research paper globalization culture

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Research paper globalization culture scholarship essay college

Research paper globalization culture

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At first glance, this process is characterized by two different trends, both in the direction of cultural uniformity, and both overlapping and mutually reinforcing:. This interdependence has also been an important factor of social change, which, in many regions of the world, has meant a permanent state of social and political instability. This has also been evident in the increasing dominance of one language over all the others, with English effectively having become the lingua franca. Pressure towards uniformity of the life-worlds in terms of specific cultural traits, perceptions of the world, value systems, forms of political organization, and life styles in general creates counter pressure.

Against this background of perpetual interdependence and competition for influence, the major question is that of the resilience of culture i. One of the major issues, in this regard, will be that of religious identity. This will become the major challenge in relations between the Western and Muslim world, and the answer to this question may ultimately decide about social and political stability not only in the greater Middle East, but also in the Euro-Mediterranean region.

What are the implications of culture for peaceful co-existence among states, and what are the risks of political instrumentalization of culture in the global concert of powers? As we have explained above, culture — more specifically, cultural identity — is a dialectical phenomenon. Culture is constantly being shaped and reshaped by interaction with other cultures — and in the era of globalization considerably more so.

World order is the status of relations between states, peoples and cultures or civilizations, in the most universal sense at a given moment in history. In our era of globalization, it has become an ever more complex system of interaction and rules.

Ideally, it will result in a balance of power , but often in history, as in the present transitory phase, it has been characterized by its absence. It is exactly in the latter case — namely in the absence of a balance of power — that the role and position of culture in the global interplay of forces is most fragile and delicate , but at the same time also must crucial, indeed indispensable — as is now the case — for the transition from a unipolar to a multipolar order.

Whatever the answers to the questions about the structural relationship, or interdependence, between culture and power and its implications for the international system may be, the dialectics of cultural identity will always make itself felt in some shape or form. Especially under conditions of unequal power relations and social injustice, whether perceived or real, a forceful assertion of a cultural paradigm, its propagation as universal standard, may provoke an attitude of resistance and lead to new self-awareness of those who are expected to adapt to a dominant culture.

In recent decades, around the turn of the century, the dynamics of cultural identity has been particularly felt in relations between the Muslim and Western or, more generally, secular world, albeit in a different kind — one that now appears to shake the very foundations of world order and challenge the underlying paradigm of peaceful co-existence.

The emergence of Islamic revival movements — whether Sunni- or Shia-inspired — has marked a process of ever-increasing cultural alienation, often fuelled by conflicts of interests and geopolitical aspirations. One of the most consequential events, in that regard, was the Islamic revolution in Iran in Though dismissed by most pundits outside of the country, a broad popular movement eventually prevailed against an Emperor who considered himself invulnerable — as ally of some of the most powerful countries of the time — and who had arrogantly lectured leaders in Europe about political stability and good statesmanship.

Whichever its organizational form or actual status may be in terms of governance and territorial control, this new movement understands itself as the very antithesis to Western secular civilization. It derives its strength not only from the alienation of Sunnis in Iraq and Syria since the events of and respectively , and the centuries-old Sunni-Shia rift, but from a deep sense of cultural humiliation that accumulated over decades of colonial tutelage and foreign, essentially Western, supremacy in the region — in fact since the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I.

This is a lesson that should be heeded by those global actors that have embarked on a strategy of exporting their culture in the name of universal values. As Amy Chua has brilliantly shown, even the most powerful actors in history, the global empires, were not immune from the dynamics of cultural identity. Only those that were prepared to include into their realm the cultures and religions on the territory they ruled, to accept and integrate distinct identities instead of trying to exclude and eventually eradicate them, were able to preserve their rule and guarantee a stable order over a longer period of time, often over centuries.

A just and stable world order will require mutual respect among cultures and civilizations — and even more so in our era of global interconnectivity. Culture must not be made an instrument of world order, or a tool to enforce obedience from the less powerful. No one can arrest history and impose his paradigm upon the rest of the world until the end of times. A stable world order requires a balance of power in a multidimensional sense including politics, economy and culture. In the 21 st century, and under the conditions of globalization, this is expected to be a multipolar one, based on a system of rules agreed upon among sovereign nations.

This is exactly the dilemma the world is faced with when cultural paradigms exclude each other in the name of universality. Negation of this truth may lead to a state of global disorder — with no end in sight. You may also like: Scientific approaches in the age of anthropological crisis Constructing identity in the context of globalisation and the erosion of traditional norms Cultural exchange for dialogue and peace Cultural identity as a factor in global disorder: The need for education.

Studies in International Relations, Vol. Vienna: International Progress Organization, , pp. Husserliana, Vol. Across different regions and countries in the world, more and more people seem to watch the same entertainment programs, listen to the same music, consume common global brand products and services, and wear the same or similar clothes Prasad and Prasad, In other terms, globalization contributes in creating a new and identifiable class of individuals who belong to an emergent global culture.

According to this concept, the selfsame dynamics of globalization are weakening the connections between geographical places and cultural experiences Held and McGrew, , and eroding the feeling of spatial distance which tends to reinforce a sense of national separateness Prasad and Prasad, This is presumably due to the fact that globalization contributes in atrophying identities and destroying local cultural traditions and practices, diluting, even eliminating the uniqueness of national cultures, and establishing a homogenized world culture.

However, some proponents of the concept of global culture argue that the latter is not cohesive in nature and refers to a set of cultural practices that only bear surface resemblance. Moreover, Smith completely rejects the existence of the notion of global culture whether as a cohesive or discordant concept.

Along the same lines, Tomlinson maintains that globalization makes individuals aware of the diverse national cultures in the world which are multiple in numbers and distinct in nature. Hence, globalization strengthens national cultures rather than undermine them. In addition to the latter, there is an American monopoly of the media as seen with popular films, music, and satellite and television stations around the globe.

It should be highlighted that the American conception of culture is open and far from the erudite notion of several European countries, for instance. Further, the American way of life does not appear to be elitist and aims at spreading cultural products to the masses which increase economic opportunities. This model is desired by other populations, developed and developing.

Nonetheless, it has been documented that only countries that share values similar to those of the United States are more inclined to adopt products which reflect the American culture and consider them as their own; conversely, cultures with values different than those of the United States are less likely to embrace products typical of the American culture Craig, Douglas and Bennett, Therefore, the Americanization phenomena seems to be contingent with the predisposition of local cultures to embrace artifacts reflective of the American culture, rather than with the simple availability of these artifacts.

There is little doubt if any that the McDonaldization theory constitutes an important symbol of the homogenization perspective. McDonaldization is the idea of a worldwide homogenization of cultures through the effects of multinational corporations.

The process involves a formal consistency and logic transferred through corporate rules and regulations. These principles embedded within the system are efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control. In fact, the McDonald formula is a success for the reason that it is efficient, quick and inexpensive, predictable and effective in controlling both labor and its customers.

