In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints. This information is usually described in a user or project manual, which is created at the beginning of the development process.
The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. Conflict on teams is inevitable; however, the results of conflict are not predetermined. Conflict might escalate and lead to nonproductive results, or conflict can be beneficially resolved and lead to quality final products. Therefore, learning to manage conflict is integral to a high-performance team.
Although very few people go looking for conflict, more often than not, conflict results because of miscommunication between people with regard to their needs, ideas, beliefs, goals, or values. Conflict management is the principle that all conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved, but learning how to manage conflicts can decrease the odds of nonproductive escalation.
Conflict management involves acquiring skills related to conflict resolution, self-awareness about conflict modes, conflict communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your environment. We define conflict as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive a threat to their needs, interests or concerns. Within this simple definition there are several important understandings that emerge: A conflict is more than a mere disagreement - it is a situation in which people perceive a threat physical, emotional, power, status, etc.
As such, it is a meaningful experience in people's lives, not to be shrugged off by a mere, "it will pass…" Conflict refers to some form of friction, disagreement, or discord arising within a group when the beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. Conflict can arise between members of the same group, known as intragroup conflict, or it can occur between members of two or more groups, and involve violence, interpersonal discord, and psychological tension, known as intergroup conflict.
Conflict in groups often follows a specific course. Routine group interaction is first disrupted by an initial conflict, often caused by differences of opinion, disagreements between members, or scarcity of resources.
At this point, the group is no longer united, and may split into coalitions. The disagreement may be personal, financial, political, or emotional. When a dispute arises, often the best course of action is negotiation to resolve the disagreement Conflict resolution can be defined as the informal or formal process that two or more parties use to find a peaceful solution to their dispute.
Conflict Resolution - the end of the state of conflict, and the process of conflict, via the elimination of the disputed issue, resulting in Consensus. Conflict Management implies the continued existence of the underlying competitive structure i. In fact, people have an enormous capacity to live in Consensus when they really don't agree on much. There are at least two meanings given to the concept of consensus. First, it is the existence of a common awareness or knowledge of given issues, values, and norms among the membership of a community.
More often than not this is perceived, rather than actual unanimity. The second meaning is that we see things the same way, through a process of discussion and debate. This requires conversion rather than just winning the argument, and is the way to achieve Conflict Resolution. A number of common cognitive and emotional traps, many of them unconscious, can exacerbate conflict and contribute to the need for conflict resolution: Conflict resolution is a set of ideas and ways to reduce sources of conflict.
The term "conflict resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "dispute resolution". The terms conflict and dispute overlap. As a term, conflict is broader than dispute, more concerned with physical action, and less concerned with verbal arguments. Conflict resolution through negotiation can be good for all parties involved.
Often, each side will get more by participating in negotiations than they would by walking away, and it can be a way for your group to get resources that might otherwise be out of reach. Processes of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation, and diplomacy. The processes of arbitration, litigation, and formal complaint processes such as ombudsman processes, are usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as "conflict resolution".
Starting a fight, being cranky, overbearing, attacking with the rational intention to harm are forms of aggression. Aggression is an attempt to get others to behave to suit one's own advantage affirm one's own rights or interests. Appeasement is a response to aggression and either a statement of the power structure in a relationship, or an admission of guilt. Threats are aggressive messages that communicate the delivery of some form of punishment or deprivation to others, Negotiation and Bargaining.
This is an exchange process designed to reach a collective agreement see Exchange theory. The style of negotiation depends on family rules. Power and Influence are attributes of either individuals or relationships, and are very much a part of the bargaining process. Identification of powerful individuals in a relationship identifies only the potential for the exercise of power. The actual use of power is dependent on an actor's ability to manipulate resources at hand. These can be absolute i. This is because, Cameroonian organization are vying for high performance to meet up with their competitors but poor conflict management approaches by project managers is a kind of frustrating the whole show.
If these conflict resolution approaches are properly implemented by project managers, conflicts will be speedily resolved and projects will meet up with deadlines. It is consists of more than ethnic groups with different languages.
Though with these multiple ethnic groups, there exists unity in diversity. The problems encountered by project manager during conflict resolution and possible suggestions and solution for better conflict resolutions and performance in executing projects in future. The research problem is posed and some suggestions to it are being made through the various research questions and hypotheses.
