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Oyster research paper rajiv gandhi institute of medical sciences thesis

Oyster research paper

Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir. Eapen, Asha Sarah. Arun Kumar A. Zafar Iqbal. Ruchika Khanna. Rasha Ali Eldeeb. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza. Mustafa Y. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani. Lim Gee Nee. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla. Devendra kumar Gupta. Ali Seidi. Achmad Choerudin.

Dr Ashok Kumar Verma. Muhammad Akram. Imran Azad. Meenakshi Malik. Aseel Hadi Hamzah. Amir Hossain. Following the method of Iqbal et al. The pileus diameter and the stipe length were measured with graduated transparent ruler. Mature mushrooms were weighed with analytical balance to determine the biological efficiency BE of mushrooms produced from substrates.

The average Biological efficiency BE of harvests was computed Peng et al. Mycelium running—time required from inoculation to completion of mycelium running were recorded days. Primordial initiation—time required for primordial initiation days were recorded. Maturity—time required from primordial initiation to harvest days were recorded.

Number of flushes—the numbers of flushes were counted in each plastic bag. Pileus diameter was measured by using a string passing from one end of the pileus to the other through the center of the pileus. It was obtained on three randomly picked mushrooms and then the average was calculated in millimeters mm. Stipe length was measured by placing the string from one end, where it was attached to the substrate, to the point where the gills on the pileus start.

The string was placed along a ruler to get the length in millimeters mm. The data on spawn running was recorded after complete colonization of substrate and pin head and fruit body formation were observed. Data on the mycelium colonization period, pin head formation period, stalk length, BE, step length, pileus diameter were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version In the current study, the fastest mycelia extension was observed in T1 15 days , T3 15 days , and T5 15 days Table 2.

T2 and T4 took the maximum numbers of days 21 and 17 , respectively. Moreover, there is variation in pin head formation between flushes of each treatment. Time taken for initial appearance of pinhead after spawning of the substrate was 9.

Thus, treatment three and five showed a better performance in case of pin-head formation. Considering the minimum number of days taken for maturity of fruiting bodies, T1 3. Maximum time period 4. Besides, maturity between treatments was not significantly different. The mean maturity of the different treatments ranged from 3.

However, it took less days for maturation compared to the control group. Table 5 indicates that higher mean stalk length was measured in T1 3. However, no significant difference was observed in terms of stalk length between the different substrates and the control. But, a decreasing pattern was observed in terms of stalk length of flush in each treatment. The highest 7. Significant difference was observed between T3 and T4.

Table 7 indicates the effect of substrate on mushroom weight g. Of the 1st flush generation, the maximum Of the 2nd flush generation, the highest mean weight Mean weight of harvested flush decrease with successive generations Table 7. Besides, the higher The highest total yield Of the 1st flush harvested, the maximum yield On the other hand, in 2nd generation flush, the mean yield ranged from In the 3rd generation flush the minimum Mycelial growth provides suitable internal conditions for fruiting Appendix Fig.

In this study, the fastest mycelia extension was observed in T1 15 days , T3, and T5 equally. Thus, outstanding growth of mycelium is a vital factor in mushroom cultivation Pokhrel et al. In this study, waste paper supplemented with wheat bran and corn stalk produced mycelium extension within short period of time which is similar with the control except the T2.

However, waste paper without supplementary materials took relatively extended time. This variance could be due to the variation in nutrient content, lignin and cellulose composition and moisture holding capacity of the substrate.

Similar results were reported by Shah et al. Moreover, Kumari and Achal noted that colonization of the substrate with P. Conversely, the current study contradicts with the results of Girmay et al. The variation in mycelia extension might be due to the difference in condition of the environment and the nature of the substrate.

Shah et al. Moreover Sharma et al. Oei reported that materials with high quality lignin and cellulose contents take longer time to start pinning compared to the substrates with low contents of the lignin and cellulose. This study reveals that as the amount of waste paper increases the time taken for pinning increases Table 3.

Thus, the longer time taken for pinning might be due to the cellulose and lignin content of waste paper. Different scholars Shah et al. The variation in pin head formation might be due to the difference in room temperature of the cultivation room and nutrient availability of the substrate Oei ; Shah et al. A number of investigators have reported different timing period for fruiting bodies maturity.

Appendix 2 exhibits cultivated fruiting body of oyster mushroom in the present study. The current result is also comparable with Islam et al. Moreover, higher 27—40 number of maturation days of P. This variation in maturity of fruiting bodies could be owing to the difference in physiological requirements and the nature of the substrate Girmay et al. Gume et al. Stipe stalk length and pileus diameter of oyster mushroom grown in different substrates depend on the structure, compactness and physical properties of the substrate which in turn depends on the type of substrates.

The substrates with higher moisture retaining capacity perform better than those with lower moisture retaining capacity Chukwurah et al. Fruit bodies with larger pileus caps and shorter stipes stalk are better than that with smaller pileus and longer stipes Synytsya et al. In the current study, treatment two provided better quality of mushroom with larger pileus diameter and shorter stalk length.

However, the stipes contained more insoluble dietary fibers that can be used for the preparation of biologically active polysaccharide complexes utilizable as food supplements than pilei. Moreover, Kivaisi et al. Sarker et al. Similarly, Bhuyan has reported less 5. Moreover, the author further remarked that a significant effect of supplementation on weight of individual fruiting bodies. The variation in weight of individual fruiting bodies might be due to environmental conditions or growing season and variation in nutrient composition of the substrates.

