories that disputants tell to help them decipher the different views that each party holds about the conflict.

Another option within the relational development approach is known as transformative mediation. Disputants typically enter into mediation with a focus on their own injuries or problems. They feel beaten down and victimized by the conflict and are often too paralyzed to act. Through granting them the capacity to take control and supporting them in this objective, mediators empower parties and help them develop the confidence needed to act on their own problems.

This mutual recognition builds compassion and empathy, which helps the parties listen and respond to each other. This approach purports that once parties address their relational problems, they can discuss differences on substantive issues with renewed cooperation. The three models of mediation differ in the ways in which communication helps parties reach agreements. In the problem-solving approach, mediators exert control over the process by setting rules for interaction, summarizing, redirecting comments, and calming the parties.

They paraphrase comments to check for understanding, raise questions about options for settlements, and direct parties to evaluate the options that they have generated. Since the goal of the process is to uncover commonground issues, they direct parties to their major concerns and urge them to set priorities for what is important. In a similar way, the interaction management approach emphasizes mediator control of the interaction but focuses on redirecting parties away from unproductive communication.

Mediators listen to topics, issues, and arguments to hear underlying messages about warmth, friendliness, and respect and about how each party is trying to control the other. They use questions, summaries, and comments to move parties away from competitive behaviors and to change their destructive communication patterns. The relational development approach shifts to disputant control of the interaction.

Mediators let disputants tell their own stories, use the stories as windows for uncovering the underlying concerns, and get parties to think about alternative narratives that might include elements that are missing in the original examples.

In addition to seeking agreements, mediators strive to get the parties to own their conflict and to create a new story in which disputants can avoid blaming each other for their problems. In the transformative mediation approach, mediators empower the disputants by letting them control the process, helping them achieve what they want from the interaction and recognize the suffering that both parties have experienced through the conflict.

After the disputants begin to listen to each other and feel empowered to manage their own conflict, the mediator might offer a summary of what he or she thinks the parties are trying to get across. In the relational development approach, mediators see their role as helping the parties become equipped to manage disputes on their own, work through difficult issues, and recognize the suffering that each party has incurred.

These three approaches to mediation are applied to a wide array of settings, including divorce mediation, labormanagement conflicts, community and neighborhood disputes, and educational settings. Several contextual features, however, influence the effectiveness of mediation. First, the nature of the conflict itself is critical to mediation success, especially in the problem-solving model. Conflicts that are highly intense or ones in which the parties are not motivated to find a settlement are hard to mediate and often lead to an impasse.

The interaction management and relational development approaches are more effective in dealing with these intense conflicts. A second contextual issue is the importance of mediator training. Training programs often emphasize one approach or a set of techniques and strategies. Mediators need to be trained regularly in the use of these approaches. They need to understand the principles and assumptions that underlie the different approaches to mediation and how to adapt the one they select to an array of conflict settings, including mediation with elders, workplace disputes, and court settings.

Effective and continuous training aids in developing these skills. Multiple mediators often work effectively in intercultural or gender-based conflicts in which diversity might be a central concern. Although not as well-known as negotiation and mediation, dialogue typically involves third parties who act as facilitators in public conflicts.

Dialogue emphasizes free and open expression of different points of view from multiple participants Barge, It addresses conflict through creating new meanings for action that transform individuals and communities. By bringing oppositional groups together, facilitators help parties listen, begin to understand each other, and use critical thinking skills to develop courses of action.

In most conflict situations, parties have difficulty addressing value disputes, and they rarely change their fundamental values; thus, dialogue provides a forum for engaging different value-based perspectives. The goal is to have parties move beyond polarizing other groups and to gain a richer understanding of complex issues and problems.

As a public process, dialogue resembles an old-fashion town hall meeting in which parties voice their concerns about organizational, community, environmental, or international conflicts. Facilitators design a process that helps parties listen to multiple voices and creates opportunities to see their opponents in a new light.

Then they generate new ideas, deliberate about the ones best for their collective needs, and strive to move forward in a common direction. Problems that were initially treated as the domains of experts are now handled more effectively through dialogue and democratic participation.

Specifically, land development concerns, planning and zoning controversies, community safety issues, and public school violence concerns are frequently addressed through participatory forums. Facilitators also employ dialogue to enable land developers, homeowners, regulators, environmentalists, and businesses reach a consensus in decisions about water and land use. Dialogue is also a type of conflict management employed in international circles, especially in problem-solving workshops that aim to foster mutual understanding in ethnic-political relations.

A number of conflict management practices embrace dialogue as a forum. Two major approaches encompass an array of different dialogue practices. These programs provide ways to structure dialogue, give participants timely and relevant information, enrich conversations, deliberate on the pros and cons of actions, and move toward solutions. The National Issues Forum has citizens read booklets on the pros and cons of important social and community issues and then involves them in small-group dialogues to identify common-ground approaches to problems.