The definition tries to give the readers a clue of what will be broadly discuss followed by the delimitation of the study, it significance to the different stake holders and finally the overview which closes the chapter. Its sources are varied and the chapter consists of a review of theories, concepts and conceptual diagram.
A lot has been written on conflict resolution in project management which is equally very useful to this thesis. But to the best of my knowledge, none has focus on the appraisal of conflict resolution approaches in project management in Cameroon. Conflict Project managers must learn to identify conflict and manage it effectively. All managers at some time have had to deal with conflict and the way that each one handles discord is a determining factor of success.
Conflict theory is very essential for any manager and it is rooted principally in the fields of business, sociology and psychology though not in communication or education. There are perhaps as many theories for managing conflict as there are types of conflict.
Ranging from formal models to more simple problem-solving techniques, these theories offer many creative approaches to resolving conflict in various settings. Possibly the most important part of the conflict resolution process is using the most appropriate resolution for the conflict at hand. To be sure, using the wrong antidote to attempt to cure an ailment is a waste of time and resources.
The search for a single all-encompassing definition of conflict is a difficult endeavor. The followers of functional approach think that a conflict serves a social function and those who view a conflict as situational, suggest that conflict can manifest under certain situations and the third theory views conflict as interactive. What purpose does it serve?
Under what circumstances does it occur? What methods and mechanisms are used to express it? A prominent representative of the functionalist school of thought was Georg Simmel, the German sociologist. To him, conflict served as a social drive and reconciliation will occur even with the total destruction of one party.
Most conflict socializes members into a group and decreases the tension between group members. Simmel establishes three possible ways to end a conflict. Firstly, conflict may end with a victory of one party over another; secondly, the conflict can be resolved through compromise and thirdly, through conciliation.
Nevertheless, not all conflicts may be concluded as discussed. For example, those conflicts that are branded by high level of emotions cannot be resolved by compromising. Simmel made enormous impact in the study of conflict resolution as he clearly determined a positive social function for conflict. Further, conflict can help team members understand the true lines of authority within the project team. Conflict also demonstrates initial attitudes and opinions among the various functional personnel who are assigned to the team, offering the project manager clear signals as to how to better manage the disparate team members.
The work differs from this one because; it does not focus on the effective application of international human right instruments in Cameroon. As per him, conflict served the function of pushing society and leading to new institutions, technology and economic systems. The most significant contribution that Coser brought to the study of conflict resolution was determination of the functional and dysfunctional roles of conflict.
For Bercovitch, conflict depends on the situation and conflict arises because of different conditions such as the influence of a person and external factors. The interactive school of thought foster by Joseph P. He equally sees conflict as coming from interdependent people. Also, D. It can be decided that, conflict can affect everyone to varying extent Leung, Thus, conflict is part and parcel of human existence.
Simmel follows an organismic world view, rather than the Marxian material determinism mechanistic view. For Simmel, any social system, or social grouping, is designed to create and resolve dualisms conflicting interests. He compares his notions of conflict and its positive outcome to disease in the human body. Just as disease is the first step in correcting one's health, so conflict is functionally positive to correcting problems in society.
This is analogous to the biological building up of antibodies in the human system in order to fight off new diseases. Antibodies are present because we've been sick before. When a social system, such as the family, is threatened, three steps occur: 1. System Boundaries are maintained. Values and morals are defined. Group ties are strengthened as conflict is resolved. Marxist Conflict Theory maintains that the basic financial inequities between the owners of production and the workers workers are part of the forces of production, along with the machines, the coal, and the steam engines results in two different value systems existing in the same society.
Because of disparities in the reward structure, working class people naturally and most righteously will feel that the society has used them up. Religion, family values, the work ethic are all devices used by the ruling class to blind working people to the reality of their situation. Working people become alienated from each other and their families until they realize, as a group, the truth and rise up in revolt synthesis. Simmel's presupposition is that humans have an innate disposition to be hostile mixed with a need for love and a rational mind.
The differences between Marx and Simmel aren't that great, philosophically. In fact, both thinkers are wrestling with a good versus evil kind of mentality, with conflict being the evil that must be tamed. In practical terms, however, conflict ultimately results in violent revolution leading to structural social change for Marx. For Simmel, less intense, less violent conflicts promote solidarity, integration and orderly change of the system.