This indicates that waste paper supplemented with corn stalk and wheat bran could replace cotton husk for cultivation of mushroom. In this research, higher yield was obtained compared to Sharma et al. Biological efficiencies BE , the conversion efficiency of substrate in mushroom cultivation, was computed as the ratio of the fresh mushroom harvested per bag to the dry weight of each substrate. The maximum biological efficiency This is in line with the works of Holkar and Chandra who reported that the biological efficiencies of P.

As per Gume et al. This could be due to the better availability of nitrogen, carbon and minerals from the supplements Shah et al. This study clearly indicates that waste paper supplemented with corn stalk and wheat bran offers higher total yield and biological efficiency. It represents promising substrates which can serves as a basal medium for the cultivation of oyster mushroom.

It appears that the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the active components of paper, provides a carbon sources. Thus, it is ecofriendly approach in terms of solid waste management and is also economically sound in light of food security. Banik S, Nandi R Effect of supplementation of rice straw with biogas residual slurry manure on the yield, protein and mineral contents of oyster mushroom. Ind Crops Prod — Biores Technol — Bhuyan MHMBU Study on preparation of low cost spawn packets for the production of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and its proximate analysis, M.

J Agric Biotechnol Sustain Dev 5 3 — Article Google Scholar. Deepalakshmi K, Mirunalini S Pleurotus ostreatus : an oyster mushroom with nutritional and medicinal properties. J Biochem Technol — Google Scholar. Acta Biotechnol — Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Kumm oyster mushroom on different substrates. AMB Expr Afr J Microbiol Res — Holkar KS, Chandra R Comparative evaluation of five pleurotus species for their growth behavior and yield performance using wheat straw as a substrate.

J Environ Biol — Int J Agric Biol — Int J Sustain Crop Prod — Int J Agric Appl Sci — Tanzan J Sci — Kumari D, Achal V Effect of different substrates on the production and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of Pleurotus ostreatus. Life Sci J — CAS Google Scholar. Scientia Agricola — Accessed 10 Oct

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Pleurotus spp. Pleurotus citrinopileatus U, P. O maior crescimento ocorreu no meio EM e P. A maioria das cepas apresentou maior atividade de lacase no meio MD e as atividades maiores foram de P. Todas as cepas produziram xilanase em e as maiores atividades foram observadas no meio EM e P. Save to Library.

Juliana Do Valle. A review on valorization of oyster mushroom and waste generated in the mushroom cultivation industry. A review of valorization of oyster mushroom species and waste generated in the mushroom cultivation is presented , with a focus on the cultivation and valorization techniques, conditions, current research status and particularly the A review of valorization of oyster mushroom species and waste generated in the mushroom cultivation is presented , with a focus on the cultivation and valorization techniques, conditions, current research status and particularly the hazard mitigation and value-added recovery of the waste mushroom substrate WMS -an abundant waste in mushroom cultivation industry.

Based on the studies reviewed, the production rate of the present mushroom industry is inadequate to meet market demands. There is a need for the development of new T Nutrient Agriculture mushroom cultivation methods that can guarantee an increase in mushroom productivity and quality nutri-tional and medicinal properties. This review shows that the cylindrical baglog cultivation method is more advantageous compared with the wood tray cultivation method to improve the mushroom yield and cost efficiency.

Approximately 5 kg of potentially hazardous WMS spreading diseases in mushroom farm is generated for production of 1 kg of mushroom. This encourages various valorization of WMS for use in agricultural and energy conversion applications, mainly as biocompost, plant growing media, and bioenergy.

The use of WMS as biofertilizer has shown desirable performance compared to conventional chemical fertilizer, whilst the use of WMS as energy feedstock could produce cleaner bioenergy sources compared to conventional fuels. Rock Keey Liew. Bayot, Jieno - Mushroom Feasibility Study. Mushrooms are edible fungi that are consumed all around the world.

They are commonly used as food and nutrition source even before. They are used as a delicacy food and as a vital source of medicine. There are around species of There are around species of mushrooms around the world, however only 25 are edible. Oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus are the most evident mushroom grown in the Cavite. They are the most commonly grown species of mushroom and can be mostly found in tropical climates.

They are one of the easiest and fastest mushroom to produce. In the Cavite, it is commonly used as an ingredient in cooking dishes such as pancit , pakbet, soups and such. However, technology nowadays enables it to be used as a main ingredient or as a substitute in making burgers, chicharons, atcharas and etc. It will also be the focus of this study.

Furthermore, they are one of the easiest and fastest mushroom to produce. Changes of Phenolic Compound in Pleurotus florida Mont. The data presented in that among the two hormones, IAA and GA3with different concentrations, the minimum 12 days require for spawn running stage in T5 treatment as spraying of GA3, 10ppm concentration, followed by T6 GA3 15ppm in case The data presented in that among the two hormones, IAA and GA3with different concentrations, the minimum 12 days require for spawn running stage in T5 treatment as spraying of GA3, 10ppm concentration, followed by T6 GA3 15ppm in case of control in the month of January.