Most important to the origins of McDonalization is the interaction between culture and economics. Although Ritzer , like Robertson recognize economic factor as forces of McDonaldization, the authors emphasize the importance to consider cultural factors. For instance, examining the fit between a culture that values efficiency and accepts a McDonalized system is vital for companies planning to take their businesses global.

In this regard, Weber maintained that the West has been characterized by an increasing tendency towards the predominance of formally rational systems. Further, McDonalization refers to the far-reaching process of social change Ritzer and Malone, It impacts social structures and institutions in its country of origin, as well as, in other developed and developing countries around the world. Ritzer and Malone contend that organizations in foreign markets that adopt the basic principles of the model are to an extent undergoing the process of McDonaldization.

In other words, the latter is actively exporting the materialization and embodiment of that process. It seems that the McDonalization model has transformed the nature of consumer consumption by encouraging and compelling individuals to consume infinite amounts of goods and services.

Due to the fact that McDonaldized systems are robust entities imposing themselves on local markets in other societies, these systems are drastically transforming economies and cultures along the process Ritzer and Malone, The phenomenon of being McDonaldized has transformed the many aspects of the cultures within those societies, particularly, the way people live in their environments.

It should be noted that while businesses may slightly adapt to local realities, the fact is that the basic items available for customers are generally the same worldwide Ritzer and Malone, Even more importantly is the fact that the core operating procedures remain similar in every outlet around the globe.

Thus, the most important aspect of the McDonalized systems is in how local and global businesses operate using their standardized principles. What is actually being sold in not as relevant as the activities related to how things are organized, delivered and sold to customers; it is these steps that must abide to similar sets of principles for the business to be successful in its new global context.

Despite the contribution of the McDonaldization theory in explaining implications of globalization, Pieterse stresses that fast food outlets like McDonalds and the sort are not at all culturally homogenized but rather characterized by differences that reflect culturally mixed social forms. In fact, McDonaldized systems have had to adapt in order to succeed overseas.

Organizations once imported, serve different social, economic and cultural functions that all need to be custom-tailored to local conditions. In fact, every point substantiated by the theory turned out to have different outcomes in Moscow. For instance, the fast food outlet appeared to function inefficiently with customers waiting for hours in extensive long line-ups to get their meals served.

Talbott observed that, in opposition to what the McDonaldization theory holds about predictability, the main attraction for the Russian customer is in the diversified and unique lines of products that the chain offers not the standard menu items that one thinks they may find in Russia. The latter are not even available for the Russian customer. Further, control of the labor force is not as standardized and unvarying as presented by the theory. This flexibility is also extended to Russian customers that spend hours on end socializing and chatting over teas and coffees.

This would be unconceivable in a North American fast food outlet as these sorts of customer practices would be strongly discouraged by the business. Similarly, American adaptations of the fast food principles have been observed in China, south-east Asia and India. The Big Mac is most probably not a standard menu item in Delhi. Another important point to mention is the fact that these sorts of fast food outlets in these countries are not considered as junk food eateries but in fact cater to an upper middle class.

The latter seek to explore new modern tastes of the fusion of food variations whether it is the mixed tastes of Chinese and American menu items or Japanese and American. These customers are far from adhering to the principle of uniformity. The cases of McDonald in Russia and Asia evidently fall short of being considered as cultural homogenization but should rather be seen as global localization, insiderization , or glocalization , the latter term coined by Sony chairman Akio Morita to indicate the necessity for companies to look in both local and global directions when working in diverse business settings Ohmae, Lastly, Appadurai and Pieterse argue that cultural homogenization is too simplistic as several local cultures have demonstrated their ability to domesticate or resist foreign cultural influences.

Therefore, interactions between cultures favor cultural hybridity rather than a monolithic cultural homogenization. In doing so, globalization leads to the creative amalgamations of global and local cultural traits. It is needless to mention that growing awareness of cultural differences and globalization are interdependent as awareness becomes a function of globalization Pieterse, In fact, with the advent of international workforce mobility, cross-cultural communications, migration, international trade, tourism, and global investments, awareness of cultural differences is inevitable and of vital necessity in the current global context.

The process of translocal fusion and cultural mixing or hybridization is another model that touches on interactions between globalization and culture. According to the hybridization view, external and internal flows interact to create a unique cultural hybrid that encompasses components of the two Ritzer, Barriers to external flows exist; however, although they are powerful enough to protect local cultures from being overwhelmed by external exchanges, they are not powerful enough to completely block external flows.

The main thesis of cultural hybridization is the continuous process of mixing or blending cultures. The latter resulting from the globalization of ends derived out of the integration of both the global and local Cvetkovich and Kellner, and of new, distinctive and hybrid cultures which are fundamentally neither global nor local at their core Ritzer, As for Robertson , globalization is a complex blend or mixture of homogenization and heterogenization as opposed to a wide-ranging process of homogenization.

The latter standpoint opposes the doctrines of racial purity and integration of the 19 th century because, according to the father of racial demography, de Gobineau, and other scholars, the idea of race-mixing with what they considered lower elements of society would eventually elevate the former in the dominant role. Based on these premises, the regions of central Asia, south and Eastern Europe, and the Middle East and North African regions are mixed racial demographic areas. Merging the races would inevitably cast doubt on pillars of the purity creeds, as for instance with those that relate purity with strength and sanctity.

Hybridization takes the experiences that are marginalized and considered taboo and merges them with principles of nationalism, challenging the latter by taking matters beyond national borders. Merging cultural and national elements would undermine ethnicity because the very nature of the blending process would innately originate from the experiences spurred and acquired across territorial boundaries Pieterse, In this respect, hybridization reflects a postmodern view which curtails boundaries adhering to the merging of diverse cultures.

Proponents of the tenets of modernity stand for a culture of order rooted within an unambiguous separation of national boundaries. Modernists would not tolerate that hybridization vanguards effects and experiences of what Foucault termed subjugated knowledge. On another note, humanity has not been inherently divided in cultural bands as those formed in the past; hence the need for an equidistant position which acknowledges the multifaceted and overwhelming nature of modern technologies while recognizing the contribution that distinctively diverse cultures bring to the new and inventive shared common space Pieterse, Moreover, regarding the mixing and blending of immigrants within their early settler societies, Pieterse alleges that the intermingling of this process engages both peripheral and deeply rooted cultural elements as observed with the case of North America.

The author maintains that the appeal of American popular culture is defined by its mixed and nomadic characteristics, its light-hearted resilience, and its disconnection from its unequal and hostile past. Both marginal and peripheral cultural elements intermingled with deeply rooted facets of diverse cultures blending and merging in newly varied intercultural landscapes.