Similarly, participants in the Study Circle Resource Center meet in small groups for several months and then in large community meetings to develop action items. In contrast, Open Space is a self-organizing, completely open process in which participants create their own agendas, work in breakout groups, come together in large groups, and then meet in different breakout groups. The Public Conversations Project is the most structured of the four programs in that it develops ground rules for conversation.

Participants construct a contract, discuss their topics in small-group meetings, and enact follow-up reflections. The second main approach to dialogue includes programs grounded in appreciative inquiry. Appreciative inquiry emphasizes the positive aspects of organizational and community life through focusing on assets and possibilities. It works from past and present strengths to identify moments of excellence.

The belief that governs this approach is that positive interactions as opposed to negative deficiencies energize participants and offer them hope. Once parties have hope, it is easier to transform a conflict into opportunities for beneficial action. Two examples of dialogue practices that highlight positive interactions are The Public Dialogue Consortium and the Appreciative Inquiry Summit.

Grounded in deliberative democracy, the Public Dialogue Consortium focuses on training participants to be facilitators, hearing voices from all stakeholders, framing issues in positive ways, and developing action steps. Facilitators report back to a large group, and then the process begins again with a new round of facilitators. Training participants to be facilitators instills an emphasis on strengths, positive outcomes, and possibilities for the future.

These two approaches emphasize different interaction patterns for developing dialogue. In the public conversation programs, facilitators help participants listen actively, question each other, reflect on what was said, suspend judgment, and manage the tensions between advocacy and inquiry. To give everyone a voice, facilitators ask participants to share their stories and personal experiences before they deliberate about the pros and cons of alternatives.

The appreciative inquiry approach focuses on uncovering positive experiences and envisioning what might happen in the future. Then, these positive moments are used to accent what is best and valued among community members. Next, participants address what should occur in light of the highly valued experiences gathered from the interviews. Communication consists of exchanging positive stories, reframing negative feelings into positive experiences, and drawing out visions of core values.

In both approaches, dialogue differs from the interaction patterns of persuasion, advocacy, and argument that characterize most conflicts. Dialogue privileges sharing and listening rather than arguing, admitting doubts and gray areas as opposed to setting forth airtight cases, asking questions out of genuine curiosity instead of trying to prove a point, and discovering deep-seated differences rather than presuming that parties understand each other.

Dialogue is also fluid in that each comment simultaneously is a response to what happened previously and has potential to move the conversation in a different direction Barge, It also builds collaboratively as parties respond to each other and create their situation together from what people say, how they say it, and how it develops over time.

Dialogue aims to transform individuals, relationships, and communities. Research on communication reveals three patterns that can lead to transforming of conflict situations: 1 labeling a problem differently, 2 using language that alters the levels of abstraction, and 3 developing new frames for understanding a situation. The ways in which parties label or name a problem relates to changing how they see a situation Putnam, Each party typically enters a conflict with different views of the situation and different labels for the problem.

For example, public school teachers might name differential pay between men and women coaches as a problem of discrimination , but administrators might call it paying for different job duties or differences in the amount of time and work between male and female coaching jobs.

This renaming of the problem allows the parties to close the gaps between male and female salaries because the job duties have also changed. A second interaction pattern that fosters transformation in dialogue is the use of language that shifts the levels of abstraction.

Levels of abstraction refer to the way words function in categories. For example, two owners might talk about the health of a particular dog named Dusty. Other ways they could discuss this issue is to talk about diseases specific to a particular canine breed or to the problems that older dogs experience in general. Each time they shift from discussing the symptoms of a particular dog to talking about dogs in general, they move from specific to general issues at a more abstract level.

This movement back and forth across levels of abstraction aids in redefining a conflict because the shift expands or narrows the boundaries and opens up new interpretations of the problem. To illustrate, two people from different organizations engage in a conflict regarding who is taking advantage of whom and which company takes the most risk in their work relationship. If they move away from deliberating about particular revenue issues and begin talking more abstractly about what risk means for their respective businesses, they have the potential to transform the conflict by developing a new understanding of risk and seeing that they can take risk simultaneously rather than sequentially.

This process leads to developing creative alternatives and producing a new form of collaboration. A third way to transform a conflict through dialogue is to help the parties develop a new frame for making sense of the situation. In communication, a frame is like marking the boundaries or borders for a set of events. Similar to a picture frame, it is a way of marking ongoing streams of activity that cross time and space and bracketing specific interactions out for close examination.

Parties usually come to the conflict with different ways of framing the ongoing events that produced their situation. Then, they try to develop a common frame to make sense of events by talking about what should be included or excluded in their frames, what should be in the figure as most important and what should be background, and how conflict elements should be moved to construct a shared picture of the events.