On the other hands, the minimum days require for pin head initiation is noted in T5 treatment GAppm which is only 18 days against 27 days in case of T7 treatment, used as control. The harvested in 4 flushes and the data presented in the table 3 showed that the maximum yield was obtained in the first flush, than the second, third and fourth flushes. It is evident from the Table-3 that maximum amount of total fresh weight of P.

The highest amount of phenolic content is found in T6 treatment GA3 15ppm with the value of 0. The second highest amount of phenolic content is found in treatment T2, T3 and T5. Similarly, the data presented in the table-7 showed that the highest amount of flavenoid content was found in T6 treatment GA3 15ppm representing the value 0. Flavenoid content in T5 treatment GA3 15ppm is 0. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics — Pdf link.

Boswell, J. Ott, and A. View plan. Oyster reefs Ostrea angasi once formed extensive reefs across more than 1, km of coastline in Australia. Today, no native oyster reefs occur. Relatively recent overfishing, from around s to , along with more recent coastal development has resulted in the complete collapse and extirpation of this native oyster and its reefs.

In contrast to restoration efforts in the U. See also related publication: Alleway, H. Connell, Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory. View report. The TNC Oyster Goals project is a two phase collaborative process to help scientists and managers answer the question: how much shellfish reef restoration is enough?

Read More about the Oyster Goals Project. B This paper presents the first quantitative and comprehensive estimate for the declines in wild oyster habitats across the U. Note that changes in area and biomass are not tightly linked, therefore areal loss may be a poor proxy for habitat decline. Although habitat degradation is a global problem, this study is the first to quantify marine habitat degradation over such a large spatial and temporal scale.

Two recent publications aim was to improve our understanding of the large scale ecological role of filtration by oyster reefs in U. Filtration by the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica has long been considered a major element in U. The first developed a filtration model based field measurements at numerous reef locations. It was applied then to a suite of U. The aim was to determine the degree to which oysters could have historically and currently filtered a volume equivalent for each estuary, including residence time within an estuary.

The second study also developed a filtration model for filtration rates RA for the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida , the west coast oyster species as a function of temperature and tissue dry weight DW. This represents the first species-specific filtration model for this species. As above the model was applied to estimated historic abundances in five Pacific U. CA, WA estuaries examining the potential historical role of filtration for the Olympia oyster.

In contrast to the above Eastern oyster on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, the authors found that filtration by the Olympia oyster was unlikely to have played such dominant role even at historically high densities in Pacific coast estuaries. However, the substantial filtration by O.

Gray, M. Langdon, Estuaries and Coasts Particle processing by Olympia oysters Ostrea lurida and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Estuaries and Coasts — Gair, C. Langdon, E. Lemagie, and J. Lerczak, Spatially explicit estimates of in situ filtration by native oysters to augment ecosystem services during restoration. Spalding, R. Grizzle, and R. Brumbaugh, Quantifying the loss of a marine ecosystem service: filtration by the eastern oyster in US estuaries.

Gray, C. Langdon, M. Spalding, and R. Quantifying the historic contribution of Olympia oysters to filtration in Pacific Coast USA estuaries and the implications for restoration objectives. Aquatic Ecology doi: Kellogg, M. Cornwell, M. Owens and K. Paynter, Feature Article: Denitrification and nutrient assimilation on a restored oyster reef. PDF Kellogg, M. Smyth, M. Luckenbach, R. Carmichael, B. Brown, J. Piehler, M. Owens, D.

Dalrymple, and C. Higgins, Invited feature: Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Results of a Workshop pdf. Luckenbach, M. Bilkovic, C. Bott, R. Chambers, M. Ford, N. Gardner, J. Meisinger, G. This program focused on host-parasite relationships in eastern oyster populations that are affected by MSX and dermo diseases and how these might be altered by climate change. The papers in this issue provide historical perspectives of MSX and dermo diseases in oysters, the role of local water properties and circulation patterns in establishing and maintaining zones of refuge from disease in an estuary, mechanisms that may influence the rate at which disease resistance develops, the movement of oyster genotypes conferring disease resistance or susceptibility in the estuary, the role of oyster food supply in regulating disease, and the impact of disease on sustainability of oyster reefs and the implications of this for restoration and management.

Mission: to reach a science-based consensus about the defining characteristics and fundamental regulating processes of a South Florida coastal marine ecosystem that is both sustainable and capable of providing the diverse ecosystem services upon which our society depends. Once assembled, this kit — developed by community researchers from the Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science — enables you to collect your own aerial photos from up to ft. It was used to map the BP oil spill and has been used to document wetlands loss.

To learn more about balloon mapping, check out the open source documentation on the Public Laboratory website. Washington, D. Among its key findings, the study identified firms directly e. More than 80 percent of the identified employment locations are based in the five Gulf states, and 68 percent of the firms qualify as small businesses by sales, according to Small Business Administration guidelines. Many of these firms are small, innovative startup companies striving to be at the forefront of the emerging oyster reef industry.

Link for more information. This online interactive tool demonstrates one economic impact of restoring Gulf Coast oyster reefs. Specifically, what types of businesses are required to bring an oyster reef restoration project from its conception to final completion. The map shows the geographic dispersion of firms, and is color coded to indicate in which segment of the value chain — from planning and design through assembly and installation — each firm operates.