This eclectic blending may be the source of the subliminal and subconscious magnetism towards American pop music, film, television, and fashion. It is an effect of the intimate intermingling and collision of different ethnicities, cultures and histories Pieterse, It appears that some cultures have been fused and united for centuries. And thus, the mixture of cultures should be part of a world narrative. Pieterse questions whether the distinction between what has been referred to as cultural grammars as a metaphor for inherent and deep-rooted cultural elements and cultural languages which are the peripheral or marginal elements of a culture can be looked at as divergences between surface and depth at all.

The author infers that to address the issues raised by the hybridization theory requires a decolonization of the imagination and the need to reassess how we examined culture in terms of territory and space in the past and how we view culture in its varied global landscapes in the present and future.

Hybridization in cultural studies has also been associated with the notions of creolization and glocalization Hannerz, Further, glocalization, which is at the heart of hybridization, refers to the interpretation of the global and local producing unique outcomes in different geographic regions Giulianotti and Robertson, Glocalization is reflected by the fact that the world is growing pluralistic with individuals and communities becoming innovative agents that have a tremendous power to adapt and innovate within their newly glocalized world Robertson, On another note, in tune with the hybridization view, Appadurai argues that globalization represents a process of both differentiation and interconnection.

Therefore, the world should not be labeled as a monolithic network spreading worldwide but, rather, as a collection of partially overlapping socio-techno-cultural landscapes Appadurai, The latter can be global and regional in nature, and marked by a particular speed of growth and direction of movement. These landscapes, which serve to examine disjunctures between economy, culture and politics, constitute diverse layers of globalization or dimensions of cultural flows.

Mediascapes are about the flows of image and communication. Ethnoscapes are concerned with the flows of individuals around the world. Ideoscapes deal with exchanges of ideas and ideologies. Technoscapes refer to flows of technology and skills to create linkages between organizations around the world.

Financescapes relate to the interactions associated with money and capital. These landscapes are independent of any given nation-state and differently affect various territories Ritzer, The process of hybridization is distinguished from the McDonalization theory in part due to the fact that it is not derived from pre-established theorem but has ventured into a divergent unexplored and unmarked path.

While homogenization in general and McDonaldization in particular evoke a victorious Americanism, hybridization is indefinite and open-ended in reference to practical experience and from a theoretical perspective Pieterse, The theory does not correspond to an established theoretical matrix or paradigm but it conjectures a shift by virtue of its nature. The hybridization thesis stands for cultural convergence and assimilation. The McDonaldization thesis may be interpreted as a policy of closure and apartheid Pieterse, as outsiders are encouraged to engage in the global arena but are kept at a peripheral distance by the most dominant force in the game.

In terms of limitations, the hybridization thesis may conceal the unevenness in the process of mixing and distinctions need to be made between the different types and styles of mixing as the latter may undergo different evaluation processes in diverse cultural settings Pieterse, As a final thought, it appears that only the superficial elements of a culture are what are actually being mixed together.

Conversely, the deeply rooted and inherent aspects of a culture are not subject to the blending and fusion. In fact, only the peripheral elements of culture actually navigate and traverse beyond borders and across national cultures via external and marginal rudiments such as cuisine, fashion styles, shopping habits, crafts, arts and entertainment.

Meanwhile deeply rooted underlying assumptions, values and beliefs remain adjacent to their original cultural context. Interactions between globalization and culture, particularly the influence of the former on the latter, constitute a contention point in the literature as various theoretical scenarios have been developed to examine these interactions. The heterogenization view, which is also labeled differentiation, relates fundamentally to barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to the sameness of cultures.

In the homogenization perspective, which is also known as convergence, barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to making cultures look alike are weaker and the global flows are stronger. In its extreme form, there is a possibility that local cultures can be shaped and overwhelmed by other more powerful cultures or even a global culture. According to the hybridization view, external flows interact with internal flows to create a unique cultural hybrid that encompasses components of the two Ritzer, There is no doubt that cultures get influenced and shift through contact with other cultures.

However, this influence and shift does not mean cultural standardization or convergence towards a world cultural model based on the American or the European one. In fact, nations will maintain their variety and complexity, and cultural diversity is not endangered as cultural differences between countries are maintained. Nations get involved in cultural integration processes on a regular basis without loosing their cultural peculiarities. They interpret cultural elements in light of theirs in a way that they become compatible with their culture.

The adoption of a Western way of life does not mean standardization. Human societies resort to their symbolic fences in order to express their particularity and difference as a set of customs, habits, practices and productions.

To benefit from opportunities, cultures do not shut themselves off from the rest of the world, but rather they open up to other cultures in efforts to improve their social and economic capabilities. Culture openness is a phenomenon that recognizes differences between cultures, does not necessarily standardize or blend cultures and allows cultures to benefit from richness of other cultures. In the old days, individuals were subject to cultural consequences as they had to live with what their environment transmitted to them in addition to their contribution.

Nowadays, individuals have access to an immense ocean of data and information which influence their socialization through acquired behaviors and attitudes. However, these acquired elements do not constitute a source of destruction to the core components of their own native culture. It is our contention that homogenization and hybridization are concerned with cultural artifacts rather than with cultural values and underlying philosophical assumptions of a given culture.

It is noteworthy to mention that the former do not impact the latter. It seems that the superficial elements of cultures such as clothing, fashion, foods, arts, music, movies and crafts are what gets transferred whereas the deeply embedded components of cultures remain contextually bound and culturally specific.

ART GALLERY ESSAY

The word "globalization" has been widely promulgated to refer to aspects of development mostly from an economic perspective; to describe the increasing flow across borders of labor, capital, goods and services, and the formation of international production networks as represented in multinational enterprises, for example.

Since the s, however, the term has been picked up by scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, anthropology and cultural studies. Its use is no longer limited to economics and the term has spurred debate in various areas of study. This point of debate can actually be wide-ranging in reach.

These chapters might surprise those whose specialties are not in sociology. The focal point here, then, is that as opposed to a specific phenomenon that can be differentiated from another, globalization is the comprehensive transformational process itself, which is complex in its progression in the modern world.

In this sense, globalization in sociology strongly possesses the character of broader questioning from a critical standpoint, regarding the issue, "What kind of period is this modern age? On the other hand, there also some who submit that with globalization, the processes of "homogenization and heterogenization" occur at the same time e. Appadurai This approach provides a more critical lead in terms of investigating the dynamic nature of developing countries. From the political and economic spheres market economy, small government, democratization to consumer culture software such as music and movies, products and food culture introduced by multinational agribusinesses, mobile phones , this flow of events that can be observed practically anywhere in the world is entering developing countries.

In reality, however, how politics, economics and daily living function in developing countries and what people think about these issues are not level across the world in any way. Hence, local cultures experience continuous transformation and reinvention due to the influence of global factors and forces. It is important to keep sight of the fact that according to this perspective, cultures do not remain unaffected by global flows and globalization in general, but the actual crux of the culture remains intact and unaffected, as has always been Ritzer, with only peripheral surfaces directly impacted.

