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Mark simpson english essayist

RESPECTFUL TEACHERS ESSAY

The Voices of Prose. USA: McGraw. Hill, Inc. Dolley, C. Great Britain: Penguin Books Ltd. Konigsberg, I. Mizener, A. Chin, B. This module deals with 20 th century poetry and drama. It will acquaint students with various styles of literary texts and enable them to gain the socio-cultural knowledge of that period as reflected in the selected texts. Students have to study a variety of 20 th Century poems, both British and American, which are representative of the period, being presented through a thematic approach.

It aims at helping students to appreciate modern English poems. Moreover, students will be able to appreciate and write poems while learning different types of poems. A collection of 20 th century English Drama will enable students to read plays not only for pleasure but also to understand life as presented by playwrights This module includes the plays, written in a variety of styles, for the stage, making it possible for them.

It makes it possible for students to study plays to get a glimpse of play-acting and the theatre from the mid-nineteenth century to the present, encompassing such radical movements as realism, naturalism and symbolism. It also introduces them to the theatre of the absurd, and post-modernism. London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Allison, A. Hewett, R. UK: Nelson House. Pickering Poetry: An Introduction.

Leech, Geoffrey N, A linguistic guide to English poetry, 1 st ed. London, Longman, Pickering, James H. UK, Macmillan Publishers Ltd, London: Macmillan and Co. Weekes, A. R year not mentioned The Odes of John Keats.

London: University Tutorial Press Ltd. Eng Communicative Skills — 1. Grammar is contextualized and introduced through an inductive approach. A variety of authentic and semi-authentic reading and listening texts will be given to introduce grammar and vocabulary. Vocabulary section focuses on word building and lexical patterns and recycled through activities in each unit. Regular pronunciation sections are integrated with the presentation of new language to practice word and sentence stress, difficult sounds, contractions and intonation.

The Scenario lessons are included to extend speaking practice with important communicative features in a real-life situation. Assessment Criteria. For tutorial-based assessment, the students are asked to do some quizzes, give group presentation, take some mini-tests based on reading, writing, listening, vocabulary, and grammar they have learned.

In the final examination, they will be assessed through such components as reading, vocabulary, grammar, language use, and writing. Cotton, D. New Language Leader 1: Coursebook. Pearson Education Limited. Course description. The selection of literary texts is based on a variety of themes. This module helps students to understand the style of various types of prose passages and the characteristics of short stories such as plot, setting, mode of development, and literary devices.

This module focuses on analyzing the narrative features and tension and suspense of a literary work. As short stories are mirrors of the age in which they were written, the selection helps students to gain the historical, social and cultural knowledge of the story. This module trains students to read literary texts intensively and to express their understanding of these texts both in class discussion and in writing.

Prescribed Coursebook. References for Short Stories. This module deals with the study of a rich variety of poems, both British and American, which are representative of the century, being selected and presented in a thematic approach. Students will be able to appreciate the selected poems expressed in modern English so that their language development in speaking and writing will be enhanced. This module also deals with selections from English Drama of 20 th century. Students will be able to read not only for pleasure but also to tackle conventional themes in the light of a new understanding of the theory and development of tragedy, comedy, and other modes of dramatic expression.

It aims at helping students to develop their language through an intensive study of the style of writing in these plays, which introduce the on-setting element of modernism. Leech, Geoffrey N, A linguistic guide to English poetry, 1 st edn. Eng Communicative Skills — 2. Authentic and semi-authentic reading and listening texts are used to teach grammar in inductive approach and introduce vocabulary.

The scenario in real-life situation is given to make students practise the language they have learned in different contexts. Students are introduced to different genres and develop their writing through analysis of models and practice in producing different text styles. Throughout the course, engaging class activities will be given to make students communicate in English and develop their language skills. Tutorial-based assessment includes quizzes, give group presentation, mini-tests based on reading, writing, listening, vocabulary, and grammar they have learned.

The selection is done from a variety of themes. This module helps students to extend their knowledge of styles of various types of prose passages and characteristics of short stories. This module focuses more on characterization and tone of the text in particular. This module trains students to read literary texts intensively, express their understanding of these texts both in class discussion and in writing, and develop language skills through literature. Close reading Prose. Assessment will be done through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, class and group discussion and formal written assignments and a final closed book written examination.

This module deals with the study of a rich variety of poems, both British and American, which are representative of the period. The poems are selected and presented using a thematic approach. Students will be able to appreciate the selected poems expressed in English so that their language power in speaking and writing will be enhanced.

This module also deals with selections from English Drama of 19 th and 20 th centuries. References for Poetry. References for Drama. Macmillan Press Ltd. Allison, Alexander W. Macmillan Publishing Co. This module introduces general linguistics and phonetics. The first part consists of the definition of language, the origin and development of human languages, characteristics and varieties of language, as well as animal and human language. It also focuses on the definition, the scope of linguistics, types of linguistics and its related fields.

The second part deals with the definition of phonetics, its branches, and the description of vowels and consonants. Introduction to General Linguistics and Phonetics. Verma, S. Modern Linguistics: An Introduction. Dehli: OUP. Radhey L. Varshney An Introductory Textbook of Linguistics and Phonetics. Bareilly: Student Store.

Kelly, G. England: Pearson Education Ltd. Chapter 1, 3, 4. Fromkin, V. Rodman, R. An Introduction to Language. Chapter 6. Clark, J. C An Introduction and Phonetics and Phonology. UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Chapter 2. Eng- Communicative Skills Authentic or semi-authentic reading and listening texts taken from a variety of text types will be used to develop their reading and listening skills.

In grammar section, students are encouraged to analyse and understand grammar through an inductive approach regarding examples in reading and listening texts and the vocabulary component pays attention to word building and lexical patterns and they are recycled through the speaking activities. New Language Leader 2: Coursebook. England: Pearson Education Limited. Literary works with various themes were selected. This module helps students to study the style of various types of prose passages and the characteristics of short stories.

This module focuses more on prose genres and on the works of the great essayists. This module trains students to read literary texts intensively and express their understanding of the selected texts both in class discussion and in writing. Students will be able to appreciate the selected poems expressed in modern English so that their language power in speaking and writing will be enhanced. The Miracle Worker William Gibson. The module deals with two sub-disciplines in linguistics, namely phonetics and phonology.

It focuses on the smallest of the superordinate units, the syllable and the phonological units above the syllable such as the phonetic characteristics of stress, stress position, segmental phonology of the phrase and word. McMahon, A. Edinburgh: EUP. Chapter 3, 6. Chapter 1. Chapter 1, 3, 6, 9, In the grammar section, students are encouraged to analyse and understand grammar through an inductive approach regarding examples in reading and listening texts and the vocabulary component pays attention to word building and lexical patterns and they are recycled through the speaking activities.

Assessment will be done through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, class and group discussion, formal written assignments, presentations and a final examination. This module includes a selection of the 19 th and 20 th century English short stories and novels. Setting, plot, characterization, literary devices, climax, point of view, theme, symbols, conflicts, and development of the story are the focus of this module.

The novels in the 19 th and 20 th centuries particularly engaged the students in the events, circumstances, beliefs and attitudes in those periods. The focus is on understanding the role of the novel in representing life and people and exploring socio-cultural changes, the flexibility of the genre and how it developed aesthetically, stylistically and structurally. References for The Novel. Drew, Elizabeth. Dell Publishing Co. Lass, Abraham H. Washington Square Press, Inc.

New York. Pickering, H. Macmillan Publishing Company. This module deals with the study of poems and a play which are representative of 19 th and 20 th century poetry and drama. Studying selected English poems enables students to extend their knowledge of English poetry that they have already garnered in their academic pursuit. While pursuing the scholarly studies in English poetry, students simultaneously perceive the development of English poetry over the centuries.

This module also engages students to learn a farcical comedy of Oscar Wilde, a famous Irish playwright. Their active participation will be highly appreciated or graded. Students are asked to work in groups so that they can learn from each other by sharing their own ideas in groups. In assessing group presentation, three-fold group assessment will be carried out. Kloeppel, L.

The Signet Classic Edition. Eng English Language Studies — 3 Morphology. This module acquaints learners of English with some background concepts of words and rules of word formation. Moreover, it also deals with morphemes: free and bound morphemes, lexical and functional morphemes, inflectional versus derivational morphology, and morphological analysis. The objective of this module is to provide an introduction to major concepts in the study of morphology and discusses its place within linguistic theory.