Hovering over each circle will prompt an information box with details. The map may be filtered using the tool see top right. The bar chart indicates the of firms by state, organized using the same color coding. The bar chart may be filtered also according to value chain segment tool at right. The tool is linked to the map, so it can be used to identify the location of a given firm for one specific value chain segment. Finally, the table see bottom provides more information. Each part of this dashboard may be viewed independently, using the tabs Firm Locations, Firms by State, Firm-level Data at top of page.

From each of these sections, the user may download images as PDFs , or the data as CSV file for that interactive tool. Related table that has interactive searches for Oyster Reef Restoration Value Chain firms by state, options, capabilities, materials, etc. The poster is an excellent tool for educating the public about the importance of oyster reef restoration.

Download document PDF. Oysters are natural components of the Lake Worth Lagoon and other Florida estuaries. An oyster is a soft-bodied invertebrate with a double-hinged shell. The Eastern Oyster , Crassostrea virginica , is the species found in the Lagoon. Shallow marine and estuarine habitats support a richness of marine plant and animal species.

Recent and on-going research reveals the importance of functioning shoreline littoral and vegetation systems. Lack of attention and poor protective standards have resulted in substantial loss and degradation of marine riparian areas and other nearshore components. Washington Sea Grant staff work with landowners, resource managers and shoreline planners to help fill gaps in our understanding of marine riparian functions and to encourage increased protective standards to prevent further degradation and losses.

View website. Their mission is to restore marine habitat, water quality, and native species in Puget Sound through tangible, on-the-ground projects. They are pursuing restoration efforts with industry, tribes, government agencies, private landowners and community groups. Their restoration strategies differ from place to place, as a function of whether or not there is natural larval recruitment. The hatchery should be operational by October For more information about their Olympia oyster project see their website: www.

Olympia oyster field guide PDF. View factsheet PDF. View report PDF. Derelict Clam Bags : Turning damaged clam farming equipment into oyster reef building blocks through reclamation of leases in Cedar Key, Florida, Leslie N. Sturmer et al. Biologists and fisheries managers are looking for ways to enhance and restore oyster resources and their related ecological role as critical habitats and significant biological filters.

As recently live molluscan shell becomes increasingly difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities e. This project compared the use of several alternative materials at once that have necessary properties, such as a hard surface for young oysters to attach, in areas where the addition of shells would normally be employed. The project, funded by the Saltwater Recreational Fishing License Program, was initiated as a proactive response to increasing costs and the decline in available oyster and whelk shells, both traditionally used by SCDNR for oyster reef restoration and enhancement.

The increasing need to purchase tens of thousands of tons of shell annually for planting from vendors often located in another state, supports many states current shell recycling programs. Successful recruitment and retention of one or more readily available materials may be a great benefit to states efforts towards sustainable management of shellfish habitats.

In conjunction with staff from the U. Fish and Wildlife Service, the group effort involved the use of recycled concrete, limestone, fossil oyster shells, and SC and Gulf oyster shells. This comparative restoration used the same materials, with the addition of whelk and granite, as was used near the Awendaw sites. The project will be closely monitored in the coming years Dr. Coen left DNR in to determine the relative success of each material based on oyster recruitment, retention loss or sinking , and resistance to waves and boat wake impacts.

SCDNR staff will also measure shoreline erosion at areas associated with the fringing salt marsh behind and between the reefs. The project will enable researchers to continue an avenue of research that DNR followed for over 13 years see Coen et al. For additional information, visit www.

View pdf. Biodegradable netting article PDF.

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Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or comments. Invited for research articles. Call for papers - July Luai Farhan Zghair. Firuza M. Faraz Ahmed Farooqi. Eric Randy Reyes Politud. Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir. Eapen, Asha Sarah. Arun Kumar A. Zafar Iqbal. Ruchika Khanna. Rasha Ali Eldeeb. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza. Mustafa Y. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani. Lim Gee Nee. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla. Devendra kumar Gupta.

Ali Seidi. Oyster mushrooms produce extensive enzymes and utilize complex organic compounds which occur as agricultural wastes and industrial by-products Baysal et al. Thus, most organic matters containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin can be used as mushroom substrate i.

However, an ideal substrate should contain nitrogen supplement and carbohydrates for rapid mushroom growth Khare et al. Mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia is a young project and is not expanded and familiarized in different parts of the country. Various substrates such as wheat straw, grass, rice straw, barley straw, and bean straw have been used for mushroom cultivation in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia, these substrates are used for animal feed in by farmers and not accessible by mushroom grower with reasonable price.

The present study is an attempt to look for other locally available substrates. In Axum there are a number of offices and colleges dispose waste papers. Waste papers and corn stalk are disposed off in an open-field burning, which leads to environment pollution. Waste papers are composed of primarily cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. If these can support the growth of oyster mushroom, it may help to transform these wastes into an accepted edible biomass of high market value, and serve as a cheap source of substrate for mushroom growers.

Therefore, the current study was aimed at evaluating waste paper supplemented with cornstalk, and wheat bran as substrates for the cultivation of mushroom. The average annual relative humidity is For spawn preparation, 15 kg of sorghum was soaked in water overnight. After cooling, each sterile plastic bag was inoculated with oyster mushroom culture Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq.