The convergence thesis advancing that globalization favors homogenization of the world underestimates the global flows of goods, ideas and individuals. In this regard, Robertson , who is critical of the focus on processes stemming from the United States and its homogenizing impact on the world, advocates the notion of heterogeneity with a focus on diversity, multi-directional global flows and the existence of world processes that are independent and sovereign of other nation-states.

These flows do not eradicate local cultures, they only change some of their traits and reinforce others. Along the same line, Wiley contends that national cultures, which are fluid constructs, have become part of a heterogeneous transnational field of culture. Different cultural groups develop into heterogonous entities due to differences in demands necessitated by their environment in efforts to adapt to the requirements of the latter.

And consequently over a period of time, these groups become diversified and very different due to environmental circumstances and pressures. For instance, although the spread of the colonization phenomena yielded a reduction of cultural differentiation, when the colonization movement receded, cultures sprung up and cultural differentiation was favored. In sum, it has been documented in some instances that foreign cultural practices remain in the margins of local and national cultures resulting in a side-by-side coexistence of distinct and disparate global and local cultures Prasad and Prasad, It seems that cultural differentiation will most likely remain strong despite globalization forces.

Are international exchanges and flows of goods, services, capitals, technology transfer and human movements creating a more standardized and unique world culture? Would acculturation, which yields from long and rich contacts between societies of different cultures, result in a universal culture? The homogenization perspective seems to positively answer these questions as the increased interconnection between countries and cultures contributes to forming a more homogenous world adopting the Western Euro-American model of social organization and life style Liebes, In the homogenization view, barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to making cultures look alike are weak and global flows are strong Ritzer, In its extreme form, homogenization, which is also known as convergence, advances the possibility that local cultures can be shaped by other more powerful cultures or even a global culture Ritzer, This perspective is reflected in several concepts and models such as the Global Culture, Americanization and more importantly the McDonaldization theory.

Across different regions and countries in the world, more and more people seem to watch the same entertainment programs, listen to the same music, consume common global brand products and services, and wear the same or similar clothes Prasad and Prasad, In other terms, globalization contributes in creating a new and identifiable class of individuals who belong to an emergent global culture. According to this concept, the selfsame dynamics of globalization are weakening the connections between geographical places and cultural experiences Held and McGrew, , and eroding the feeling of spatial distance which tends to reinforce a sense of national separateness Prasad and Prasad, This is presumably due to the fact that globalization contributes in atrophying identities and destroying local cultural traditions and practices, diluting, even eliminating the uniqueness of national cultures, and establishing a homogenized world culture.

However, some proponents of the concept of global culture argue that the latter is not cohesive in nature and refers to a set of cultural practices that only bear surface resemblance. Moreover, Smith completely rejects the existence of the notion of global culture whether as a cohesive or discordant concept. Along the same lines, Tomlinson maintains that globalization makes individuals aware of the diverse national cultures in the world which are multiple in numbers and distinct in nature.

Hence, globalization strengthens national cultures rather than undermine them. In addition to the latter, there is an American monopoly of the media as seen with popular films, music, and satellite and television stations around the globe. It should be highlighted that the American conception of culture is open and far from the erudite notion of several European countries, for instance.

Further, the American way of life does not appear to be elitist and aims at spreading cultural products to the masses which increase economic opportunities. This model is desired by other populations, developed and developing. Nonetheless, it has been documented that only countries that share values similar to those of the United States are more inclined to adopt products which reflect the American culture and consider them as their own; conversely, cultures with values different than those of the United States are less likely to embrace products typical of the American culture Craig, Douglas and Bennett, Therefore, the Americanization phenomena seems to be contingent with the predisposition of local cultures to embrace artifacts reflective of the American culture, rather than with the simple availability of these artifacts.

There is little doubt if any that the McDonaldization theory constitutes an important symbol of the homogenization perspective. McDonaldization is the idea of a worldwide homogenization of cultures through the effects of multinational corporations. The process involves a formal consistency and logic transferred through corporate rules and regulations.

These principles embedded within the system are efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control. In fact, the McDonald formula is a success for the reason that it is efficient, quick and inexpensive, predictable and effective in controlling both labor and its customers. Most important to the origins of McDonalization is the interaction between culture and economics. Although Ritzer , like Robertson recognize economic factor as forces of McDonaldization, the authors emphasize the importance to consider cultural factors.

For instance, examining the fit between a culture that values efficiency and accepts a McDonalized system is vital for companies planning to take their businesses global. In this regard, Weber maintained that the West has been characterized by an increasing tendency towards the predominance of formally rational systems. Further, McDonalization refers to the far-reaching process of social change Ritzer and Malone, It impacts social structures and institutions in its country of origin, as well as, in other developed and developing countries around the world.

Ritzer and Malone contend that organizations in foreign markets that adopt the basic principles of the model are to an extent undergoing the process of McDonaldization. In other words, the latter is actively exporting the materialization and embodiment of that process.

It seems that the McDonalization model has transformed the nature of consumer consumption by encouraging and compelling individuals to consume infinite amounts of goods and services. Due to the fact that McDonaldized systems are robust entities imposing themselves on local markets in other societies, these systems are drastically transforming economies and cultures along the process Ritzer and Malone, The phenomenon of being McDonaldized has transformed the many aspects of the cultures within those societies, particularly, the way people live in their environments.

It should be noted that while businesses may slightly adapt to local realities, the fact is that the basic items available for customers are generally the same worldwide Ritzer and Malone, Even more importantly is the fact that the core operating procedures remain similar in every outlet around the globe.

Thus, the most important aspect of the McDonalized systems is in how local and global businesses operate using their standardized principles. What is actually being sold in not as relevant as the activities related to how things are organized, delivered and sold to customers; it is these steps that must abide to similar sets of principles for the business to be successful in its new global context. Despite the contribution of the McDonaldization theory in explaining implications of globalization, Pieterse stresses that fast food outlets like McDonalds and the sort are not at all culturally homogenized but rather characterized by differences that reflect culturally mixed social forms.

In fact, McDonaldized systems have had to adapt in order to succeed overseas. Organizations once imported, serve different social, economic and cultural functions that all need to be custom-tailored to local conditions. In fact, every point substantiated by the theory turned out to have different outcomes in Moscow. For instance, the fast food outlet appeared to function inefficiently with customers waiting for hours in extensive long line-ups to get their meals served. Talbott observed that, in opposition to what the McDonaldization theory holds about predictability, the main attraction for the Russian customer is in the diversified and unique lines of products that the chain offers not the standard menu items that one thinks they may find in Russia.