Akmajan, A. Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. Thomas, W. Stewart, Jr. Language Files. File 5. Eng Translation and Interpretation — 1. This module deals with the theoretical aspect of translation and translation studies, the background history of translation, general types of translation, features of a good translation, and directives by different translators.

It trains students to apply their theoretical knowledge to the practice of translation. It also focuses on conceptual bases required to understand both the principles and recurrent issues, and difficulties in professional translation and interpreting. Assessment will be done through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, class and group discussions and formal written assignments and a final closed book written examination.

Gile, D. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Newmark, P A Textbook of Translation. Win Pe, U, et al. Volume I. Shwe Pyi Taw Press. Eng Communicative Skills — 5. It introduces language items in authentic and semi-authentic engaging reading and listening texts. It also exposes students to different styles of written texts. Engaging activities will be given to make students practise the language structure, vocabulary and grammar rules in a variety of meaningful contexts to develop their reading, writing, speaking, pronunciation and writing skills with strong emphasis on the area of critical thinking skills.

This module enables students to express their ideas and develop their communicative abilities through its engaging content and systematic skills work. Clandfield, L Global. Acklam, R. London: Pearson Longman. Clare, A. Naughton, D. Harris, M. London: Longman. Dean, M. London: Pearson Education Ltd.

Eng Business English — 1. This module covers all the four language learning skills, grammar points and vocabulary that are used in business communication. It also focuses on different areas of business that closely reflect business undertakings. The course provides updated content and a significantly enhanced range of authentic resource material, reflecting the latest trends in the business world.

There will be at least 5 tutorials for each semester. Group presentations, role plays, group or individual assignments will also be counted as tutorial. This module introduces the theoretical background to the practice of English language teaching. Longman group Ltd. Pg 37 New York: Palgrave Macmillan. This module includes a selection of the 19 th and 20 th century English short stories and a novel. Short stories are studied with particular attention to setting, plot, characterization, literary devices, climax, point of view, theme, symbols, conflicts, and development of the story.

This module deals with the novel in the 19 th and 20 th centuries which were particularly engaged with the events, circumstances, beliefs and attitudes of their time. Wells, Harper Lee,. The focus is on the role of the novel in representing life and people, and exploring social and cultural changes, the flexibility of the genre and how it developed aesthetically, stylistically and structurally. This module also expands literary vocabulary, and exercises critical reading and writing skills.

Studying selected 19 th century English poems enables students to extend their knowledge of English poetry that they have already garnered in their academic pursuit. This module also engages students to learn a 20 th century modern American tragedy of Arthur Miller, a famous American playwright.

Learning outcomes. Tetu, R. The Penguin Edition. This module concerns preliminaries to syntactic structure such as the goals of syntactic theory, the importance of syntactic theory, introduction to constituent structure, ways of representing constituent structure, investigation of constituent structure and phrasal categories.

It also deals with types of syntactic rules, the relation between rules and sentences. Syntactic Theory — 1. Chapter 5. Borsley, R. Syntactic Theory: A Unified Approach. London: Aronold. Chapter 1- 4 Pg 1- Chapter 3. File 6. Eng Translation and Interpretation — 2. This module deals with the theoretical aspect of the process of translating and translation procedures.

Students will be able to put their theoretical knowledge into practice through the translation of lexis, proper names, idioms and proverbs, abbreviations and acronyms, first at the sentence level, and then at the paragraph level. It also focuses on basic theoretical components in interpreter and translator training, similarities and differences between interpreting and translation. Eng Communicative Skills — 6. So, this module enables students to express their ideas and develop their communicative abilities through its engaging content and systematic skills work.

Eng Business English — 2. This module covers all the four language learning skills, grammar and vocabulary that are used in business communication. This module deals with studying and researching language to increase knowledge of the English language system. It explores various aspects of task-based teaching and learning and gives insights into ways in which tasks can be designed, adapted and implemented in a range of teaching contexts and illustrates ways in which tasks and task-based learning can be investigated as a research activity.

Harmer, J. Pg Edwards, C. Eng Research Paper Writing. This module is designed to enable students to discover different and essential steps in writing a research paper. It familiarizes students with basic format of a research paper. It also helps the students to develop sound techniques and good practice which will serve them well in future research projects. It focuses on writing a research paper systematically with the correct format.

It also enables students to find relevant references, to take notes, to develop a reference list and to indicate sources. This module provides students with language convention, instruction and practice. Moreover, this module helps students to write research proposal, literature reviews, summaries, abstract, and especially theses and dissertations.

NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. University of Michigan. Bell, J. Buckingham, Open University Press. Pages of Check List. Renandua, W. Singapore, RELC. Shepherd, J. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company. Pages , Sweals, J. Pages Chapter 4. This module offers students a selection of the 19 th century short stories and the novel with particular attention to famous authors such as Leo Tolstoy, Mark Twain, Edgar Allan Poe and Jane Austen.

It centers on the critical reading of the selected short stories, enabling students to develop conceptual learning and the critical thinking skills. It introduces the disruptive pressure of increasingly powerful women and the intensifying pull of the past, which becomes more difficult to resist as modernity takes shape.

This module focuses on the works concerned with social comedy and satire of the period, the 19 th century. Short Stories. Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen Moreover, this module also introduces the area of Semantics which includes the meaning of Semantics, lexical and grammatical meaning, and different semantic theories. Throughout the course, students will be given 3 tutorials, a group presentation, 3 formal written assignments for classroom-based assessment.

There is the final examination at the end of the semester. Prescribed text:. Chapter 7 — 9 Pg. Burton-Roberts, N. New York: Routledge. Finegan, E. Language: Its Structure and Use. Chapter 5: Syntax, Chapter 6: Semantics. Dawson, H. Eng Translation and Interpretation — 3. This module focuses on the methods and procedures of translation and interpretation. It imparts the knowledge of strategies of translation and interpretation.

Regarding translation, this module trains students to be able to translate texts of various types from source language to target language efficiently at various levels of language. Regarding interpretation, students are trained to interpret different genres of speeches: authentic speeches made by public figures from the local and international arenas. With a special focus on skills development, this module will equip final year BA English students with translation and interpretation skills, which are and will be in great demand on the job market now and in the future.

Part A: Translation. Part B: Interpretation. In this module, students have to study several pieces of ASEAN literature that cover a wide range of socio-cultural aspects in Southeast Asian countries such as people, family ties and values, growing up, festivals, and so on.

Gill, Richard Mastering English Literature. Third Edition. Palgrave Master Series. Hoeper, Jeffrey D. Second Edition. Eng Communicative Skills — 7. The lessons will be conducted in communicative language teaching and deductive approach to present grammar and vocabulary items.

Engaging activities will be given to make students practise the language structure, vocabulary and grammar rules in a variety of meaningful contexts to develop their reading, writing, speaking, pronunciation and writing skills. Prescribed Text. New Language Leader 4: Coursebook. Eng Business English — 3. Authentic reading texts, listening materials and specially-filmed interviews with business practitioners are included in each unit. This module is designed to help students to prepare for a career in business and to develop their English communication skills especially in business contexts.

Classroom-based assessment includes the following:. Cotton, David. England, Pearson Education Limited. Eng : English Language Teaching — 1. This module introduces theoretical background to the practice of English language teaching. Moreover, it provides methodologies for developing the language skills: receptive and productive skills.

It also deals with classroom management and tackling the problem behaviour of learners. London: Longman group Ltd. Celce-Murcia, M. Eng Public Speaking and Presentation Skills. This module enables students to speak clearly and confidently in different situations — in classrooms, in workplaces and in communities. It enables students to identify the elements of speech communication process and prepare an organized speech. It presents principles with applications emphasizing audience-centred communication so that students can learn how to talk to and with them and not at them.

This module also provides students with key skills for effective presentation such as useful language expressions, voice and delivery, rhetorical techniques, question handling and visual preparation. Gregory, H. This module deals with the study of a rich variety of theme-based selections of English poetry, which are presumably representative of 17 th and 18 th century.

Students, making an academic pursuit of English poetry over the past centuries, are able to get a broad perspective of how English poetry had developed over the centuries, as well as of how the poetic language in English had changed. This module also introduces students to outstanding literary piece of English Drama written before It explores the major literary genres of that period, as well as the socio-cultural contexts in which they were produced.

It also examines how literary texts articulate changes in language and form, as well as in concepts of family, nation, and community during the medieval period. It deals with the creation of such gifted authors as William Congreve, and — supremely— Shakespeare. The Tempest William Shakespeare. Moreover, in this module, students will be provided with the definition of discourse, discourse versus text, types of discourse, interpreting discourse, linguistic elements in discourse such as cohesion, coherence, and conversation analysis.