For Marx, conflict is materially determined. Obviously, people viewed conflict as negative force. Later in the early s, some scientists depicted conflict as an unwanted process that has to be avoided Simons, For instance, Hocker and Wilmot offered a list of negative assumptions about conflict that are generally accepted: - Conflict should be condensed or avoided, never escalated.
However, these researchers Deetz and Stevenson argue that conflict can be seen as positive. The introduction of their three assumptions indicates the positive nature of conflict. They include: - Conflict is natural. Also, conflict can be perceived as good and necessary because conflict can arouse innovative thinking if managed in the right way. Lacking conflict, thoughts and actions are performed because they are habitual and conflict allows an examination of the need of these thoughts and actions.
The report helps the researcher to understand the extent of human right violations in Cameroon. The work differs from the present research in that; it does not focus on the application of international human rights instruments in Cameroon. Conflict is an essential part of human life in all dimensions and one cannot escape conflicts in families, at work or even in church groups.
Generally, the following views on conflict are acknowledged. The Traditional view This school holds that conflict must be shunned and that it reflects division within the group. Conflict is viewed negatively and is linked with violence and destruction.
Conflict is a result of poor communication and a lack of belief between people. Conflict can be eradicated or resolved only at high levels of management. According to this view on conflict, all conflicts should be avoided, thus there is a need to pay attention to the causes of conflict and to correct them in order to improve group and organizational performance P.
Robbins, To an extent, this view is good because not all conflicts are worth it. There are minor conflicts that can be avoided in order to serve time, resources and money. However, not all conflicts within a project team are necessarily bad as this school will claim.
They failed to realize that, conflict can be beneficial and healthy for an organization. It can aid in evolving individuals and improving the organization by building on the individual assets of its members. Conflict can bring about underlying issues. It can force people to oppose possible defects in a solution and choose a better one.
The understanding of real interests, goals and needs is enhanced and ongoing communication around those issues is brought. In addition, it can prevent premature and inappropriate resolution of conflict. Thus, to them conflict should be evaded. The Human Relations view or Contemporary view This school sees conflict as a natural occurrence in all groups and human relationship and something that cannot be avoided.
Conflict is inevitable as people have different attitudes toward daily issues. Disputes happen from time to time and it is not wise to put too much effort into avoiding or preventing the conflict. There is no need to resolve every conflict.
People should not pay attention to minor conflicts or insignificant issues but they should rather focus on the growth of other more critical aspects of their daily activities. Concentrating only on large or critical conflicts allows people to resolve the conflict in a better and more effective way Leung, It is important to point out at the start that all conflict within project teams is not necessarily bad. Conflict can offer some vital benefits through creating informed consensus, when a team argues the merits of various project implementation strategies; it is likely that in the course of their deliberations it will uncover more information than they would if they came to immediate agreement.
To an extent, conflict if not properly handled can delay or totally frustrate a project. The Interactionist View As per this school of thought, conflict can lead to changes and innovations because it is obviously necessary for a group to perform effectively. However, not all conflicts are good though the Interactionist has recognized numerous types of conflict. They include: - Task conflict which relates to the content and goals of the work.
It focuses on interpersonal relationships. It relates to how the work gets done P. Robbins, The Interactionists infer conflict in a totally different way from traditionalists and people with a contemporary view. According to them, conflict can be identified as either dysfunctional or functional. A low level of conflict will not be harmful for daily operations but will help to create smooth functioning by better understanding of the existing issues.
Conflict at the desired level can inspire creativity when handling the issue and resolving conflict. Thus conflict can be positive in work environments, but whenever a major conflict occurs, it should be resolved as the unfavorable level of conflict can be damaging and dysfunctional for the company Leung, After examining the above views on conflict, the actions of the project manager can be decided by equating the actual level of conflict a and desired levels of conflict d.
When mentioning the traditional view, the desired level of conflict is always zero. The contemporary and interactionist views vary in a desired level of conflict; it could be equal to or above zero in the contemporary view and is always above zero in the interactionist view.
Table 1 shows the summary of the three views of conflict and the recommended actions for the project manager. The types of Conflict In the day-to-day interactions of virtually anyone in the modern world, there will invariably be conflicts that one needs to contend with. Differences will arise and while most of those can be dealt with easily and professionally, there will be times where team members cannot resolve their problems as quickly as one would have hoped.