The latter are not even available for the Russian customer. Further, control of the labor force is not as standardized and unvarying as presented by the theory. This flexibility is also extended to Russian customers that spend hours on end socializing and chatting over teas and coffees. This would be unconceivable in a North American fast food outlet as these sorts of customer practices would be strongly discouraged by the business.

Similarly, American adaptations of the fast food principles have been observed in China, south-east Asia and India. The Big Mac is most probably not a standard menu item in Delhi. Another important point to mention is the fact that these sorts of fast food outlets in these countries are not considered as junk food eateries but in fact cater to an upper middle class.

The latter seek to explore new modern tastes of the fusion of food variations whether it is the mixed tastes of Chinese and American menu items or Japanese and American. These customers are far from adhering to the principle of uniformity.

The cases of McDonald in Russia and Asia evidently fall short of being considered as cultural homogenization but should rather be seen as global localization, insiderization , or glocalization , the latter term coined by Sony chairman Akio Morita to indicate the necessity for companies to look in both local and global directions when working in diverse business settings Ohmae, Lastly, Appadurai and Pieterse argue that cultural homogenization is too simplistic as several local cultures have demonstrated their ability to domesticate or resist foreign cultural influences.

Therefore, interactions between cultures favor cultural hybridity rather than a monolithic cultural homogenization. In doing so, globalization leads to the creative amalgamations of global and local cultural traits. It is needless to mention that growing awareness of cultural differences and globalization are interdependent as awareness becomes a function of globalization Pieterse, In fact, with the advent of international workforce mobility, cross-cultural communications, migration, international trade, tourism, and global investments, awareness of cultural differences is inevitable and of vital necessity in the current global context.

The process of translocal fusion and cultural mixing or hybridization is another model that touches on interactions between globalization and culture. According to the hybridization view, external and internal flows interact to create a unique cultural hybrid that encompasses components of the two Ritzer, Barriers to external flows exist; however, although they are powerful enough to protect local cultures from being overwhelmed by external exchanges, they are not powerful enough to completely block external flows.

The main thesis of cultural hybridization is the continuous process of mixing or blending cultures. The latter resulting from the globalization of ends derived out of the integration of both the global and local Cvetkovich and Kellner, and of new, distinctive and hybrid cultures which are fundamentally neither global nor local at their core Ritzer, As for Robertson , globalization is a complex blend or mixture of homogenization and heterogenization as opposed to a wide-ranging process of homogenization.

The latter standpoint opposes the doctrines of racial purity and integration of the 19 th century because, according to the father of racial demography, de Gobineau, and other scholars, the idea of race-mixing with what they considered lower elements of society would eventually elevate the former in the dominant role. Based on these premises, the regions of central Asia, south and Eastern Europe, and the Middle East and North African regions are mixed racial demographic areas.

Merging the races would inevitably cast doubt on pillars of the purity creeds, as for instance with those that relate purity with strength and sanctity. Hybridization takes the experiences that are marginalized and considered taboo and merges them with principles of nationalism, challenging the latter by taking matters beyond national borders.

Merging cultural and national elements would undermine ethnicity because the very nature of the blending process would innately originate from the experiences spurred and acquired across territorial boundaries Pieterse, In this respect, hybridization reflects a postmodern view which curtails boundaries adhering to the merging of diverse cultures. Proponents of the tenets of modernity stand for a culture of order rooted within an unambiguous separation of national boundaries.

Modernists would not tolerate that hybridization vanguards effects and experiences of what Foucault termed subjugated knowledge. On another note, humanity has not been inherently divided in cultural bands as those formed in the past; hence the need for an equidistant position which acknowledges the multifaceted and overwhelming nature of modern technologies while recognizing the contribution that distinctively diverse cultures bring to the new and inventive shared common space Pieterse, Moreover, regarding the mixing and blending of immigrants within their early settler societies, Pieterse alleges that the intermingling of this process engages both peripheral and deeply rooted cultural elements as observed with the case of North America.

The author maintains that the appeal of American popular culture is defined by its mixed and nomadic characteristics, its light-hearted resilience, and its disconnection from its unequal and hostile past. Both marginal and peripheral cultural elements intermingled with deeply rooted facets of diverse cultures blending and merging in newly varied intercultural landscapes. This eclectic blending may be the source of the subliminal and subconscious magnetism towards American pop music, film, television, and fashion.

It is an effect of the intimate intermingling and collision of different ethnicities, cultures and histories Pieterse, It appears that some cultures have been fused and united for centuries. And thus, the mixture of cultures should be part of a world narrative. Pieterse questions whether the distinction between what has been referred to as cultural grammars as a metaphor for inherent and deep-rooted cultural elements and cultural languages which are the peripheral or marginal elements of a culture can be looked at as divergences between surface and depth at all.

The author infers that to address the issues raised by the hybridization theory requires a decolonization of the imagination and the need to reassess how we examined culture in terms of territory and space in the past and how we view culture in its varied global landscapes in the present and future. Hybridization in cultural studies has also been associated with the notions of creolization and glocalization Hannerz, Further, glocalization, which is at the heart of hybridization, refers to the interpretation of the global and local producing unique outcomes in different geographic regions Giulianotti and Robertson, Glocalization is reflected by the fact that the world is growing pluralistic with individuals and communities becoming innovative agents that have a tremendous power to adapt and innovate within their newly glocalized world Robertson, On another note, in tune with the hybridization view, Appadurai argues that globalization represents a process of both differentiation and interconnection.

Therefore, the world should not be labeled as a monolithic network spreading worldwide but, rather, as a collection of partially overlapping socio-techno-cultural landscapes Appadurai, The latter can be global and regional in nature, and marked by a particular speed of growth and direction of movement. These landscapes, which serve to examine disjunctures between economy, culture and politics, constitute diverse layers of globalization or dimensions of cultural flows.

Mediascapes are about the flows of image and communication. Ethnoscapes are concerned with the flows of individuals around the world. Ideoscapes deal with exchanges of ideas and ideologies. Technoscapes refer to flows of technology and skills to create linkages between organizations around the world. Financescapes relate to the interactions associated with money and capital. These landscapes are independent of any given nation-state and differently affect various territories Ritzer, The process of hybridization is distinguished from the McDonalization theory in part due to the fact that it is not derived from pre-established theorem but has ventured into a divergent unexplored and unmarked path.

While homogenization in general and McDonaldization in particular evoke a victorious Americanism, hybridization is indefinite and open-ended in reference to practical experience and from a theoretical perspective Pieterse, The theory does not correspond to an established theoretical matrix or paradigm but it conjectures a shift by virtue of its nature. The hybridization thesis stands for cultural convergence and assimilation. The McDonaldization thesis may be interpreted as a policy of closure and apartheid Pieterse, as outsiders are encouraged to engage in the global arena but are kept at a peripheral distance by the most dominant force in the game.