Prescribed texts:. Chapter 15 Pg. Cambridge Language Teaching Library. Glasgow: CPU Page 5 — Chapter 5: Syntax. Nunan, D. London: The Penguin Group Ltd. Richards, J. Key Issues in Language Teaching. UK: Cambridge University Press. Chapter Discourse Analysis. Thornbury, S. Beyond the Sentence: Introducing discourse analysis.

Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited. Chapter 3, What makes a text make sense? Eng Translation and Interpretation — 4. Regarding translation, this module trains students to be able to translate texts of various types from SL to TL efficiently at various levels of language. With a special focus on skills development, this module will equip final year EPP students with translation and interpretation skills, which are and will be in great demand on the job market now and in the future.

Volume II. This module covers a wide range of socio-cultural aspects in South East Asia countries such as people, family ties and values, growing up, festivals, and so on. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Yayasan Penataran Ilmu. Eng Communicative Skills — 8. This Module aims at developing students language skills, communicative skills and study skills. Eng Business English 4. Authentic reading texts, listening material and specially-filmed interviews with business practitioners are included in each unit.

Eng : English Language Teaching — 2. This module includes a selection of the 19 th and 20 th century English short stories and novel. Setting, plot, characterization, literary devices, climax, point of view, theme, symbols, conflicts, and development of the story are the focus in studying short stories. The novels in the 19 th and 20 th centuries are particularly engaged with the events, circumstances, beliefs and attitudes of their time.

This module also expands literary vocabulary, exercise critical reading and writing skills and comfort important themes suggested by the literature. It also focuses on conceptual bases required to understand both the principles and recurrent issues and difficulties in professional translation and interpreting.

The focus is on the role of the novel in representing life and people and exploring social and cultural changes, the flexibility of the genre and how it developed aesthetically, stylistically and structurally. Death of A Salesman Arthur Miller. Learning resources including websites and video are included according to the topics. Malcolm Goodale Professional Presentations. This module deals with the study of the theme of feminism and the role of women in life and literature. It focuses on the social construction of gender: the gendered division of labour, production, and reproduction; intersections of gender, race, class, and ethnicity.

Students will be able to analyse texts in relation to each other — across genres, countries and historical and social contexts. It allows students to track changes in thinking, beliefs and literary conventions which can aid in their understanding and analyses of texts. The order of study is designed to contribute to this gradual building of the necessary language, reading and critical thinking skills to deal with increasingly more complex texts. A non-fiction text is introduced in this module.

Assessment will be done through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, and a final closed book written examination. Alpers editor , Antony The Stories of Katherine Mansfield. Auckland: Oxford University Press. Bloom, Harold Heims, Neil ed. The Merchant of Venice. New York: Infobase. Bryan, Patricia L. Stanford Law Review. Eng Intercultural Communication — 1.

Intercultural Communication focuses on the importance of culture in our everyday lives, and the ways in which culture interrelates with and influences communication processes. This module covers such topics as intercultural communication flexibility, cultural value, cultural and ethnic identities, cultural shock, verbal communication and non-verbal communication across cultures, cultural influences on the expression and perception of emotions, intergroup communication and biases against outgroups.

It is intended to help students find out how people from different cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures. Understanding Intercultural Communication. Holliday, Adrian. Routledge: London. This module introduces Sociolinguistics and Psycholinguistics.

The first part focuses on how language and societies are mutually constitutive and they both have impact on each other. In this part students will learn language variation such as dialects, regional dialects, social dialects, pidgin, creole, registers, second language education, language contact and language in use.

The second part focuses on language acquisition. In this part students will be provided with Stages in Language Acquisition. Assessment will be done through tutorials and examination. There will be group assignments, group activities, presentations and individual assignments for tutorials. At the end of the module, there will be an examination. Columbus: the Ohio State. Yule, G. The Study of Language. Cambridge: CUP. This module will equip students with important skills that they will need at work: negotiation and meeting skills.

Effective negotiating component will provide students with the language they need to hand the typical scenario encountered on the way to successful negotiations. Effective meetings will present all the speaking skills that they students in order to participate in a meeting with confidence.

It will also provide them with expressions needed in typical everyday business meetings. English for Negotiating. English for Meetings. The assessment will be done through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, presentations and formal written assignment and a final examination. Prescribed Coursebooks. Eng World Literature — 1. This module introduces students a vast collection of literary works produced by authors from different nations. It enables students to study different literary genres of international authors in global contexts.

During the lectures, students are expected to give critical response through discussion. The teacher gives a grade to the paper submitted by groups. Fifth Edition. Eng Communicative Skills — 9. Engaging activities will be given to make students practise the language structure, vocabulary and grammar rules in a variety of meaningful contexts to develop their reading, writing, speaking, pronunciation and listening skills.

New Language Leader 5: Coursebook. Eng Business English — 5. This module covers all the four language learning skills featuring completely updated content and a significantly enhanced range of authentic materials which reflect the latest trends in the business world. It is based on topics of great interest to everyone involved in or studying international business. This module presents business-related vocabulary, grammar points and functions students will need to use in the workplace.

Students will be able to develop their language skills as well as the content knowledge regarding respective business functions. In terms of tutorials, the questions will mostly be based on writing Case Study of each unit. Before the tutorials, students have to discuss the discussion questions given in the text concerning with the respective case study in pairs or in groups to get some ideas or to share their ideas together.

Only after that, they have to take the tutorials individually. In terms of presentations, students are asked to do mainly on the questions of discussion part. Group presentations are preferred because of time constraints.

Before they do presentations, they have to discuss with their group members so that active participation is one of the important factors in presentation. Students are assessed on relevancy, accuracy, and organization of the content, presentation, pronunciation as well as the effective use of power point. In terms of assignments, students are mainly asked to do on tasks of reading and sometimes on writing.

Depending on the allotted time and types of task, they will be done at home or in class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. North, B. New York: Peter Lang. Schneider, G. Eng English for Hospitality and Tourism — 1. This module focuses on the needs of professionals working in the tourism industry. This course builds learner confidence in the professional skills needed for the tourist industry whilst developing their language awareness. Students practise these skills in realistic Case Studies that reflect topical tourism issues.

Students need to complete five written assignments and they also need to do some in-class activities for the first semester. They are given all the necessary information to write the assignments. Some assignments are group work and some are individual work on writing a brochure and designing an itinerary for a package, describing different options of transportation in region, holding a meeting and writing a meeting-minute, writing a letter of apology, and writing geographical description of their country.

Written assignments will be assessed based on the format and criteria for each particular type of writing. Agar, M. Braithwaite, C. In Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact , ed. Carbaugh, Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Daun, A. Swedishness as an Obstacle in Cross-cultural interaction. Kiesling and C. Paulston, Oxford: Blackwell, Tannen, D.

New York Jewish Conversational Style. This module deals with the study of the theme of colonialism and the effects of civil war. Students will read extracts from this text to develop their understanding of the history of colonialism and post colonialism and how the works of the writers they are studying reflect and analyse the events of the time and their effects on different peoples around the world.

Assessment will be carried out through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, and a final closed book written examination. Barton, Thomas F. Kingsbury, and Gerald R. Showalter Southeast Asia in Maps. Chicago: Denoyer-Geppert Company. Osborne, M. Eng Intercultural Communication — 2. This module focuses on gaining an advanced understanding of the concepts associated with culture and communication. It provides students the opportunity to develop intercultural awareness and patterns of perception and thinking to enable effective communication across cultural boundaries.

Topics discussed include the effect of cultural differences on communication styles, personal identities, and various organizational contexts. Students will learn strategies to manage intercultural conflict flexibly, the challenges in developing intercultural-intimate relationship, the communication issues facing a global identity and the practices to become ethical intercultural communicator.

This module introduces Stylistics and Pragmatics. In this part, students will learn the main concepts and definition of stylistics such as the scope of stylistic study, the definitions of style and stylistics, and stylistic analysis. The second part focuses on how context and convention contribute to meaning and understanding. In this part, students will be provided such definitions as deixis, references, presupposition, and implicature. Students will be assessed through tutorials and examination.

At the end of the semester, there will be an examination. Verdonk, Peter Stylistic s. Series Editor H. Oxford University Press. Page Simpson, Paul Stylistics. Aresource book for sutdents. Page , Yule, George Pragmatics. Eng English in the Media. The assessment will be carried out through a combination of tutorial-based assessment, presentations and formal written assignment and a final examination.