Conflicts themselves can manifest at virtually any level in a corporation. From the lower teams of the corporate structure to the highest parts of the executive ranks, differences of opinion can and do appear, mostly as a result of a disagreement on design or strategy or due to competing objectives. For the past 35 years, organizations have improved and so did their approach to conflict management.
It is the difference of opinion between two persons or groups which results in a quarrel or at times, a clash. The basic reason for this conflict is that we are all different and each person has unique philosophies and values.
When they meet people with contrasting beliefs, conflict is bound to occur. The presence of conflict is generally accompanied by various feelings such as hurt, anger, confusion, inferiority complex and more. In a survey was conducted among of the French managers. The purpose was to find the reason which makes them most uncomfortable in the workplace. To his mind the music helps him to be more focused. His colleagues admitted that it is annoying when Alain drums on his desk or sings along. The scenarios like these are very common in workplaces.
The agreement within departments of the company is vital. It helps to maintain productivity and workplace morale, among other things. When two or more people do not get along together, that personal conflict can affect everyone around them.
Intragroup conflict may be connected with ethnic, religious or gender prejudice, and also numerous personality differences. Depending on how strong the conflict is, a manager may need outside help a mediator to resolve the issues. At this point, it could be useful for a manager to have a reliable third party who has experience in conflict management and settling differences. One group of employees can unite against other group.
Such conflicts can arise from the differences in status and contradicting goals of the groups. The project manager can try to resolve the problem through problem solving tactics or following an internal dispute resolution process. Sometimes a facilitator can be useful to help discuss issues of conflict and related concerns.
Such types of conflicts should be solved quickly as if problem continues it can destroy the organization Green, Conflict between different groups or teams can become a threat to organizational competiveness. The employees were focused on their struggle against each other instead of paying more attention to the customers. If the manager understands the mechanics of Intergroup Conflict he is better armed to face the challenge.
In group members see themselves positively, as people with high moral standards, as opposite to seeing members of other groups negatively as immoral people and outsiders are viewed as a threat to the group. In most groups, members overstress differences between their group and other groups. Thus, In- groups thinking is inseparable part of organizational life which is why it guarantees a conflict.
There are three types of Interorganizational conflict which are: substantive conflict, emotional conflict and cultural conflict. For example they can exist a conflict between Ethical Treatment of beverage companies an organization that carries on experiments on laboratory beverages. These conflicts are often the result of misconstruction and typecasting. Interorganizational conflict most often can be resolved through mediation and recognizing cultural differences Morgan, Numerous possible ways exist for deciding each type of conflict and a manager needs to identify the orientation of the conflict he is dealing with have before coming up with a resolution strategy.
Orientations to Conflict: Constructive or Destructive For years now, managers had been taught to see conflict only as a negative force though nowadays, two different orientations to conflict have grown with time: functional and dysfunctional. Functional form of conflict, or constructive conflict, supports the goals of the organization and improves its performance. Functional conflict may actually encourage greater work effort and help task performance One of the main benefits of constructive conflict is that; it gives its members a chance to identify the problems and see the opportunities, it can stimulate new ideas, learning, and growth among individuals.
When individuals engage in constructive conflict, they can learn more about themselves and others. In addition, it can help to improve relationships among members, because when two sides work on resolving a disagreement together, they feel that they have mutually accomplished something. In David Augsburger, an American Anabaptist author, introduced four assumptions aligning with functional orientation: 1.
Conflict is a normal, useful process. All issues are subject to change through negotiation. Direct confrontation and conciliation are valued. Conflict is a necessary renegotiation of an implied contract and a redistribution of opportunity, release of tension and renewal of relationships. As per the first assumption, although conflict is a complicated process, it can reinforce relationships and if the conflict is managed correctly, it will lead to stronger, healthier and more sustaining relationship.
It can equally increase this conflict and also cohesiveness of groups. Looking at dysfunctional conflict, it is assumed to be destructive and such form of conflict typically hinders organizational performance and leads to decreased productivity. Managers refuse information from one another. The variances between these two types of conflict are not in their sources but in the manner in which each of them is expressed.
The Conflict process Conflict is a process in which one party suggests that its interests are being opposed by another party. The conflict process entails five stages: Potential opposition or Incompatibility; Cognition and personalization; Intentions; Behavior; Outcome. The process is illustrated in Figure 2. The causes of conflict have been divided into three categories: 1. Communications 2. Structure 3. Personal Variables 1. The term communication consists of different words connotations and jargon.