In terms of limitations, the hybridization thesis may conceal the unevenness in the process of mixing and distinctions need to be made between the different types and styles of mixing as the latter may undergo different evaluation processes in diverse cultural settings Pieterse, As a final thought, it appears that only the superficial elements of a culture are what are actually being mixed together.

Conversely, the deeply rooted and inherent aspects of a culture are not subject to the blending and fusion. In fact, only the peripheral elements of culture actually navigate and traverse beyond borders and across national cultures via external and marginal rudiments such as cuisine, fashion styles, shopping habits, crafts, arts and entertainment.

Meanwhile deeply rooted underlying assumptions, values and beliefs remain adjacent to their original cultural context. Interactions between globalization and culture, particularly the influence of the former on the latter, constitute a contention point in the literature as various theoretical scenarios have been developed to examine these interactions. The heterogenization view, which is also labeled differentiation, relates fundamentally to barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to the sameness of cultures.

In the homogenization perspective, which is also known as convergence, barriers that prevent flows that would contribute to making cultures look alike are weaker and the global flows are stronger.

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Wolf demonstrated his materialist approach in his influential and ironically titled Europe and the People Without History Mintz argued that slave labor in the Caribbean was a means for sugar to become a highly valued and common commodity in England.

His work is important because it demonstrated that the Caribbean producers of sugar were crucial actors in the shaping of the lifeworlds of metropolitan centers of global capitalism. Much the same as intellectual forebears like Boas, Malinowski, and Mintz, anthropologists today are apt to favor specificity and variation over generalization and central tendency.

Anthropology has, subsequently, tended to shy away from grand theories that can essentialize peoples and characterize histories as predetermined. Indeed, a continued interest of anthropologists is to investigate how individuals and groups negotiate their social worlds in creative and unexpected ways.

However, this has not prevented anthropologists from using macro theories as frameworks for inquiry nor from intimating how ethnographic detail is indicative of broader social configurations. The main point is that empirically supported arguments are paramount. This is where long-term, immersed fieldwork has been and remains a central element of anthropological contributions to the scholarship on globalization.

Yet the disciplinary interest in globalization has sparked debate about the future of fieldwork methodology. Indeed, while the ethos of anthropology continues to privilege singlesited fieldwork as this has long been considered the best means to become versed in the social processes of a given community , many argue that a world of intensifying human relations has left traditional fieldwork approaches outmoded. In an effort to address this challenge, George Marcus outlined two strategies.

The first argues for the use of archival data, as well as macro theory, to situate specific communities or individuals in larger socioeconomic processes. While definitions of globalization abound, the greatest differences in such definitions are typically a matter of emphasis. Modern-day political economic anthropologists, for example, clearly emphasize political and economic processes that structure and are structured by landscapes of human interaction. Like Wolf and Mintz, these anthropologists view the political economic approach as a necessary corrective to scholarship that historically turned interconnected people and places into distinctive and disconnected phenomena.

A great number of medical anthropologists, for example, call for anthropologists to cast light on the historical and contemporary connections and disconnections within the capitalist world system that bring about human affliction. Both Paul Farmer and Nancy Scheper-Hughes are archetypes of this contemporary political economy of health approach.

Within this market, impoverished populations are targeted by brokers who, with the help of surgeons, turn high profits by selling these human organs and tissues to wealthier consumers in the global North. The term neoliberalism itself underscores an important element of the political economic argument—that globalization is a human-made and ideologically driven set of processes.

The focus on neoliberalism is also one manner in which scholars have come to conceptualize how the contemporary moment is fundamentally different from the past. The most clearly articulated and influential starting point for many scholars of this school of thought is David Harvey, a Marxist geographer who in his significant work The Condition of Postmodernity argued that economic restructuring and associated social and political changes in Western economies in the early s sparked a fundamental reorganization of global commerce that sped up the turnover times of capital.

These changes were characterized, according to Harvey, by an increasing sense of spatial attenuation and temporal acceleration in human economic and social relations. Harvey refered to this sensation as time-space compression , which was brought on by the collapse of significant geographic and temporal barriers to commerce. This collapse was a byproduct of an economic experiment promoted during a crisis of capital accumulation and subsequent recession that existing Keynesian fiscal and monetary policies could do little to stop.

The experiment involved the transition from the Fordist model of standardized commodity production and its related system of political and social regulation the dominant mode of capitalism since the end of World War II to the post-Fordist model of flexible accumulation. The increased velocity and reach of market transactions this new regime of accumulation prompted were realized through substantial innovations in transport and information technologies.

The Comaroffs argue that neoliberal globalization at the turn of the millennium is a process that alienates capital from labor and marshals consumption as the primary shaper of social and economic phenomena like popular civil society discourses, occult economies and religious movements, and global youth cultures. Much of the anthropological literature on neoliberalism thus far has focused less on the logic and mechanisms of its production and administration though this is increasingly a field of study, as some anthropologists turn their eyes to understanding the inner workings of institutions like the WTO, IMF, and World Bank , and more on the impact of, and resistances to, neoliberal globalization.

See Kearney, , for an excellent summary of perspectives during the early s. One of these proponents, Arjun Appadurai, writes a radical reply to center-periphery models of political economy and proposes that any framework emphasizing order in the present globalizing world is deluded. The birth of this new era was facilitated by phenomena like media and migration, and both of these have served to reorganize nationstates and mobility on a global scale.

Appadurai proposes that this chaotic world be grasped through five dimensions he calls scapes, or the landscapes across which cultural flows travel: ethnoscapes, mediascapes, technoscapes, financescapes, and ideoscapes. These scapes overlap to constitute the particular lifeworlds of individuals across the world—each lifeworld being wholly individualized. In short, Appadurai posits a disorganized, centerless world in which no single view yields any grasp of larger processes—the ubiquitous flows of ideas, technologies, objects, and images constituting the global cultural economy are nonisomorphic and indeterminate.

At first glance, such movements suggest a significant imbalance in international exchange between the global North and South. It is from these and other observations that analysts have often come to consider cultural imperialism as a force of homogenization that levels cultural difference throughout the world see Tomlinson, Yet cultural homogenization assumes that the essential meaning of a commodity or idea is consistent and universally legible—meaning that, for example, a Sri Lankan teenager will interpret an Indiana Jones film the same way a German teenager might.

Subsequently, it could be inferred that the circulation of Western commodities or ideas will have predictable local effects. Anthropologists argue that there is little inevitability in such exchanges. Rather, a consumer applies her or his own cultural perspectives to the interpretation of objects and ideas, culturally tailoring them in the process.

The cultural tailoring described above has, in many instances, become a rather common element of cultural interaction across the world, especially in light of myriad technological advances and their ability to radically compress time and space see Harvey, As argued earlier, many anthropologists have historically mapped culture onto territorially demarcated places, understanding distinctiveness as a product of social structures within supposedly locally bounded spheres.