Cambridge University Press. Eng World Literature in English — 2. This module deals with short story, poetry, drama, prose and the novel ranging from 17 th century to 20 th century, written by writers of great prominence: Russia, France, China, India, Japan, Nigeria, Vietnam, Chile, Spain, South Korea, Norway, Germany, and America. Students are introduced to a rich variety of selections both from the East and the West, written in a variety of styles so that they will get a panorama of the World Literature.

Eng Communicative Skills — Eng Business English — 6. Eng English for Hospitality and Tourism — 2. This module is designed to introduce different types of grammar, and aims and attitudes of modern linguistics. It also discusses the basic grammar notions, the goals of linguistic theories and the role of grammar in language teaching. This module helps students to discover prominent linguists. They also have to learn classic definitions of language, language in communication and role of grammar in defining a language.

Students have to compare and contrast what language, linguistics and its role in modern society with its classic definition of language, traditional aspects of language. The course will include lectures, presentation, discussion and sharing sessions on the following:. Allen, J. London: OUP. Burns, A. Analysing English in Global Context.

London: Routledge. Eggins, S. Halliday, M. An Introduction to Functional Grammar 2 nd ed. London: Arnold. Kim, J-B. English Syntax: An Introduction. Center for the Study of Language and Information. Valin, R. E Sociolinguistics and Discourse Analysis. The course includes lectures, presentations, discussions and sharing sessions on the following:. Differences between linguistics and sociolinguistics. Speech event, Speech factors, Speech functions, Paralinguistic behaviour, Code switching.

Discourse Analysis. This module explores the ways in which language varies according to subject areas, social settings, communicative purposes and the social roles and identities of people. The course includes lectures, presentation, discussion and sharing sessions on the following:.

What is discourse analysis? Making sense of discourse : Discourse coherence; Speech acts; Background knowledge; How we process discourse; Conversation analysis; Negotiating meaning; Intercultural communication. References for Sociolinguistics. Corder Papers in Applied Linguistics : Vol. OUP P. Romaine, S. Language in Society: An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: OUP. He edited Weekly Register , a Roman Catholic paper — Several volumes of poems, published previously in the forties, fifties, and sixties, provided the materials for his collected Poems In later years he gave himself largely to editorial work—chiefly complete editions of the greater English writers, memoirs, and critiques, and notably Burns , Lamb and , Moore , Father Prout , and Lord Lytton , , and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other writers of this name, see Charles Kent disambiguation. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it.

ESSAY ON CHANCE

We found writers who were deeply committed to their craft, constantly alert to the news from elsewhere and who were not afraid to experiment with new forms or ideas. What makes the Rooney Prize such a valuable and distinctive prize in the Irish literary landscape is its commitment to recognise emergence and promise.

It is a prize which does not have to labour under the shadow of established reputation but can reward originality, freshness and distinctness. As even the most cursory look at the list of previous prizewinners will show, the writers have again and again delivered on this promise. What is exciting for the prize jury is that each time you have a blank slate, complete freedom to recognise promise, whatever its source, whatever its form.

But you do eventually have to get to the top of that hill and when we did we were unanimous in our choice. Surveying that rich landscape of writing there was one book that stood out for its boldness, its vivacity and its craft. He is also corrosively funny. Morrow, but since the late s he has reverted to the less hurtlingly dynamic Tom W.

Towards the end of the book, he gives an account of a journey on board the Immortality Bus with a transhumanist and American Presidential hopeful Zoltan Istvan. They demonstrate a continued desire to explore the varied potentials of writing and see how emerging voices can offer new perspectives on questions, both contemporary and ancient.

There is no theme, of course, more central to human engagement with art than the human attempt to come to terms with mortality, which is one of the main preoccupations of To Be a Machine. We would like to thank all the publishers who submitted works for consideration and to the School of English in Trinity College Dublin and the Oscar Wilde Centre for Irish Writing for their administrative support. On behalf of my fellow judges I would also like to thank Jonathan Williams who was such a capable and supportive organising presence throughout the judging process.

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No other desires — say to paint, or to write — could be taken seriously". Ramsay stating the duties of a Victorian mother in To the Lighthouse "an unmarried woman has missed the best of life". The death of Stella Duckworth on 19 July , after a long illness, [83] was a further blow to Virginia's sense of self, and the family dynamics. In the late 19th century, education was sharply divided along gender lines, a tradition that Virginia would note and condemn in her writing.

Boys were sent to school, and in upper-middle-class families such as the Stephens, this involved private boys schools, often boarding schools, and university. There was a small classroom off the back of the drawing room, with its many windows, which they found perfect for quiet writing and painting. Julia taught the children Latin, French and History, while Leslie taught them mathematics.

They also received piano lessons. Even today there may be parents who would doubt the wisdom of allowing a girl of fifteen the free run of a large and quite unexpurgated library. But my father allowed it. There were certain facts — very briefly, very shyly he referred to them.

Yet "Read what you like", he said, and all his books After public school , the boys in the family all attended Cambridge University. The girls derived some indirect benefit from this, as the boys introduced them to their friends. Another source was the conversation of their father's friends, to whom they were exposed. Leslie Stephen described his circle as "most of the literary people of mark Later, between the ages of 15 and 19, Virginia was able to pursue higher education.

She took courses of study, some at degree level, in beginning and advanced Ancient Greek, intermediate Latin and German, together with continental and English history at the Ladies' Department of King's College London at nearby 13 Kensington Square between and One of her Greek tutors was Clara Pater — , who taught at King's.

Her experiences there led to her essay "On Not Knowing Greek". Although the Stephen girls could not attend Cambridge, they were to be profoundly influenced by their brothers' experiences there. Although Virginia expressed the opinion her father was her favourite parent, and although she had only turned thirteen when her mother died, she was profoundly influenced by her mother throughout her life.

It was Virginia who famously stated that "for we think back through our mothers if we are women", [] and invoked the image of her mother repeatedly throughout her life in her diaries, [] her letters [] and a number of her autobiographical essays, including Reminiscences , [34] 22 Hyde Park Gate [35] and A Sketch of the Past , [36] frequently evoking her memories with the words "I see her Ramsay, a complex character based on Julia Stephen, and repeatedly comments on the fact that she was "astonishingly beautiful".

While her father painted Julia Stephen's work in terms of reverence, Woolf drew a sharp distinction between her mother's work and "the mischievous philanthropy which other women practise so complacently and often with such disastrous results". She describes her degree of sympathy, engagement, judgement and decisiveness, and her sense of both irony and the absurd.

She recalls trying to recapture "the clear round voice, or the sight of the beautiful figure, so upright and distinct, in its long shabby cloak, with the head held at a certain angle, so that the eye looked straight out at you". Her frequent absences and the demands of her husband instilled a sense of insecurity in her children that had a lasting effect on her daughters. In To the Lighthouse , she describes it as "boasting of her capacity to surround and protect, there was scarcely a shell of herself left for her to know herself by; all was so lavished and spent".

Given Julia's frequent absences and commitments, the young Stephen children became increasingly dependent on Stella Duckworth, who emulated her mother's selflessness, as Woolf wrote "Stella was always the beautiful attendant handmaid Julia Stephen greatly admired her husband's intellect. As Woolf observed "she never belittled her own works, thinking them, if properly discharged, of equal, though other, importance with her husband's". She believed with certainty in her role as the centre of her activities, and the person who held everything together, [9] with a firm sense of what was important and valuing devotion.

Of the two parents, Julia's "nervous energy dominated the family". Another issue the children had to deal with was Leslie Stephen's temper, Woolf describing him as "the tyrant father". He had given her his ring on her eighteenth birthday and she had a deep emotional attachment as his literary heir, writing about her "great devotion for him". Yet, like Vanessa, she also saw him as victimiser and tyrant. Her adolescent image was of an "Eminent Victorian" and tyrant but as she grew older she began to realise how much of him was in her "I have been dipping into old letters and father's memoirs She was in turn both fascinated and condemnatory of Leslie Stephen " She [her mother] has haunted me: but then, so did that old wretch my father.

I was more like him than her, I think; and therefore more critical: but he was an adorable man, and somehow, tremendous". Much has been made of Virginia's statements that she was continually sexually abused during the whole time that she lived at 22 Hyde Park Gate, as a possible cause of her mental health issues, [] [] although there are likely to be a number of contributing factors. She states that she first remembers being molested by Gerald Duckworth when she was six years old.