Insufficient exchange of information and noise in communication channel can be the reasons for conflict. Thus, either too much or too little communication can be the foundation for conflict. The term structure includes such variables as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems and the degree of dependence between groups.
Most of all specialization and size arouse conflict. However, a high turnover and young members can formulate the basis for a new conflict. Personal Variables. Personal variables include an individual value system that each person has. Certain personality types, such as authoritarian and dogmatic, can create a conflict.
There is also another variable in the study of social conflict - difference in value systems. Stage II: Cognition and personalization. In this step conflict issues should be defined. Parties decide what the conflict is about and emotions play a major role in creating perceptions.
Stage III: Intentions. Intentions mean decisions to act in a given way. This is a situation in which the parties of the conflict desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all the parties. In collaborating the parties try to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than accommodating various points of view. For example, a win-win solution when both parties can reach their goals.
This occurs when the person learns about a conflict but decides to withdraw from conflict process. An example can be disregarding a conflict and avoiding people with whom a person disagrees. The situation when each party is willing to give up something and in this case, there is no winner or loser.
Parties accept the solution where interests of both of them are satisfied. Some people want to win, some want to find a mutually beneficial solution and others choose intension according to their attitude to the situation. Stage IV: Behavior. In this step a conflict becomes visible, thus people usually tend to focus on this stage because the conflicting parties make statements, actions and reactions.
These conflict behaviors are applied by the parties to implement their intentions. There may be some miscalculations or an unskilled enactment at this point, which is why overt behaviors may differ from original intentions. The stage IV is a dynamic process of interaction. Figure 4 illustrates a way of visualizing conflict behavior.
All conflicts are found along this continuum. The lowest level of continuum represents conflicts with highly controlled forms of intention that have indirect character. Then conflict moves upward along the range until they become highly destructive. As a rule, functional conflicts can be identified on the lower range of the continuum.
Each conflict has its effects and there are two kinds of outcomes which are functional and dysfunctional. Conflict is constructive when its influence is positive and improves or even stimulates creativity and innovations, encourages interest and curiosity, thus improving the quality of decisions and the effectiveness of a group. Functional conflict is very helpful for groupthink as it challenges the status quo and therefore can influence on the creation of new concepts.
In , the company had become the most popular brand name on the Internet. The problem was that company could not change and adapt. His policy was non-confrontation. On the other hand, conflict is dysfunctional when unrestrained opposition eventually leads to the destruction of the group. This type of conflict can reduce group effectiveness. Bad communication and lack of group cohesiveness are among the most unwanted consequences of dysfunctional conflict.
You have a personality problem. You hate each other. It is important to identify the nature of the conflict as it will help in the resolution of the current conflict and can prevent the appearance of similar conflicts again. The nature of Conflict 2. Structural Factors There are eight structural aspects of an organization that are recognized as the causes of conflict: specialization, common resources, goal differences, interdependence, authority relationships, status differences, jurisdictional ambiguities, and roles and expectations.
For instance, a cleaner at a beauty salon says that a hair can be plaited for twenty minutes. Meanwhile, the plaiting can take an hour. The cleaner does not know much about hair dressing and thus she cannot give a realistic deadline when the hair can be ready.
This situation can lead to a conflict between the cleaner and the hair dresser. In many work situations, we have to share resources. The scarcer the resources are in an organization, the greater the chance for a conflict situation. Resource scarcity leads to a conflict because each person that needs the same resource essentially undermines others who pursue their own goals. Limited resources may include money, supplies, people, or information.
Very often the possibility of conflict increases substantially when departments in the organization have different or incompatible goals. For instance, the goal of a computer salesperson is to sell many computers as fast as possible. In this case conflict may occur as two persons have different goals. Possibility of conflict usually has a tendency to increase with the level of task interdependence.
When a person has to depend on another one to complete his task, it becomes easier to blame a co-worker when something goes wrong. As a rule interdependence exists when team members must interact in the process of work and receive outcomes which depend on the performance of others. In many companies there is a fundamental tension between project managers and teammates because most people do not like being told what they have to do.
It is observed that very strict managers most often have conflicts with their employees. In many organizations project managers have privileges flexible hours, free personal long-distance calls, and longer breaks , which are denied to other teammates. When the lines of responsibility in an organization are uncertain then jurisdictional uncertainties appear. Employees have a tendency to pass unwanted responsibilities to another person when responsibilities are not clearly stated.