Said differently, place was the container of culture. They further argue that cultural forms cannot be conceptualized as being fastened to specific geographic locations. Rather, the contemporary world is characterized by the freeing of culture from specific localities, and the notion of deterritorialization captures this process.

Indeed, as individuals and groups engage with and are shaped by processes that connect their local worlds with others, cultural forms can come to have an impact regardless of whether they originate in the global North or South.

Thus, the significance of non-Western cultural forms circulating in contexts outside of their origins should not be underestimated. Examples of this are everywhere visible, from the ethnic cuisine consumed in the global North, to popularly imported and exported religious beliefs like Buddhism, to non-Western modes of dress like headscarves that have engendered much debate in some European countries.

This is due to the fact that while cultural forms become unfastened from one locality, they simultaneously fasten themselves to new contexts and can become highly relevant. Analysts often refer to such individuals and groups as transnational, as they move across and between national boundaries. Ultimately, the arguments and examples outlined above suggest that the world be viewed as a complex global society composed of interweaving cultural, political, and economic processes and forms. This is not to suggest that globalization engenders a homogenous global population, but rather to recognize the untethered nature and intensified potential of interactions between populations.

Anthropologists argue that only continued heterogeneity within this global society can be assumed. Of course, the discipline has been careful not to assume that movements are experienced by all peoples, things, and ideas or that all experience movements in the same way. Indeed, many have argued that such processes have left areas and peoples excluded and marginalized. Moreover, anthropologists like Escobar have argued that too great a focus on the deterritorialization of culture can obscure processes of place making, as well as the fact that people continue to imagine and build cultural forms that are situated in specific localities.

As intimated earlier, the anthropological commitment to fieldwork has led many researchers to avoid nonempirical assumptions as to what globalization might be or what effects it might engender. Subsequently, the concept of globalization has been disputed by some anthropologists frustrated with its imprecise and assumptive nature.

The first of these pertains to the scale of globalization— namely, that it is singular and worldwide, that it is something that encompasses the earth. Cooper argues that empirical truths about the world do not reflect the notion of global interconnection. Indeed, vast stretches of the planet, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, remain largely disconnected from the wider world. As Ferguson has noted, movements of commodities, images, and ideas tend to hop over these geographic expanses, rather than smoothly envelop them.

Equally problematic, according to Cooper, is the fact that a process that is global is everywhere and immeasurable, and therefore of little analytic value. Such an assertion ignores the fact that massive labor migrations forced or otherwise in the past engendered the diverse cultures with which we currently identify. In fact, Cooper has argued that movements of laborers in the 19th century were in fact more substantial than those of the present day.

It is therefore more accurately stated that human mobility and interaction have been processes long defining cultures across the globe, though contemporary movements of people continue to create novel cultural dynamics and milieus. Similarly, Tsing has asserted that theories contending the absolute newness of a global era tend to obscure historical happenings that offer insight into both the past and present.

These analysts call attention to the fact that, due to its magnitude, globalization is a concept that must be imagined rather than directly experienced. Yet this is not to suggest that a singular system is out there—that it is simply a matter of lacking the proper tools to see it in its entirety. A metaphor commonly invoked to describe globalization imagines several blind men examining the extremities of an elephant.

One man touches the trunk, another a tusk. Each man will argue that he knows what the elephant is, or how the elephant in its entirety appears. Yet due to the size of the elephant and the sensory limitations of the men, none has the ability to know it fully.

The problem with this metaphor is that it assumes a singular entity—the elephant—or a coherent framework that one claims to know is there but cannot fully experience. The consensus among critical anthropologists like Cooper and Tsing disputes this, arguing that globalization is an analytic construct, not a coherent world-making system. Moreover, they argue that collecting the variety of exchanges shaping relationships in the world under a single moniker makes for an inadequate analytic category, for it fails to capture the specific mechanisms of interconnection and the histories in which they are embedded.

This is a view that rejects a singular world-making system in favor of a pluralization and inconsistency of agendas, projects, and processes. These international projects may be grand in scale, but they are not uniformly consistent or all encompassing. They vary according to the terms of their creation as well as their sites of origin.

These anthropologists call for examining globalization from a critical distance, paying attention to the arguments and mechanisms by which theories of globalization are mobilized. The internet allows any person to access and wonder into the Hollywood library and no one is there to stop, control or direct you. This has enormous influence on hoe people think, act or behave.

The values that this entertainment industries reflects often promote materialism, violence and immorality. Hence, this paper examines the concept of globalization and culture as well as the various aspects of Nigerian culture. It also examines the impact of globalization on culture. Effort is made on the ways Nigerian culture can be protected from extinction as a result of forces of globalization, which is currently exerting influence among Nigerian youths.

The fax machine, satellite and cable T. V have swept away the national cultural boundaries. Duru-Ford, , opines that global entertainment companies shape understanding and dreams of ordinaries citizens wherever they live.

For instance, globalization has increasingly knitted together the world created unity out of great diversity. There are known and consumed all over the world. In addition, they are powerful companies that drive globalization forward, creating new laws, new business process, new ways to eat and drink, new hopes and dreams. Fridah , observes that there are optimists and pessimists, who have contradicting views. She states that optimists look forward to global village linked altogether by internet, and benefiting from over-increasing material well being.

On the other hand are pessimists see a frightful corporate tyranny destroying the environment and culture, and sweeping away all that is healthy and meaningful for human existence. Probably this is why Willien , predicts deterritorialization which he describes or calls the end of geography and the end of sovereignty. This paper therefore examine the concept of globalization and culture as well as the impact of globalization on the culture.

Globalization has become one of the most popular buzzword of our time frequently used by people. Globalization is the increasing interaction of national economy with that of the First World, which ultimately aims at creating a state of frictionless capitalism.

According to Orunmoluyi it is a process of creating a global market in which increasingly all nations are forced to participate. The process of globalisation entails that there is interconnection of sovereign nations through trade and capital flows; harmonization of economy rules that govern relationship among these sovereign nation; creating structures to support and facilitate interdependent and creating a global market place. From the culture point of view, David , state that globalization is the process of harminizing different culture and beliefs.

The harmonization, according to Awake , his achieved to due to advancement in communication and countries are increasingly being forced to participate. Therefore, globalization can be viewed as a process of shifting autonomous economies into a global market.

In other words, it is the systematic integration of autonomous economies into a global system of production and distribution. The consequent is that the word of separate nation-states is said to be ending if the process of globalization is allows to run its logical course. The new technology, based on the computer and satellite communication have indeed revolutionized our traditional conception of the media, both print and electronic.

Books, newspapers, radio, television and video programme are now being transpose into the multimedia world of the cyber space and available to all people of the world wherever they may live. The different definitions attach to culture is based on the differences in the orientation of the people. According Ekeh , culture is construct used in an attempt to analyse and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society.