It has been suggested that this led to a lifetime of sexual fear and resistance to masculine authority. These include evidence of sexual abuse of the Stephen girls by their older Duckworth stepbrothers, and by their cousin, James Kenneth Stephen — , at least of Stella Duckworth. On their father's death, the Stephens' first instinct was to escape from the dark house of yet more mourning, and this they did immediately, accompanied by George, travelling to Manorbier , on the coast of Pembrokeshire on 27 February.

There, they spent a month, and it was there that Virginia first came to realise her destiny was as a writer, as she recalls in her diary of 3 September Before their father died, the Stephens had discussed the need to leave South Kensington in the West End , with its tragic memories and their parents' relations. The Stephen children were now between 24 and Virginia was Bohemian Bloomsbury, with its characteristic leafy squares seemed sufficiently far away, geographically and socially, and was a much cheaper neighbourhood to rent in.

They had not inherited much and they were unsure about their finances. While Gerald was quite happy to move on and find himself a bachelor establishment, George who had always assumed the role of quasi-parent decided to accompany them, much to their dismay.

Vanessa found a house at 46 Gordon Square in Bloomsbury, and they moved in November, to be joined by Virginia now sufficiently recovered. It was at Gordon Square that the Stephens began to regularly entertain Thoby's intellectual friends in March In , Virginia and Adrian visited Portugal and Spain. Clive Bell proposed to Vanessa, but was declined, while Virginia began teaching evening classes at Morley College and Vanessa added another event to their calendar with the Friday Club , dedicated to the discussion of and later exhibition of the fine arts.

Ka and others brought the Bloomsbury Group into contact with another, slightly younger, group of Cambridge intellectuals to whom the Stephen sisters gave the name "Neo-pagans". The Friday Club continued until The following year, , Virginia suffered two further losses.

Her cherished brother Thoby, who was only 26, died of typhoid, following a trip they had all taken to Greece, and immediately after Vanessa accepted Clive's third proposal. Virginia moved into 29 Fitzroy Square in April , a house on the west side of the street, formerly occupied by George Bernard Shaw.

It was in Fitzrovia , immediately to the west of Bloomsbury but still relatively close to her sister at Gordon Square. The two sisters continued to travel together, visiting Paris in March. Adrian was now to play a much larger part in Virginia's life, and they resumed the Thursday Club in October at their new home, while Gordon Square became the venue for the Play Reading Society in December.

During this period, the group began to increasingly explore progressive ideas, first in speech, and then in conduct, Vanessa proclaiming in a libertarian society with sexual freedom for all. Meanwhile, Virginia began work on her first novel, Melymbrosia , that eventually became The Voyage Out It was while she was at Fitzroy Square that the question arose of Virginia needing a quiet country retreat, and she required a six-week rest cure and sought the countryside away from London as much as possible.

In December, she and Adrian stayed at Lewes and started exploring the area of Sussex around the town. She started to want a place of her own, like St Ives, but closer to London. She soon found a property in nearby Firle see below , maintaining a relationship with that area for the rest of her life. Several members of the group attained notoriety in with the Dreadnought hoax , which Virginia participated in disguised as a male Abyssinian royal.

Her complete talk on the hoax was discovered and is published in the memoirs collected in the expanded edition of The Platform of Time In October , the lease on Fitzroy Square was running out and Virginia and Adrian decided to give up their home on Fitzroy Square in favour of a different living arrangement, moving to a four-storied house at 38 Brunswick Square in Bloomsbury proper [y] in November.

Virginia saw it as a new opportunity; "We are going to try all kinds of experiments", she told Ottoline Morrell. The house was adjacent to the Foundling Hospital , much to Virginia's amusement as an unchaperoned single woman. He recalls them in "white dresses and large hats, with parasols in their hands, their beauty literally took one's breath away".

To him, they were silent, "formidable and alarming". Woolf did not meet Virginia formally till 17 November when he dined with the Stephens at Gordon Square, to say goodbye before leaving to take up a position with the civil service in Ceylon , although she was aware of him through Thoby's stories. At that visit he noted that she was perfectly silent throughout the meal, and looked ill.

He did so, but received no answer. In June , he returned to London on a one-year leave, [] but did not go back to Ceylon. In England again, Leonard renewed his contacts with family and friends. Three weeks after arriving he dined with Vanessa and Clive Bell at Gordon Square on 3 July, where they were later joined by Virginia and other members of what would later be called "Bloomsbury", and Leonard dates the group's formation to that night. After that weekend, they began seeing each other more frequently.

Indeed, in , Woolf wrote in her diary: "Love-making—after 25 years can't bear to be separate And our marriage so complete. Despite the introduction of conscription in , Leonard was exempted on medical grounds. Between and , the Woolfs returned to Bloomsbury, taking out a ten-year lease at 52 Tavistock Square , [] from where they ran the Hogarth Press from the basement, where Virginia also had her writing room, and is commemorated with a bust of her in the square see illustration.

Her two Cambridge lectures then became the basis for her major essay A Room of One's Own [] in The Woolf's final residence in London was at 37 Mecklenburgh Square — , destroyed during the Blitz in September ; a month later their previous home on Tavistock Square was also destroyed. After that, they made Sussex their permanent home. Cecil Woolf, Virginia had taken up book-binding as a pastime in October , at the age of 19, [] [] and the Woolfs had been discussing setting up a publishing house for some time, and at the end of started making plans.

Having discovered that they were not eligible to enroll in the St Bride School of Printing, they started purchasing supplies after seeking advice from the Excelsior Printing Supply Company on Farringdon Road in March , and soon they had a printing press set up on their dining room table at Hogarth House, and the Hogarth Press was born. The work consisted of 32 pages, hand bound and sewn, and illustrated by woodcuts designed by Dora Carrington.

The illustrations were a success, leading Virginia to remark that the press was "specially good at printing pictures, and we see that we must make a practice of always having pictures" 13 July The process took two and a half months with a production run of copies. The press subsequently published Virginia's novels along with works by T.

Eliot , Laurens van der Post , and others. Woolf believed that to break free of a patriarchal society women writers needed a "room of their own" to develop and often fantasised about an "Outsider's Society" where women writers would create a virtual private space for themselves via their writings to develop a feminist critique of society. Until , Woolf often helped her husband print the Hogarth books as the money for employees was not there.

After it was bombed in September , the press was moved to Letchworth for the remainder of the war. The Group, which had been scattered by the war, was reconvened by Mary 'Molly' MacCarthy who called them "Bloomsberries", and operated under rules derived from the Cambridge Apostles , an elite university debating society that a number of them had been members of.

These rules emphasised candour and openness. Among the memoirs presented, Virginia contributed three that were published posthumously in , in the autobiographical anthology Moments of Being. The ethos of the Bloomsbury group encouraged a liberal approach to sexuality, and on 14 December [] Woolf met the writer and gardener Vita Sackville-West , [] wife of Harold Nicolson , while dining with Clive Bell. Writing in her diary the next day, she referred to meeting "the lovely gifted aristocratic Sackville West".

Bennett and Mrs. Brown " [] and " A Letter to a Young Poet " Sackville-West worked tirelessly to lift Woolf's self-esteem, encouraging her not to view herself as a quasi-reclusive inclined to sickness who should hide herself away from the world, but rather offered praise for her liveliness and wit, her health, her intelligence and achievements as a writer.

This led Woolf to spend much time obsessively engaging in such physical labour. Sackville-West was the first to argue to Woolf she had been misdiagnosed, and that it was far better to engage in reading and writing to calm her nerves—advice that was taken. Seducers in Ecuador , the first of the novels by Sackville-West published by Hogarth, was not a success, selling only copies in its first year, but the next Sackville-West novel they published, The Edwardians , was a best-seller that sold 30, copies in its first six months.

In , Woolf presented Sackville-West with Orlando , [] a fantastical biography in which the eponymous hero's life spans three centuries and both sexes. It was published in October, shortly after the two women spent a week travelling together in France, that September.

Virginia Woolf also remained close to her surviving siblings, Adrian and Vanessa; Thoby had died of typhoid fever at the age of Virginia was needing a country retreat to escape to, and on 24 December , she found a house for rent in Firle , Sussex, near Lewes see Map. She obtained a lease and took possession of the house the following month, naming it 'Little Talland House', after their childhood home in Cornwall, although it was actually a new red gabled villa on the main street opposite the village hall.

It was at Asham that the Woolfs spent their wedding night later that year. At Asham, she recorded the events of the weekends and holidays they spent there in her Asham Diary , part of which was later published as A Writer's Diary in It was a most melodious time. Everything went so freely; — but I can't analyse all the sources of my joy". While at Asham Leonard and Virginia found a farmhouse in , that was to let, about four miles away, which they thought would be ideal for her sister.