In this situation detailed job descriptions can help employees to eliminate jurisdictional ambiguities and as a result to avoid conflicts. A role is a behavior that is expected from an employee. Every Employee has one or more roles in the organization. These roles include such elements as job title, description of duties, and agreements between the employee and the organization. Personal Factors - Personal Factors. Personal factors that can lead to organizational conflict are skills and abilities, personality conflicts, perceptions, diversity, and personal problems.
The members of departments or work teams have different levels of skills and abilities. For instance, conflict can appear when an employee with good experience must work with a beginner who does not have enough practical knowledge in the field. Personality conflicts occur very often in the workplace. One of the difficult personality traits is harshness. This kind of person is often hardworking and achievement-oriented, but critical and insensitive toward feeling of others.
Other personality traits that can encourage conflict are laziness and gossiping. A personality conflict can also be a consequence of changes in personality, attitudes and beliefs. There are five personality dimensions that affect work-related behavior and job performance: - Scrupulousness.
People are careful, dependable, self-disciplined and people with low conscientiousness are uncaring, more muddled, and irresponsible. High-conscientiousness employees have a high level of organizational citizenship and as a rule provide good customer service. It includes such traits as courteous, good-natured, empathic, and caring. Employees with high level of agreeableness tend to handle customer relations and resolve conflict situations more effectively.
The people with low agreeableness can be uncooperative, short-tempered, and irritable. In this case people have a high level of nervousness, hostility, depression and self- consciousness. As for people with low neuroticism, they are poised, secure and calm.
People tend to be sensitive, flexible, creative and curious. People with low level of openness to experience are usually resistant to change and, less open to new ideas. An extrovert person could be described as outgoing, not anxious, and sociable assertive. Diversity is a variety of individual differences and similarities which exist among people.
This term applies to the set of individual differences that make people different from and similar to each other. Employees can be compared with seashells from the beach; they come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and colors. Figure 5 shows that personality is in the center of the diversity circle as it represents stable characteristics, which are responsible for personal identity.
The second layer includes internal dimensions which represent primary dimensions of diversity. The third layer of diversity consists of external influences. They represent the secondary dimensions of diversity. It includes individual differences that we can control. The source of conflict among employees can be differences in age, cultural background, ethics, and values. All of these groups are affected by bias. These groups have discrimination in a daily life and at work.
Prejudice, which is pervasive in the organization, is expressed in discrimination. Discrimination reduces the chances of getting a job, to have equal earnings and to be promoted Guirdham, Forms of discrimination - Direct discrimination. It is a situation when an employer treats an employee less positively than someone else.
For instance, if a secretary job was only opened to female applicants. It occurs when working conditions or rules disfavored one group of people more than another. Employees have the right not to be stressed or made fun of at work. Pestering can be recognized as offensive or intimidating behavior which aims is to humiliate a person.
For example, the distribution of sexually explicit material or giving someone an offensive nickname. It can occur when a person or group is treated less favorably than others because they were making a complaint about discrimination. An example could be the prevention of employees from going on training courses, taking unfair disciplinary action against them or excluding then from company social events Discrimination in the workplace, When people bring their personal problems to work, their level of performance decreases.
One of the main reasons of personal problems can be the issue of keeping a balance between job and life. Communication Conflict is closely connected to communication. According to those researchers, communication and conflict are related in three ways: 1. Communication behavior often creates conflict. Communication behavior reflects conflict. Communication is the vehicle for the productive or destructive management of conflict Fleetwood, Communication-based obstacles may be the result of differences in speaking styles, writing styles, and nonverbal communication styles.
Bad communication is based on misinterpretations and misunderstandings among employees and as a result it can lead to long-standing conflict. Some of the barriers of productive communication can be the cross-gender and cross-cultural differences of employees. In this case people have differences in the ways of expressing themselves and how they are likely to interpret the communication with others Victor, Conflict Resolution skills 2.
Unhealthy and Healthy response to Conflict Conflict is an unavoidable part of any healthy relationships. It is impossible for two people to agree on everything at all times. Thus, the importance of dealing with conflict rather than avoiding it. When conflict is not managed properly, it can be detrimental for a relationship.