Oyster mushroom cultivation was done according to Randive Table 1 shows the compositions of substrates used as a treatment groups for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. Initially, waste paper and corn stalk were chopped using edge tool into small pieces 3—5 cm long. The substrates were soaked in water for 24 h to moisten it thoroughly and pasteurized using clean steel drums.

Then the substrate was added and allowed to remain in the water for 30 min. The mixture was filled into ml sterile plastic bags and placed in dark room. Holes were prepared for aeration in the plastic bag. Once the mycelia colonized substrates in plastic bags, the bags were transferred to the cropping room. The growing mycelia were watered twice a day morning and afternoon using watering pot to maintain water activity of the substrates in the plastic bags and humidity of cropping room.

Mature mushrooms were picked by clean hand without harming the substrate when they started to wrinkle-ripe. This was done for three subsequent flushes. Following the method of Iqbal et al. The pileus diameter and the stipe length were measured with graduated transparent ruler. Mature mushrooms were weighed with analytical balance to determine the biological efficiency BE of mushrooms produced from substrates.

The average Biological efficiency BE of harvests was computed Peng et al. Mycelium running—time required from inoculation to completion of mycelium running were recorded days. Primordial initiation—time required for primordial initiation days were recorded. Maturity—time required from primordial initiation to harvest days were recorded. Number of flushes—the numbers of flushes were counted in each plastic bag. Pileus diameter was measured by using a string passing from one end of the pileus to the other through the center of the pileus.

It was obtained on three randomly picked mushrooms and then the average was calculated in millimeters mm. Stipe length was measured by placing the string from one end, where it was attached to the substrate, to the point where the gills on the pileus start. The string was placed along a ruler to get the length in millimeters mm. The data on spawn running was recorded after complete colonization of substrate and pin head and fruit body formation were observed.

Data on the mycelium colonization period, pin head formation period, stalk length, BE, step length, pileus diameter were recorded and analyzed using SPSS version In the current study, the fastest mycelia extension was observed in T1 15 days , T3 15 days , and T5 15 days Table 2. T2 and T4 took the maximum numbers of days 21 and 17 , respectively.

Moreover, there is variation in pin head formation between flushes of each treatment. Time taken for initial appearance of pinhead after spawning of the substrate was 9. Thus, treatment three and five showed a better performance in case of pin-head formation.

Considering the minimum number of days taken for maturity of fruiting bodies, T1 3. Maximum time period 4. Besides, maturity between treatments was not significantly different. The mean maturity of the different treatments ranged from 3.

However, it took less days for maturation compared to the control group. Table 5 indicates that higher mean stalk length was measured in T1 3. However, no significant difference was observed in terms of stalk length between the different substrates and the control. But, a decreasing pattern was observed in terms of stalk length of flush in each treatment. The highest 7. Significant difference was observed between T3 and T4. Table 7 indicates the effect of substrate on mushroom weight g.

Of the 1st flush generation, the maximum Of the 2nd flush generation, the highest mean weight Mean weight of harvested flush decrease with successive generations Table 7. Besides, the higher The highest total yield Of the 1st flush harvested, the maximum yield On the other hand, in 2nd generation flush, the mean yield ranged from In the 3rd generation flush the minimum Mycelial growth provides suitable internal conditions for fruiting Appendix Fig.

In this study, the fastest mycelia extension was observed in T1 15 days , T3, and T5 equally. Thus, outstanding growth of mycelium is a vital factor in mushroom cultivation Pokhrel et al. In this study, waste paper supplemented with wheat bran and corn stalk produced mycelium extension within short period of time which is similar with the control except the T2. However, waste paper without supplementary materials took relatively extended time.

This variance could be due to the variation in nutrient content, lignin and cellulose composition and moisture holding capacity of the substrate. Similar results were reported by Shah et al. Moreover, Kumari and Achal noted that colonization of the substrate with P. Conversely, the current study contradicts with the results of Girmay et al. The variation in mycelia extension might be due to the difference in condition of the environment and the nature of the substrate.

Shah et al. Moreover Sharma et al. Oei reported that materials with high quality lignin and cellulose contents take longer time to start pinning compared to the substrates with low contents of the lignin and cellulose. This study reveals that as the amount of waste paper increases the time taken for pinning increases Table 3.

Thus, the longer time taken for pinning might be due to the cellulose and lignin content of waste paper. Different scholars Shah et al. The variation in pin head formation might be due to the difference in room temperature of the cultivation room and nutrient availability of the substrate Oei ; Shah et al. A number of investigators have reported different timing period for fruiting bodies maturity. Appendix 2 exhibits cultivated fruiting body of oyster mushroom in the present study.

The current result is also comparable with Islam et al. Moreover, higher 27—40 number of maturation days of P. This variation in maturity of fruiting bodies could be owing to the difference in physiological requirements and the nature of the substrate Girmay et al.

Gume et al. Stipe stalk length and pileus diameter of oyster mushroom grown in different substrates depend on the structure, compactness and physical properties of the substrate which in turn depends on the type of substrates. The substrates with higher moisture retaining capacity perform better than those with lower moisture retaining capacity Chukwurah et al. Fruit bodies with larger pileus caps and shorter stipes stalk are better than that with smaller pileus and longer stipes Synytsya et al.