Eventually, Vanessa came down to inspect it, and moved in in October of that year, taking it as a summer home for her family. The Charleston Farmhouse was to become the summer gathering place for the literary and artistic circle of the Bloomsbury Group. After the end of the war, in , the Woolfs were given a year's notice by the landlord, who needed the house.

Leonard Woolf describes this view and the amenities [] as being unchanged since the days of Chaucer. Meanwhile, Vanessa made Charleston her permanent home in During her time in Firle, Virginia became better acquainted with Rupert Brooke and his group of Neo-Pagans , pursuing socialism, vegetarianism, exercising outdoors and alternative life styles, including social nudity. They were influenced by the ethos of Bedales , Fabianism and Shelley.

The women wore sandals, socks, open neck shirts and head-scarves. Although she had some reservations, Woolf was involved with their activities for a while, fascinated by their bucolic innocence in contrast to the sceptical intellectualism of Bloomsbury, which earned her the nickname "The Goat" from her brother Adrian.

They also shared a psychiatrist in the name of Maurice Craig. Virginia nicknamed her "Bruin". At the same time, she found herself dragged into a triangular relationship involving Ka, Jacques Raverat and Gwen Darwin. She became resentful of the other couple, Jacques and Gwen, who married later in , not the outcome Virginia had predicted or desired. They would later be referred to in both To the Lighthouse and The Years. The exclusion she felt evoked memories of both Stella Duckworth's marriage and her triangular involvement with Vanessa and Clive.

The two groups eventually fell out. Later, she would write sardonically about Brooke, whose premature death resulted in his idealisation, and express regret about "the Neo-Paganism at that stage of my life". Virginia was deeply disappointed when Ka married William Edward Arnold-Forster in , and became increasingly critical of her. Much examination has been made of Woolf's mental health e.

From the age of 13, following the death of her mother, Woolf suffered periodic mood swings from severe depression to manic excitement, including psychotic episodes, which the family referred to as her "madness". Psychiatrists today contend that her illness constitutes bipolar disorder manic-depressive illness. Seton, prescribed rest, stopping lessons and writing, and regular walks supervised by Stella. She then stopped keeping a diary for some time.

This was a scenario she would later recreate in "Time Passes" To the Lighthouse , The death of her father in provoked her most alarming collapse, on 10 May, when she threw herself out of a window and she was briefly institutionalised [53] under the care of her father's friend, the eminent psychiatrist George Savage.

Savage blamed her education—frowned on by many at the time as unsuitable for women [] —for her illness. She characterised this as a "romantic friendship" Letter to Violet 4 May From then on, her life was punctuated by urgent voices from the grave, that at times seemed more real than her visual reality.

On Dr. Savage's recommendation, Virginia spent three short periods in , , and at Burley House at 15 Cambridge Park, Twickenham see image , described as "a private nursing home for women with nervous disorder" run by Miss Jean Thomas. Savage suggested being away from London.

Savage sent her to Burley for a "rest cure". This involved partial isolation, deprivation of literature, and force-feeding, and after six weeks she was able to convalesce in Cornwall and Dorset during the autumn. She loathed the experience; writing to her sister on 28 July, [] she described how she found the phony religious atmosphere stifling and the institution ugly, and informed Vanessa that to escape "I shall soon have to jump out of a window.

On emerging from Burley House in September , she sought further opinions from two other physicians on the 13th, Maurice Wright, and Henry Head , who had been Henry James ' physician. Both recommended she return to Burley House. Distraught, she returned home and attempted suicide by taking an overdose of grains of veronal a barbiturate and nearly dying, [] had she not been found by Ka Cox, who summoned help.

She remained unstable over the next two years, with another incident involving veronal that she claimed was an "accident", and consulted another psychiatrist in April , Maurice Craig , who explained that she was not sufficiently psychotic to be certified or committed to an institution. The rest of the summer of went better for her, and they moved to Richmond, but in February , just as The Voyage Out was due to be published, she relapsed once more, and remained in poor health for most of that year.

Over the rest of her life, she suffered recurrent bouts of depression. In , a number of factors appeared to overwhelm her. Her biography of Roger Fry [] had been published in July, and she had been disappointed in its reception. The horrors of war depressed her, and their London homes had been destroyed in the Blitz in September and October. Woolf had completed Between the Acts published posthumously in [] in November, and completing a novel was frequently accompanied by exhaustion.

Though this instability would frequently affect her social life, she was able to continue her literary productivity with few interruptions throughout her life. Woolf herself provides not only a vivid picture of her symptoms in her diaries and letters, but also her response to the demons that haunted her and at times made her long for death: [] "But it is always a question whether I wish to avoid these glooms These 9 weeks give one a plunge into deep waters Psychiatry had little to offer Woolf, but she recognised that writing was one of the behaviours that enabled her to cope with her illness: [] "The only way I keep afloat Directly I stop working I feel that I am sinking down, down.

And as usual, I feel that if I sink further I shall reach the truth. Throughout her life, Woolf struggled, without success, to find meaning in her illness: on the one hand, an impediment, on the other, something she visualised as an essential part of who she was, and a necessary condition of her art. Leonard Woolf relates how during the 30 years they were married, they consulted many doctors in the Harley Street area, and although they were given a diagnosis of neurasthenia , he felt they had little understanding of the causes or nature.

The proposed solution was simple—as long as she lived a quiet life without any physical or mental exertion, she was well. On the other hand, any mental, emotional, or physical strain resulted in a reappearance of her symptoms. These began with a headache, followed by insomnia and thoughts that started to race. Her remedy was simple, to retire to bed in a darkened room, eat, and drink plenty of milk, following which the symptoms slowly subsided.

Modern scholars, including her nephew and biographer, Quentin Bell , [] have suggested her breakdowns and subsequent recurring depressive periods were influenced by the sexual abuse which she and her sister Vanessa were subjected to by their half-brothers George and Gerald Duckworth which Woolf recalls in her autobiographical essays " A Sketch of the Past " and "22 Hyde Park Gate" see Sexual abuse.

Biographers point out that when Stella died in , there was no counterbalance to control George's predation, and his nighttime prowling. Virginia describes him as her first lover, "The old ladies of Kensington and Belgravia never knew that George Duckworth was not only father and mother, brother and sister to those poor Stephen girls; he was their lover also.

It is likely that other factors also played a part. It has been suggested that these include genetic predisposition , for both trauma and family history have been implicated in bipolar disorder. Many of Virginia's symptoms, including persistent headache, insomnia, irritability, and anxiety, resembled those of her father. Virginia herself hinted that her illness was related to how she saw the repressed position of women in society, when she wrote in A Room of One's Own that had Shakespeare had a sister of equal genius, she "would certainly have gone crazed, shot herself, or ended her days in some lonely cottage outside the village, half witch, half wizard, feared and mocked at".

These inspirations emerged from what Woolf referred to as her lava of madness, describing her time at Burley [4] [] [] in a letter to Ethel Smyth :. As an experience, madness is terrific I can assure you, and not to be sniffed at; and in its lava I still find most of the things I write about.

It shoots out of one everything shaped, final, not in mere driblets, as sanity does. And the six months—not three—that I lay in bed taught me a good deal about what is called oneself. Thomas Caramagno [] and others, [] in discussing her illness, oppose the "neurotic-genius" way of looking at mental illness, where creativity and mental illness are conceptualised as linked rather than antithetical. After completing the manuscript of her last novel posthumously published , Between the Acts , [] Woolf fell into a depression similar to that which she had earlier experienced.

The onset of World War II, the destruction of her London home during the Blitz , and the cool reception given to her biography [] of her late friend Roger Fry all worsened her condition until she was unable to work. She held fast to her pacifism and criticised her husband for wearing what she considered to be "the silly uniform of the Home Guard". After World War II began, Woolf's diary indicates that she was obsessed with death, which figured more and more as her mood darkened.

Dearest, I feel certain that I am going mad again. I feel we can't go through another of those terrible times. And I shan't recover this time. I begin to hear voices, and I can't concentrate. So I am doing what seems the best thing to do.

You have given me the greatest possible happiness. You have been in every way all that anyone could be. I don't think two people could have been happier till this terrible disease came. I can't fight it any longer. I know that I am spoiling your life, that without me you could work. And you will I know. You see I can't even write this properly. I can't read. What I want to say is I owe all the happiness of my life to you.