But if it is handled in a respectful and positive way, then conflict can be an opportunity for growth and development of the project. Conflicts can continue to destroy a project when they are ignored and conflicts follow employees until they face and resolve them and people equally respond to conflicts based on their perceptions of the situation and often they do not have the objective review of the facts. Conflicts are an opportunity for growth of the organization.
Managing disagreements in the right way can build trust in relationships. On the other hand, conflict may be seen as a threat even when it is not. Because of early life experience a person may view conflict in relationships as demoralizing, humiliating, dangerous, and something to fear. In this case a person can feel a loss control and powerless. When a person in a conflict situation is threatened, it is necessary to deal with the problem at hand in a healthy way.
Table 2 Table 2 shows healthy and unhealthy ways of managing and resolving conflicts. When conflict is handled in an unhealthy way, it can be the cause of permanent rifts, angers, and break-ups. When a person deals with a conflict in a healthy way, it increases the understanding among people, builds trust, and strengthens relationships. But if a person does not control his or her feelings or is so stressed that he cannot understand the real needs, it will be hard to communicate with others.
It is believed that the ability to resolve conflicts successfully depends on the ability to: - Manage stress quickly by staying calm. In this way a person can appropriately read and interpret verbal and nonverbal communication. When a person can control the emotions, it is simpler to communicate the needs without intimidating, scary, or punishing others. You also need to pay attention to the feelings and words of other people.
Be aware of and respectful of variances by avoiding disrespectful words. Mayer, in People who have a high degree of emotional intelligence know themselves very well and are also able to sense the emotions of others. By emerging the emotional intelligence, individuals can increase the productivity of work and help others become more productive and successful. Emotional intelligence can reduce stress by moderating conflict, promoting understanding and relationships between employees Serrat, Connection of Emotional Intelligence and Conflict management Pinkey a scientist in carried out a research about the relationship between the emotional dimension of conflict resolution and intellectual behavior.
He found out that the degree of negative emotionality that is connected with relationship and task conflict influences the team performance. For instance, if two conflicting sides have relationship satisfaction they will follow more assimilating and compromising behavior and people who are preoccupied, dismissive and fearful will shows that, emotional intelligence has a connection with the choice of conflict management style.
It is important to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict management strategy in order to choose an appropriate conflict management strategy style. But if there is an aggressive behavior of one of the conflicting parties or both of them, then the choice of conflict management strategies could be made according to this situation.
For instance, the competing or avoiding style can be chosen. Communication is one of the effective instruments of conflict management; aggression can destroy the communication and can lead to misunderstanding. If the misunderstanding increases, the effect of such management styles as collaboration, compromise, obliging, and accommodation will become ineffective.
However, interpersonal relationships directly relate to emotional intelligence as people whose behavior is aggressive and who cannot control their emotions have bad relationships with their partners and in most conflict situations they can equally follow conflict management styles that can lead to bad outcomes.
In this connection, emotional intelligence has an influence on the choice of conflict management strategy Discrimination in the workplace, We can summarize the facts by saying that, Emotional Intelligence will help project managers to choose which kind of Conflict Management technique to apply in case of conflict. Conflict Management techniques Countless scientists have written about the management of conflict in society as a whole.
Huseman stated that conflict management should involve the ability to develop the abilities to work under stress and continue to be productive. The most important element of conflict management strategy is the early recognition of the conflict and keeping attention to the conflicting parties.
These elements are important when a project manager deals with functional or dysfunctional conflicts. Stimulating Conflict Traditionally, conflict has a negative meaning but in some situations it really improves performance of the organization. Stimulating conflict is considered as an approach that requires up-front initiative aimed at minimizing the impact of potential negative conflict. In this case programmed conflict could be introduced. The main idea of such method is assigning someone the role of critic.
It can be good training to develop analytical and communication skills and also Emotional Intelligence. The dialectic method calls for managers to make a structured debate of opposing viewpoints to make a decision. Laboratory studies proved that the second approach is better for training employees and the first approach can produce more potential solutions.
Both approaches are designed to program conflict into processes of planning, decision making, and risk analysis. Managing Dysfunctional conflict. Conflict management styles. Dysfunctional conflict should be handled by conflict management styles. These researchers Thomas and Kilmann identified five conflict management styles based on two dimensions: assertiveness and cooperativeness.