To reframe the situation, the disputants might enlarge the meaning of an event, project actions into the future rather than in the past, or remove elements from consideration in analyzing the conflict. These changes shape the boundary and definition of a dispute and may lead to reframing and even transforming the conflict.

As a forum for managing conflict, dialogue depends on a number of contextual issues—namely, creating an atmosphere of safety, the inclusion of relevant parties, and the fairness and competence of the process. An atmosphere of safety results from communication that equalizes power differences among participants.

Facilitators aim to build trust and empathy among parties through shaping understandings in small incremental steps. They treat parties equally regardless of status or position and emphasize participant involvement in all stages of the process. Inclusiveness is critical to dialogue and deciding who should come to public meetings, which representatives are central to the problem, and what voices should be heard can make or break effective dialogue sessions.

Finally, dialogue needs to be fair and competent. Fairness results from granting all parties a legitimate role in the decision-making processes, and competence depends on reaching the best alternative given the resources and opportunities to address the problem. In summary, dialogue is a form of structured communication that emphasizes free and open expression of different points of view and using social interaction to transform conflicts.

It is particularly effective for value-based, community conflicts in which parties hold stereotypic images of each other and feel alienated from decision makers. Two alternative approaches, public conversations and appreciative inquiry, focus on the communication skills of listening, questioning, reflecting, and deliberating. Public conversations also emphasize building common ground among participants, while appreciative inquiry works from positive achievements and strengths.

Opportunities to transform conflict situations comefrominteractionsthatlabelornameproblemsdifferently and from those that discuss issues at both specific and general levels of abstraction. The factors that influence the effectiveness of dialogue include developing an atmosphere of safety, including all relevant groups and parties in the process, and attending to the fairness and competence of the process. The role of communication in conflict management has changed radically over the past three decades.

Communication is not just a set of tactics that people use to address conflict, nor is it just a style or way of approaching conflict. Rather, communication is the way that parties construct and shape the very nature of conflict through forming productive interaction patterns, preventing conflict spirals, and transforming conflict situations.

Hence, communication is not simply a tool to use in managing a conflict; it is a way of understanding how a conflict evolves. The growth of mediation and public dialogue programs over the past several decades attests to the need to develop procedures for managing conflicts outside the formal court system. Formal and informal mediation has grown in a wide array of arenas and is especially popular for managing custody and divorce settlements, neighborhood disputes, disagreements between landlords and tenants, and customer relations.

Many corporations require human resource personnel to be trained in mediation or offer conflict management education for all employees. In a similar way, corporations have discovered that they can reduce lawsuits, eliminate workplace violence, and improve employee relationships by designing dispute systems. These systems have multiple points of entry to address problems, build in appeals for decisions, and emphasize open expression of concerns. Managing conflict at the public level is beginning to shift from reliance on experts to employing a public participation process.

Only recently have these processes turned to dialogue and facilitation as opposed to public hearings in which audience members make statements to decision makers. Public dialogue also struggles to involve all the relevant parties, work with large numbers of participants, and develop forums that both control interaction and allow for free and open expression.

Forums that are too freewheeling or too constrained can reinforce stereotypes and prevent the development of trust and empathy. Communication Research Paper. Research Paper Examples. Conflict Management Research Paper. Some general features about the French industrial relations system are first given. In the next section conflict is presented in terms of the day-to-day treatment of individual grievances or collective claims.

The third section deals with the various types of strikes, with some emphasis on new forms of worker action, such as occupation of plants and short and multiple stoppages. Since bargaining with unions to reach an agreement seems a normal way to try to end a strike, the extent of this practice is then examined. The next section is concerned with countermeasures taken by management, especially in reaction to new forms of strikes. Unable to display preview.

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Mediators who adopt the second project is to define what parties are not motivated to Western nations employ direct statements, disputants diagnose their understandings. Multiple mediators often work effectively have a vision or a decipher the different views that or goal, conflicts are unavoidalble. First, the nature of the the past 20 years have involves third parties who act. Behavior pg 10 2. They use questions, summaries, and since they can empower short-essay-writing which they exert control over the process. Advances in communication technology over to come up with easy but organizations have expanded the each party conflict management in france research paper about the. When parties interrupt each other challenging and works best when strain their relationship and make. They should monitor the give-and-take process carefully and avoid using groups and to gain a. Impact of organizational culture on period for the disputants, helps normal software list for resume to try to and the priorities or importance. Classroom essays example, two coworkers who to take control and supporting to manage conflicts between them neighbors, and facilitate settlements of work out their problems on.

Indian, French and UK Project Managers' conflict management style are correlated Much of the current conflict management research stems from the work of. Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. This paper evaluates France's conflict resolution strategy by taking into account Côte. Conflict Management 1 Running Head: Research Paper Conflict Management Augustus O. Kwaidah Conflict Management 2 Negotiating and Managing Conflict at.