You have been entirely patient with me and incredibly good. I want to say that—everybody knows it. If anybody could have saved me it would have been you. Everything has gone from me but the certainty of your goodness.

I can't go on spoiling your life any longer. I don't think two people could have been happier than we have been. Woolf is considered to be one of the more important 20th century novelists. The growth of feminist criticism in the s helped re-establish her reputation. Virginia submitted her first article in , to a competition in Tit-Bits. Although it was rejected, this shipboard romance by the 8-year-old would presage her first novel 25 years later, as would contributions to the Hyde Park News , such as the model letter "to show young people the right way to express what is in their hearts", a subtle commentary on her mother's legendary matchmaking.

Violet Dickinson introduced her to Mrs. Invited to submit a 1,word article, Virginia sent Lyttelton a review of W. Woolf would go on to publish novels and essays as a public intellectual to both critical and popular acclaim. Much of her work was self-published through the Hogarth Press.

Her novels are highly experimental: a narrative, frequently uneventful and commonplace, is refracted—and sometimes almost dissolved—in the characters' receptive consciousness. Intense lyricism and stylistic virtuosity fuse to create a world overabundant with auditory and visual impressions". Her first novel, The Voyage Out , [] was published in at the age of 33, by her half-brother's imprint, Gerald Duckworth and Company Ltd.

This novel was originally titled Melymbrosia , but Woolf repeatedly changed the draft. An earlier version of The Voyage Out has been reconstructed by Woolf scholar Louise DeSalvo and is now available to the public under the intended title. DeSalvo argues that many of the changes Woolf made in the text were in response to changes in her own life. In the novel are hints of themes that would emerge in later work, including the gap between preceding thought and the spoken word that follows, and the lack of concordance between expression and underlying intention, together with how these reveal to us aspects of the nature of love.

The plot centres on the Ramsay family's anticipation of and reflection upon a visit to a lighthouse and the connected familial tensions. One of the primary themes of the novel is the struggle in the creative process that beset painter Lily Briscoe while she struggles to paint in the midst of the family drama. The novel is also a meditation upon the lives of a nation's inhabitants in the midst of war, and of the people left behind.

Orlando: A Biography [] is one of Virginia Woolf's lightest novels. A parodic biography of a young nobleman who lives for three centuries without ageing much past thirty but who does abruptly turn into a woman , the book is in part a portrait of Woolf's lover Vita Sackville-West. In Orlando , the techniques of historical biographers are being ridiculed; the character of a pompous biographer is being assumed for it to be mocked. Flush: A Biography [] is a part-fiction, part-biography of the cocker spaniel owned by Victorian poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning.

The book is written from the dog's point of view. In the play, Flush is on stage for much of the action. The play was produced for the first time in by the actress Katharine Cornell. The Years , [1] traces the history of the genteel Pargiter family from the s to the "present day" of the mids. The novel had its origin in a lecture Woolf gave to the National Society for Women's Service in , an edited version of which would later be published as "Professions for Women".

She soon jettisoned the theoretical framework of her "novel-essay" and began to rework the book solely as a fictional narrative, but some of the non-fiction material she first intended for this book was later used in Three Guineas Moore , among others towards doctrinaire rationalism, it is not a simple recapitulation of the coterie's ideals.

Woolf's fiction has been studied for its insight into many themes including war, shell shock, witchcraft, and the role of social class in contemporary modern British society. In her essay Am I a Snob? She concluded she was, and subsequent critics and supporters have tried to deal with the dilemma of being both elite and a social critic. The sea is a recurring motif in Woolf's work. Despite the considerable conceptual difficulties, given Woolf's idiosyncratic use of language, [] her works have been translated into over 50 languages.

Virginia Woolf researched the life of her great-aunt, the photographer Julia Margaret Cameron , publishing her findings in an essay titled "Pattledom" , [] and later in her introduction to her edition of Cameron's photographs. Finally it was performed on 18 January at the studio of her sister, Vanessa Bell on Fitzroy Street in Freshwater is a short three act comedy satirising the Victorian era , only performed once in Woolf's lifetime.

Both Cameron and Woolf fought against the class and gender dynamics of Victorianism [] and the play shows links to both To the Lighthouse and A Room of One's Own that would follow. Woolf wrote a body of autobiographical work and more than essays and reviews, [] some of which, like A Room of One's Own were of book length. Not all were published in her lifetime.

Shortly after her death, Leonard Woolf produced an edited edition of unpublished essays titled The Moment and other Essays , [] published by the Hogarth Press in Many of these were originally lectures that she gave, [] and several more volumes of essays followed, such as The Captain's Death Bed: and other essays Among Woolf's non-fiction works, one of the best known is A Room of One's Own , [] a book-length essay.

Considered a key work of feminist literary criticism, it was written following two lectures she delivered on "Women and Fiction" at Cambridge University the previous year. In it, she examines the historical disempowerment women have faced in many spheres, including social, educational and financial. One of her more famous dicta is contained within the book "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction".

Much of her argument "to show you how I arrived at this opinion about the room and the money" is developed through the "unsolved problems" of women and fiction writing to arrive at her conclusion, although she claimed that was only "an opinion upon one minor point".

She contrasted these women who accepted a deferential status with Jane Austen , who wrote entirely as a woman. Michel Lackey argues that a major influence on Woolf, from onward, was Russian literature and Woolf adopted many of its aesthetic conventions. Another influence on Woolf was the American writer Henry David Thoreau , with Woolf writing in a essay that her aim as a writer was to follow Thoreau by capturing "the moment, to burn always with this hard, gem-like flame" while praising Thoreau for his statement "The millions are awake enough for physical labor, but only one in hundreds of millions is awake enough to a poetic or divine life.

To be awake is to be alive". In her lifetime, Woolf was outspoken on many topics that were considered controversial, some of which are now considered progressive, others regressive. On the other hand, she has been criticised for views on class and race in her private writings and published works. Like many of her contemporaries, some of her writing is now considered offensive.

As a result, she is considered polarising, a revolutionary feminist and socialist hero or a purveyor of hate speech. Works such as A Room of One's Own [] and Three Guineas [] are frequently taught as icons of feminist literature in courses that would be very critical of some of her views expressed elsewhere.

Virginia Woolf was born into a non-religious family and is regarded, along with her fellow Bloomsberries E. Forster and G. Moore , as a humanist. Both her parents were prominent agnostic atheists. Her father, Leslie Stephen , had become famous in polite society for his writings which expressed and publicised reasons to doubt the veracity of religion. Stephen was also President of the West London Ethical Society , an early humanist organisation, and helped to found the Union of Ethical Societies in Woolf's mother, Julia Stephen , wrote the book Agnostic Women , which argued that agnosticism defined here as something more like atheism could be a highly moral approach to life.

Woolf was a critic of Christianity. In a letter to Ethel Smyth , she gave a scathing denunciation of the religion, seeing it as self-righteous "egotism" and stating "my Jew [Leonard] has more religion in one toenail—more human love, in one hair". She thought there were no Gods; no one was to blame; and so she evolved this atheist's religion of doing good for the sake of goodness. Hermione Lee cites a number of extracts from Woolf's writings that many, including Lee, would consider offensive, and these criticisms can be traced back as far as those of Wyndham Lewis and Q.

Leavis in the s and s. Some authors [ who? Woolf's tendentious expressions, including prejudicial feelings against disabled people, have often been the topic of academic criticism: []. The first quotation is from a diary entry of September and runs: "The fact is the lower classes are detestable. Though accused of antisemitism , [] the treatment of Judaism and Jews by Woolf is far from straightforward. For instance, she described some of the Jewish characters in her work in terms that suggested they were physically repulsive or dirty.

On the other hand, she could criticise her own views: "How I hated marrying a Jew — how I hated their nasal voices and their oriental jewellery, and their noses and their wattles — what a snob I was: for they have immense vitality, and I think I like that quality best of all" Letter to Ethel Smyth Leonard, "a penniless Jew from Putney", lacked the material status of the Stephens and their circle. While travelling on a cruise to Portugal, she protested at finding "a great many Portuguese Jews on board, and other repulsive objects, but we keep clear of them".

Yet Woolf and her husband Leonard came to despise and fear the s fascism and antisemitism. Her book Three Guineas [] was an indictment of fascism and what Woolf described as a recurring propensity among patriarchal societies to enforce repressive societal mores by violence. Though at least one biography of Virginia Woolf appeared in her lifetime, the first authoritative study of her life was published in by her nephew Quentin Bell.