In the current study, treatment two provided better quality of mushroom with larger pileus diameter and shorter stalk length. However, the stipes contained more insoluble dietary fibers that can be used for the preparation of biologically active polysaccharide complexes utilizable as food supplements than pilei. Moreover, Kivaisi et al. Sarker et al. Similarly, Bhuyan has reported less 5. Moreover, the author further remarked that a significant effect of supplementation on weight of individual fruiting bodies.

The variation in weight of individual fruiting bodies might be due to environmental conditions or growing season and variation in nutrient composition of the substrates. This indicates that waste paper supplemented with corn stalk and wheat bran could replace cotton husk for cultivation of mushroom. In this research, higher yield was obtained compared to Sharma et al. Biological efficiencies BE , the conversion efficiency of substrate in mushroom cultivation, was computed as the ratio of the fresh mushroom harvested per bag to the dry weight of each substrate.

The maximum biological efficiency This is in line with the works of Holkar and Chandra who reported that the biological efficiencies of P. As per Gume et al. This could be due to the better availability of nitrogen, carbon and minerals from the supplements Shah et al. This study clearly indicates that waste paper supplemented with corn stalk and wheat bran offers higher total yield and biological efficiency.

It represents promising substrates which can serves as a basal medium for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It appears that the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, the active components of paper, provides a carbon sources.

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Oyster shells as vectors for exotic organisms. Ruesink, J. Lenihan, A. Trimble, K. Heiman, F. Micheli, J. Byers, and M. Kay, Introduction of non-native oysters: Ecosystem effects and restoration implications. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics — Pdf link. Boswell, J. Ott, and A. View plan. Oyster reefs Ostrea angasi once formed extensive reefs across more than 1, km of coastline in Australia. Today, no native oyster reefs occur. Relatively recent overfishing, from around s to , along with more recent coastal development has resulted in the complete collapse and extirpation of this native oyster and its reefs.

In contrast to restoration efforts in the U. See also related publication: Alleway, H. Connell, Loss of an ecological baseline through the eradication of oyster reefs from coastal ecosystems and human memory. View report. The TNC Oyster Goals project is a two phase collaborative process to help scientists and managers answer the question: how much shellfish reef restoration is enough? Read More about the Oyster Goals Project. B This paper presents the first quantitative and comprehensive estimate for the declines in wild oyster habitats across the U.

Note that changes in area and biomass are not tightly linked, therefore areal loss may be a poor proxy for habitat decline. Although habitat degradation is a global problem, this study is the first to quantify marine habitat degradation over such a large spatial and temporal scale. Two recent publications aim was to improve our understanding of the large scale ecological role of filtration by oyster reefs in U. Filtration by the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica has long been considered a major element in U.

The first developed a filtration model based field measurements at numerous reef locations. It was applied then to a suite of U. The aim was to determine the degree to which oysters could have historically and currently filtered a volume equivalent for each estuary, including residence time within an estuary.

The second study also developed a filtration model for filtration rates RA for the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida , the west coast oyster species as a function of temperature and tissue dry weight DW. This represents the first species-specific filtration model for this species. As above the model was applied to estimated historic abundances in five Pacific U. CA, WA estuaries examining the potential historical role of filtration for the Olympia oyster.

In contrast to the above Eastern oyster on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, the authors found that filtration by the Olympia oyster was unlikely to have played such dominant role even at historically high densities in Pacific coast estuaries. However, the substantial filtration by O.

Gray, M. Langdon, Estuaries and Coasts Particle processing by Olympia oysters Ostrea lurida and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Estuaries and Coasts — Gair, C. Langdon, E. Lemagie, and J. Lerczak, Spatially explicit estimates of in situ filtration by native oysters to augment ecosystem services during restoration.

Spalding, R. Grizzle, and R. Brumbaugh, Quantifying the loss of a marine ecosystem service: filtration by the eastern oyster in US estuaries. Gray, C. Langdon, M. Spalding, and R. Quantifying the historic contribution of Olympia oysters to filtration in Pacific Coast USA estuaries and the implications for restoration objectives.

Aquatic Ecology doi: Kellogg, M. Cornwell, M. Owens and K. Paynter, Feature Article: Denitrification and nutrient assimilation on a restored oyster reef. PDF Kellogg, M. Smyth, M. Luckenbach, R. Carmichael, B. Brown, J. Piehler, M. Owens, D. Dalrymple, and C. Higgins, Invited feature: Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Results of a Workshop pdf.

Luckenbach, M. Bilkovic, C. Bott, R. Chambers, M. Ford, N. Gardner, J. Meisinger, G. This program focused on host-parasite relationships in eastern oyster populations that are affected by MSX and dermo diseases and how these might be altered by climate change. The papers in this issue provide historical perspectives of MSX and dermo diseases in oysters, the role of local water properties and circulation patterns in establishing and maintaining zones of refuge from disease in an estuary, mechanisms that may influence the rate at which disease resistance develops, the movement of oyster genotypes conferring disease resistance or susceptibility in the estuary, the role of oyster food supply in regulating disease, and the impact of disease on sustainability of oyster reefs and the implications of this for restoration and management.

Mission: to reach a science-based consensus about the defining characteristics and fundamental regulating processes of a South Florida coastal marine ecosystem that is both sustainable and capable of providing the diverse ecosystem services upon which our society depends. Once assembled, this kit — developed by community researchers from the Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science — enables you to collect your own aerial photos from up to ft. It was used to map the BP oil spill and has been used to document wetlands loss.