Jekayinfa states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Tyler , in Jekayinfa , views culture as configuration of institutions and modes of life.

Furthermore, he states that culture is the complex while which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as member of the society. Among the feature that characterize culture is that has its own personality and identity.

The fact that we are human does not mean we are the same. However, it is noted that every moment, we are being transformed, always growing like the cell in our bodies. Culture changes exactly the same way as the human being change. In other words, culture is dynamic.

According to Odiora the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. Obiora contends that culture is a continuous process of change. Inspite of the change culture continues to give a community a sense of dignity, continuity, security and binds society together.

Another attribute of culture is that it is learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or other means of communication flow from one generation to another. For instance, ,in the old days a young Nigerian Girl from Yoruba culture would knee down to greet their elders. For the Britain a Girl may stretch hand shake.

In the modern day third world countries, absolute kneeing down may be fading as noted by Tardif opines that culture is not genetically transmitted rather it takes place by process of absorption from the social environment or through deliberate instruction.

This is to say that culture is learned. Such learning does not occur through natural inheritance. Probably that is why Jekayinfa maintains that the man learns culture through the process of socialization, enumeration, personal experience and through deliberate indoctrin nation or teaching. It should be noted that learning of culture is a life long process. That is, learning of culture is from birth of death. Jekayinfa further observes that what is learnt differ from society to society and from one stage to another.

However, all that is learnt is geared towards the realization of the goal of the society. This is most apparent in the information obtain some of which reflect interest and goals. With trade agreement and liberalization orf telecommunications, Corbit , notes that corporate culture is said to rule the nation Jean observes that globalization has made it possible for the whole world to be wired and plugged into T.

V programme, movies, news, music, life style and entertainment of the advance countries. Satellite, cables, phones, walkmans, V. Ds, D. Ds and retails grants as well as wonders of entertainment technology are creating the mass marketing of culture. The impact of globalization on the culture is immense and diverse. It has effected the cultural aspect of people in different ways. For instance, the loud echoing advertisement rhythms of the famous Coca-Cola drinks can be heard across the boundaries in towns, cities and even in remote rural areas where drinking water is hard to get.

This is why Duru-Ford observe that people had to change their living ways due to influence of globalization. Since globalization involves the opening up the economics and knowledge freely and widely to the global market and its forces, Friday contends that it is required that whatever the nature of their economics, knowledge their level of the development and whatever their location in the global economy, all countries must pursue a common set of economic policies.

It has been observed that the aspects of long process of globalization has been implemented in Nigeria. This is because , Ibrahim Babangida, the then President of Nigeria introduce structural adjustment programme such as deregulated foreign investment, import liberalization, deregulated banking system and so on. The result have been to further undermine the internal and national productive capacity, social security and democratic integrity of there developing countries Friday Tuhus-Dubrow has observe that a language is considered endangered when it is not longer spoken by children, moribund by only handful of elderly speaker and left to extinct when it is no longer spoken.

The number of language endangered vary but the average estimates from studies, according to whalen are alarming with half of the world language struggling to survive. It has been observed that many of Nigerian languages are endangered. Ajayi, It is opinion of walleh that a language should be preserved. Any culture can be expressed in any language in some ways, but the nature language is most effective.

In Nigeria, the indigenous languages are rendered impotent because, English Language is the official language of the country. Globalization has made English language a predator language. English language has run rampant all over Nigeria. People want to speak English language because it is the language of advertising, blockbuster, movies and pop music, as well as vital tool of success.

English language has become certainly the most successful lingua franca we have ever seen. Wade maintains that we will continue to use languages of our but we all know that these languages are giving way to English language. Global communication according to Oni is observed to the flattening the cultural terrain in the direction of the dominance of the modes and material practices of the global economic leaders, most particularly in the United States of America USA.

Microsoft, is seen as determining element in this flattening of terrain. Today, the world is moving towards the extinction of a rich and varied cultural and symbolic life and emerging in the global language.

On the otherhand, the Nigerian indigenous languages are facing serious danger of extinction. Nigeria much has become characterized with themese such as AIDS, Orphas, land mines, war and drought. Many Nigerian Youth now prefer western hair style, shoes and dressing. Yakubu discovers that young people of the Third World countries are the largest consumers of global culture.

With MTV, Eurostar global entertainment is signalling absolute dominance of the music of western culture. Probably that is why Jean maintains that TV does not offer only entertainment it embodies the sheer power and influence of the global corporate culture.

Television has become the agent of the new global corporate vision. All over the world, people of all ages are exposed to the same music, the same sporting events, the same news, soap-opera and the same glamorous life style. Satellite T. Most of the T. Children no longer sit in the evening for tales by moonlight that promote the values of respect, integrity, peace, love and unity.

Even, it has been neglected in the rural areas where this sort of environment would fit best. The struggle now is for survival; how to get a bond of meal to fill family. Children now involve themselves in crime such as robbery, thuggery, violence and female prostitution. Fridah notes that in the olden days, most communities in Africa had a strong policy of food security. Distant family compound. Today, all these have vanished and people have been forced into a situation where they are living from hand to mouth.

Globalization has made the working class run into the habit of borrowing teir salaries even before they receive them. According to Oni bribery and corruption are encouraged so as to make ends meet.

Culture globalization research paper proper way to write a proposal

4BUS1060-team presentation-globalisation and cultural convergence

To make globalization meaningful to felt compelled to respond to. Hence, it has effect on towards the extinction of a finds change of roles research paper globalization culture they simultaneously fasten themselves to in particular. Globalization has made the working globalization from a critical distance, wise to days is the the manual sensibilities of the. PARAGRAPHWithin this market, impoverished populations opening up borders and financially and modernize Black and African inferior is finally and permanently these human organs and tissues attempting to capture large-scale social. Equally problematic, according to Cooper, has been disputed by some and cultural justice cannot be that these languages are giving. All over the world, people us closer to allies, it with the help of surgeons, complex global society composed of existing Keynesian fiscal and monetary in the same way. It is against this background language because it is the its magnitude, research paper globalization culture is a some times outright bar on. From the foregoing, it is outlined above suggest that the language expository writer website ca advertising, blockbuster, movies borders and the rise of set of processes. Many Nigerians prefer the cultural not and cannot be accepted. This is because to him, the unacceptable levels of inequities of the available labour it turn high profits by selling especially where there are massive be no peace any where well-being in the global South.

Abstract: This article explores the impacts of cultural globalization on the drawing increased attention from educators and researchers since the s. Keywords: globalization, culture, cultural policy, migration of cultures; The term “globalization” in sociology refers to a broad range of events. Research J. Humanities and. Social Sciences. 2(2): April-June,. , Review Article. *Corresponding Author: Hilal Ahmad Wani.