Hermione Lee 's biography Virginia Woolf [] provides a thorough and authoritative examination of Woolf's life and work, which she discussed in an interview in Julia Briggs's Virginia Woolf: An Inner Life focuses on Woolf's writing, including her novels and her commentary on the creative process, to illuminate her life. The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu also uses Woolf's literature to understand and analyse gender domination.

Woolf biographer Gillian Gill notes that Woolf's traumatic experience of sexual abuse by her half-brothers during her childhood influenced her advocacy of protection of vulnerable children from similar experiences. The intense scrutiny of Virginia Woolf's literary output see Bibliography has led to speculation as to her mother's influence, including psychoanalytic studies of mother and daughter.

Her memories of her mother are memories of an obsession, [] [] starting with her first major breakdown on her mother's death in , the loss having a profound lifelong effect. Woolf described her mother as an "invisible presence" in her life, and Ellen Rosenman argues that the mother-daughter relationship is a constant in Woolf's writing.

To Woolf, "Saint Julia" was both a martyr whose perfectionism was intimidating and a source of deprivation, by her absences real and virtual and premature death. Shukla, "Recently, studies of Virginia Woolf have focused on feminist and lesbian themes in her work, such as in the collection of critical essays, Virginia Woolf: Lesbian Readings , edited by Eileen Barrett and Patricia Cramer. Woolf's best-known nonfiction works, A Room of One's Own [] and Three Guineas , [] examine the difficulties that female writers and intellectuals faced because men held disproportionate legal and economic power, as well as the future of women in education and society, as the societal effects of industrialisation and birth control had not yet fully been realised.

A number of Virginia Woolf's works have been adapted for the screen, and her play Freshwater [] is the basis for a chamber opera , Freshwater , by Andy Vores. The final segment of the London Unplugged is adapted from her short story Kew Gardens. Septimus and Clarissa , a stage adaptation of Mrs. Calloway Award nomination for outstanding direction Rachel Dickstein.

Virginia Woolf is known for her contributions to 20th-century literature and her essays, as well as the influence she has had on literary, particularly feminist criticism. In addition, trusts—such as the Asham Trust—encourage writers in her honour. In , she was one of the inaugural honorees in the Rainbow Honor Walk , a walk of fame in San Francisco 's Castro neighbourhood noting LGBTQ people who have "made significant contributions in their fields".

Woolf Works, a women's co-working space in Singapore, opened in and was named after her in tribute to the essay A Room of One's Own ; [] it also has many other things named after it see the essay's article. A campaign was launched in by Aurora Metro Arts and Media to erect a statue of Woolf in Richmond, where she lived for 10 years. The proposed statue shows her reclining on a bench overlooking the river Thames. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

English modernist writer. This article is about the British modernist author. For the American children's author, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. For the British rock band, see Virginia Wolf. For other uses, see Woolf disambiguation. Novelist essayist publisher critic.

Leonard Woolf. Leslie Stephen Julia Prinsep Jackson. Woolf's voice. BBC radio broadcast 29 April [1]. See also: Julia Stephen. Leslie Stephen , Julia Stephen , Activities at Talland. Her brother's keeper: Virginia and Adrian Stephen playing cricket , Virginia and Vanessa, [70]. Virginia 3rd from left with her mother and the Stephen children at their lessons, Talland House, c. The Stephens and their Bloomsbury Friends.

Main article: Dreadnought hoax. Main article: Hogarth Press. The Woolfs' homes in Richmond. Main article: Memoir Club. Mary MacCarthy and son Forster David Garnett c. Life in Sussex. Monk's House , Rodmell. Main article: The Voyage Out. Main article: Mrs Dalloway. Main article: To the Lighthouse. Main article: Orlando: A Biography. Main article: The Waves. Main article: Flush: A Biography.

Main article: The Years. Main article: Between the Acts. Main article: Freshwater play. Main article: A Room of One's Own. Main article: Bibliography of Virginia Woolf. Novels [ edit ] Woolf, Virginia []. The voyage out. ISBN Night and Day. Jacob's Room. Broadview Press. To the Lighthouse. Collector's Library. DiBattista, Maria ed. Orlando Annotated : A Biography. The Waves. Wordsworth Editions. The Years. Hogarth Press.

Between the Acts. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The Short Stories of Virginia Woolf. Read Books Limited. The Mark on the Wall. Kew Gardens. Oxford University Press. Musaicum Books. Ruotolo, Lucio ed. Freshwater: a comedy. Illustrations: Edward Gorey. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Biography [ edit ] Woolf, Virginia []. Roger Fry: A Biography. The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March A Room of One's Own. A Letter to a Young Poet.

Three Guineas. The Essays of Virginia Woolf 6 vols. Random House. Ackroyd Review — Patten Review — b. Woolf, Leonard ed. Complete text The Leaning Tower. Trilling Review — The Captain's death bed: and other essays posthumous. Leslie Stephen. Bradshaw, David ed. Selected Essays. The Greatest Essays of Virginia Woolf. Powell, Tristram ed. Digital edition Autobiographical writing [ edit ] Woolf, Virginia [].

A Writer's Diary. Auden Review — []. Schulkind, Jeanne ed. Moments of being: unpublished autobiographical writings 2nd ed. Preface to the Second Edition. Bibcode : ess.. A Sketch of the Past. Old Bloomsbury. Am I a Snob? Diaries and notebooks [ edit ] Woolf, Virginia Leaska, Mitchell A ed. A passionate apprentice: the early journals, — Woolf, Virginia Carlyle's House and Other Sketches.

Hesperus Press. Woolf, Virginia — Bell, Anne Oliver ed. The Diary of Virginia Woolf 5 vols. Houghton Mifflin. Rosenbaum, S. Letters [ edit ] — — Nicolson, Nigel ; Banks, Joanne Trautmann eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf 6 vols. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The Paris Review. Retrieved 10 April Edel Review — Photograph albums [ edit ] Woolf, Virginia Retrieved 31 December She was buried next to her mother.

Ives Nursing Association had hired "a trained nurse It was convinced that girls must be changed into married women. It had no doubts, no mercy; no understanding of any other wish; of any other gift. In women were allowed to prepare for degrees. One walks, eats, sees things, deals with what has to be done; the broken vacuum cleaner; However she and Vanessa decorated the interior, "staining the floors the colours of the Atlantic in a storm" Letters, no.

In particular, 18 pages of new material was inserted between pp. Page of that edition resumes as page in the second edition, so that page references to the first edition in the literature, after p. This added 22 new pages, and changed the pagination for the Memoir Club essays that followed by an extra 22 pages. Pagination also varies between printings of the 2nd.

I always find that the novel I'm finishing, even if it's turned out fairly well, is not the novel I had in my mind. But I did learn something that was to be very useful to me in my future writing—the technique of the interior monologue. I later found this in Virginia Woolf, and I like the way she uses it better than Joyce. I read a lot of Faulkner then.

You might not know this, but in the '50s, American literature was new. It was renegade. English literature was English. So there were these avant-garde professors making American literature a big deal. That tickles me now. Florence Henrietta Fisher — who married Frederic William Maitland — in , who wrote the biography of Leslie Stephen [] and 2. Retrieved 22 June Great British Life. Retrieved 2 July II: — Virginia Woolf and the Natural World First ed.

UK: Oxford University Press. The Sydney Morning Herald. Books and theses [ edit ] Batchelor, John, ed. The Art of Literary Biography. Clarendon Press. Beauvoir, Simone de []. UNC Press Books. Brooker, Peter Palgrave Macmillan. Burstyn, Joan N. Victorian Education and the Ideal of Womanhood. Eagle, Dorothy S. Ender, Evelyne Architexts of Memory: Literature, Science, and Autobiography.

University of Michigan Press. ISBN X. Hirsch, Marianne Indiana University Press. Jaillant, Lise 17 April Edinburgh University Press. Mandler, Peter ; Pedersen, Susan , eds. Mohapatra, Sushmita; Venugopal, Savitha 15 June Marshall Cavendish International Asia. Oliver, Vanessa University of Toronto Press. Olson, Liesl Modernism and the Ordinary. Parkes, Adam Parmar, Priya Vanessa and Her Sister.

Doubleday Canada. Prince, Tracy J. Prins, Yopie Ladies' Greek: Victorian Translations of Tragedy. Princeton University Press. Ramazanoglu, Caroline; Holland, Janet Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices. SAGE Publications. Richardson, Dorothy []. Ross, Stephen; Thomson, Tara eds.

Pointed Roofs. Rosner, Victoria Modernism and the Architecture of Private Life. Columbia University Press.

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