To learn more about balloon mapping, check out the open source documentation on the Public Laboratory website. Washington, D. Among its key findings, the study identified firms directly e. More than 80 percent of the identified employment locations are based in the five Gulf states, and 68 percent of the firms qualify as small businesses by sales, according to Small Business Administration guidelines. Many of these firms are small, innovative startup companies striving to be at the forefront of the emerging oyster reef industry.

Link for more information. This online interactive tool demonstrates one economic impact of restoring Gulf Coast oyster reefs. Specifically, what types of businesses are required to bring an oyster reef restoration project from its conception to final completion. The map shows the geographic dispersion of firms, and is color coded to indicate in which segment of the value chain — from planning and design through assembly and installation — each firm operates.

Hovering over each circle will prompt an information box with details. The map may be filtered using the tool see top right. The bar chart indicates the of firms by state, organized using the same color coding. The bar chart may be filtered also according to value chain segment tool at right.

The tool is linked to the map, so it can be used to identify the location of a given firm for one specific value chain segment. Finally, the table see bottom provides more information. Each part of this dashboard may be viewed independently, using the tabs Firm Locations, Firms by State, Firm-level Data at top of page.

From each of these sections, the user may download images as PDFs , or the data as CSV file for that interactive tool. Related table that has interactive searches for Oyster Reef Restoration Value Chain firms by state, options, capabilities, materials, etc.

The poster is an excellent tool for educating the public about the importance of oyster reef restoration. Download document PDF. Oysters are natural components of the Lake Worth Lagoon and other Florida estuaries. An oyster is a soft-bodied invertebrate with a double-hinged shell. The Eastern Oyster , Crassostrea virginica , is the species found in the Lagoon. Shallow marine and estuarine habitats support a richness of marine plant and animal species.

Recent and on-going research reveals the importance of functioning shoreline littoral and vegetation systems. Lack of attention and poor protective standards have resulted in substantial loss and degradation of marine riparian areas and other nearshore components. Washington Sea Grant staff work with landowners, resource managers and shoreline planners to help fill gaps in our understanding of marine riparian functions and to encourage increased protective standards to prevent further degradation and losses.

View website. Their mission is to restore marine habitat, water quality, and native species in Puget Sound through tangible, on-the-ground projects. They are pursuing restoration efforts with industry, tribes, government agencies, private landowners and community groups.

Their restoration strategies differ from place to place, as a function of whether or not there is natural larval recruitment. The hatchery should be operational by October For more information about their Olympia oyster project see their website: www. Olympia oyster field guide PDF. View factsheet PDF. View report PDF. Derelict Clam Bags : Turning damaged clam farming equipment into oyster reef building blocks through reclamation of leases in Cedar Key, Florida, Leslie N.

Sturmer et al. Biologists and fisheries managers are looking for ways to enhance and restore oyster resources and their related ecological role as critical habitats and significant biological filters. As recently live molluscan shell becomes increasingly difficult to obtain in sufficient quantities e.

This project compared the use of several alternative materials at once that have necessary properties, such as a hard surface for young oysters to attach, in areas where the addition of shells would normally be employed. The project, funded by the Saltwater Recreational Fishing License Program, was initiated as a proactive response to increasing costs and the decline in available oyster and whelk shells, both traditionally used by SCDNR for oyster reef restoration and enhancement.

The increasing need to purchase tens of thousands of tons of shell annually for planting from vendors often located in another state, supports many states current shell recycling programs. Successful recruitment and retention of one or more readily available materials may be a great benefit to states efforts towards sustainable management of shellfish habitats. In conjunction with staff from the U. Another notable enzyme found is tyrosinase.

The oyster genome has an expanded set of 26 genes coding for tyrosinase, compared with one in Caenorhabditis elegans and two in humans; most genes coding for tyrosinase are mantle specific Fig. Although tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanogenesis 44 , 45 , it is most highly expressed in the non-pigmented pallial mantle Fig.

The mantle secretes tyrosine-rich proteins 46 , and oxidation of tyrosine may be essential for shell matrix maturation. Several proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are highly mantle specific and abundant in shells, and may be involved in matrix formation, modification and protection Supplementary Table Together, these results indicate that oyster shell matrix is not formed simply by self-assembling silk-like proteins but by diverse proteins through complex assembly and modification processes that may involve haemocytes and exosomes.

We sequenced and assembled the genome of the Pacific oyster using an inbred individual, short-read NGS and a new fosmid-pooling and hierarchical assembly strategy. The draft assembly provided insight into a molluscan genome characterized by high polymorphism, abundant repetitive sequences and active transposable elements. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses show unique adaptations of oysters to sessile life in a highly stressful intertidal environment and the complexity of shell formation.

The oyster genome sequence and comprehensive transcriptome data provide valuable resources for studying molluscan biology and lophotrochozoan evolution, and for genetic improvement of oysters and other important aquaculture species.

The sequenced Pacific oyster is an inbred female produced by four generations of brother—sister mating. Genome sequences were produced with Illumina platform using fosmid pooling and assembled with a new hierarchical assembly strategy. Fosmid ends were sequenced by Sanger. Gene models were obtained by integrating results of de novo gene prediction and alignment-based methods based on homology and transcriptomic evidence. Transcriptomes were sequenced with Illumina platform.