Assertiveness is the motivation to achieve individual goals, objectives, and outcomes, while cooperativeness assesses the desire to help the other party to achieve its goals or outcomes. Avoiding Conflict Resolution Style. It is also known as withdrawing style.
In this style assertiveness and cooperativeness are low. People who fear conflict use the avoiding style to escape from conflict situations. When this style of conflict management is used, everyone loses. The biggest disadvantage is that the issue is never directly addressed or resolved. Situations where avoiding conflict resolution style may be appropriate include: When the issue is trivial, not worth the effort and costly.
When it takes too much time to deal with it. When it is not the right time or place to discuss the issues. When time is needed to think and collect information in order to be prepared before dealing with the issue. Possible advantages of avoidance conflict style: When an individual is forcing violence, a person may choose to postpone a response until he will be in a more promising position to push back.
Conflict avoidance is a low stress style because in this situation the conflict is short. Identified disadvantages of conflict avoidance approach: An individual can lose his position. If there is no any action it can be interpreted as an agreement. Avoidance of a conflict may negatively effect on relationships with a party that expects some actions Conflict Management Techniques, Competing Conflict Resolution Style or Forcing style. This approach may be appropriate when quick actions are needed, for example during emergencies.
Also it can be useful when an unpopular solution must be applied and a deadline is near. This style is inappropriate in an open and participative climate. For example in the case of a life-threatening situation, or aggression.
As a last attempt to resolve a long-lasting conflict. The advantages of competing style: It helps to resolve conflict in a quick way. The actions of the organization were a response to an aggression. In this situation self-esteem of the company is increasing. Disadvantages of competing style: It may negatively affect relationships with the adversary in the long term. The opponent can react in the same way, even if he used to be forceful originally. This approach takes a lot of energy and thus, it can be exhausting to some individuals Conflict Management Techniques, Accommodating Conflict Resolution Style or Obliging.
It is also known as the smoothing style. This style has a great degree of cooperativeness. This conflict resolution style is important for saving future relations between the parties. Obliging can be a very valuable conflict-handling strategy if it is possible to get something in return from the other party. This approach greatly inspires cooperation. Accommodating strategy may actually help individuals to strengthen their future negotiating position. Accommodating behavior is appropriate when a person who knows that he was wrong or when the relationship is important Victor, Situation where accommodating may be suitable: When it is necessary to have a temporary relief from the conflict or to have time until a person is in a better position and is prepared to respond.
When the issue is more important for a partner. When there is no choice or when continued competition would be harmful. Advantages of accommodating style: In some cases accommodating can help to resolve more important issues while giving up on some less important ones. The confidence in the ability to respond to an aggressive response can be decreased. It makes it more difficult to apply the same conflict management style in the future. Some of the supporters may not like the application of accommodating style.
Both accommodating and avoiding conflict resolution styles do not resolve a conflict but provisionally slow down its progress. Project managers must remember that if the conflict is not handled and resolved quickly, it can lead to more complex conflict in the future Conflict Management Techniques, Compromising Conflict Resolution Style.
Compromise can be identified as negotiating or exchange. This approach can be applied when the goals and the power of both sides are of equal importance and when it is necessary to find a temporary, timely solution Victor, Instances when compromise may be appropriate include: - When the goals are abstemiously important and there is no need to use more assertive or more involving approaches, for example forcing or collaborating.
Likely advantages of compromise: - If time is one of the most important conditions then Compromising can be very useful as it provides faster way of conflict resolution. Collaborating Conflict Resolution Style. Both sides creatively work together to achieve the goals and desired outcomes benefitting all involved parties. It can be difficult to implement this style as the process of collaborating warrant sincere effort by all parties and it may take a lot of time to reach a consensus Victor, Situations where collaborating may be proper include: - In the case when agreement and commitment of other parties is important.
Within the broader conflict resolution field, processes as bargaining negotiation , mediation by the "third party" involvement and other alternative dispute resolution processes will be analyzed. The survey of the theory and the practice of international negotiations and mediation. The ingredients and processes of bargaining negotiation. Conflict prevention. Understanding and development of negotiation and mediation skills. Pharmacy Pharm. Global Governance Governance refers to the systems of authoritative rules, norms, institutions, and practices by means of which individuals, states and international organizations manage global problems absent a world government.
Research Methods The objective of this course is to prepare graduate students for the task of thesis research through the development of a scientifically sound thesis proposal.
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