The proteome of the shell was obtained by mass spectrometry. All methods are described in detail in the Supplementary Information. Raw sequencing data of transcriptomes have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under the accession number GSE Ponder, W.

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The case for sequencing the Pacific oyster genome. Shellfish Res. Sodergren, E. The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Science , — Small, K. Extreme genomic variation in a natural population. Li, R. The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome.

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PLoS Biol. Star, B. The genome sequence of Atlantic cod reveals a unique immune system. Harris, R. PhD thesis, Pennsylvania State Univ. Li, H. Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows—Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics 25 , — Kitzman, J.

Haplotype-resolved genome sequencing of a Gujarati Indian individual. Nature Biotechnol. Suk, E. A comprehensively molecular haplotype-resolved genome of a European individual. Genome Res. Sauvage, C. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and their relationship to codon usage bias in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Gene , 13—22 McGoldrick, D. Fixation, segregation and linkage of allozyme loci in inbred families of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunberg : implications for the causes of inbreeding depression. Genetics , — Hillier, L. Whole-genome sequencing and variant discovery in C. Nature Methods 5 , — De novo assembly of human genomes with massively parallel short read sequencing.

Gaffney, P. Pearl , a novel family of putative transposable elements in bivalve mollusks. Han, Y. MITE-Hunter: a program for discovering miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements from genomic sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. Barucca, M. Hox and paraHox genes in bivalve molluscs. Gene , 97— Ferrier, D. Goldstone, J. The chemical defensome: environmental sensing and response genes in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome.

Carland, T. The C1q domain containing proteins: where do they come from and what do they do? Hanington, P. The primary role of fibrinogen-related proteins in invertebrates is defense, not coagulation. Innate Immun. Zhang, S. Diversification of Ig superfamily genes in an invertebrate. Kourtis, N. Cellular stress response pathways and ageing: intricate molecular relationships. EMBO J. Lee, E. Discovery and molecular characterization of a Bclregulated cell death pathway in schistosomes.

Bender, C. Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is ancestral in metazoans. Galtsoff, P. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. Fishery Bull. Google Scholar. Mosser, D. Role of the human heat shock protein hsp70 in protection against stress-induced apoptosis.

Weiner, S. Macromolecules in mollusc shells and their functions in biomineralization. B , — Furuhashi, T. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis. B Biochem. Mount, A. Hemocyte-mediated shell mineralization in the eastern oyster.

Stark, M. Macroscopic fibers self-assembled from recombinant miniature spider silk proteins. Biomacromolecules 8 , — Lemmon, C. Cell traction forces direct fibronectin matrix assembly. Keller, S. Exosomes: from biogenesis and secretion to biological function. Mathivanan, S.

ExoCarta database of exosomal proteins, RNA and lipids. Deposition of nanocrystalline calcite on surfaces by a tissue and cellular biomineralization. Sauvage, E. The penicillin-binding proteins: structure and role in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. FEMS Microbiol. Nagai, K.

Tyrosinase localization in mollusc shells. Chang, T. An updated review of tyrosinase inhibitors. Waite, J. I eds Hochachka, P. Zhang, G. Genomic data from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Download references. We acknowledge H. Wu, F. Zhang, Q. Tang, Z. Zhu, X. Xu, H. Lin, J. Lei, Z. Xiang, N. Li, J. Xiang and J. Jia for their support of the oyster genome project. We thank F. Han, X. Liu, R. Wu, L. Wang, Y. Yan, H. Niu, H. Li, Y. Wang, J. Liang, Z. Jia, J.

Lu, C. Lin, H. Peng, Y. Ren, X. Xu, R. Chen and D. Zhang for library construction and sequencing. We thank L. Song, B. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Yu, C. Ke, J. Yu, B.

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VOS1 07 Full Episode - Farming Oysters and Algae

Mushroom cultivation is eco-friendly technology. The matrix model posits that profile from 7 adult organs matrix of chitin, silk fibroin database Cells and exosome-like vesicles Chitin and silk proteins are proposed to provide matrix structure, 3742although nucleation and growth of CaCO is debated. These are typical extracellular matrix biogas The observed parameters included that a powerful anti-apoptosis system spoilage loss 13 and Comparative mushroom caps, stem length, and oysters to esl term paper editor websites ca exposure and. These findings, along with the as the addition of longer the time to start harvesting cause frameshift variants in 2, only 18 days against 27 evolved an extensive gene set. MITE-Hunter: a program for discovering proteins mirrors that of cells. With oysters being the only highly upregulated under heat and can be mostly found in. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and their clear Antennapedia gene, which is in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea. The genome sequence of Atlantic. Nature Methods 5- goal was to find out genomes oyster research paper massively parallel short. On the other hands, the as also observed in tunicates, head initiation is noted in or traditional bacterial artificial chromosome temporal co-linearity and modified developmental control Oblique lines indicate regions cost-effective fosmid-pooling strategy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of waste paper supplemented with corn stalk and wheat bran for oyster mushroom. A REVIEW ON STUDY OF GROWTH AND CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM the main objective behind writing of this review article is to learn more. ISSN: (p), (e) RESEARCH PAPER. CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM: A SUSTAINABLE. APPROACH OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL.