chernobyl free term paper

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Chernobyl free term paper

The development of nuclear weapons, as well as all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, proceeded under the direction of the obscurely named Ministry of Medium Machine Building. This ministry was, significantly, under the control of the military, and was deeply secretive. This ministry handled plutonium processing, and all uses of spent fuel, as well as the development of nuclear power plants G.

This odd pairing of responsibilities, reporting to the military rather than to the civil authorities, as would be the case in most democracies, can be directly related to the development of the catastrophe at Chernobyl. The mindset of the military is not oriented towards openness and sharing of information, nor is it necessarily oriented towards valuing of individual life. The military orientation meant that all such nuclear research, whether for bombs or peaceful purposes, was conducted on a strictly need to know basis.

This meant that only those directly involved in a specific area of study or design were permitted to know about that area of the project. It certainly meant that no one outside the project was permitted to learn anything about design ideas, safety concerns, comparisons with parallel efforts in other nations, or the results of testing. The Soviet people were certainly not given any insights into what was being built and operated in their midst. They among the last to know even when the crisis occurred.

The rest of the region and the world were certainly not informed even while the fires were burning. Because of the characteristics of nuclear power generation, this approach to creating and operating nuclear power plants was particularly dangerous.

Because of the secrecy, any faulty design ideas could be proposed and adopted with no outside or civilian academic oversight or review. Furthermore, the truth could be bent to accommodate the goals of the ministry.

Although this sort of dishonesty is not exclusively characteristic of the military, it is certainly the sort of problem that one hears about the military. This militaristic, secrecy-shackled strategy has been proven to be devastating for the workers, the people living around the installation, and, indeed, for everyone living in the path of the fallout. The blast released enormous clouds of radioactive particles that were swept by wind around the area.

This increased radioactivity was detectable at substantial distances away, and in other countries as well. When rains fell, the radioactive particles were precipitated out of the atmosphere and fell to the ground, contaminating whatever was there. On April 26, , The Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor was undergoing a test on the system that was meant to provide electric power in case of a power outage. This reflects the fact that there were, indeed, safety procedures and regulatory bodies that were meant to keep the facility operating safely.

However, there had been, from very first construction and launching of the reactor, pressure to do things fast, whether that was safe or not. As Zhores Medvedev points out, the intense pressure to launch early came from political authorities rather than from any scientific, engineering, or operations expert Z. The design had been pushed along to ensure that it would come online earlier than the projected start date. This was meant to bring great prestige and honor to the ministers involved and enhance their political careers.

The ministers in the Ministry of Energy, charged with supervising the nuclear sector of the energy industry, had no academic training in nuclear science and their experience was in other types of energy generation such as hydroelectric. This deficiency of leadership was true at the plant level as well G. This precipitated a cascade of events that resulted in explosions, the release of radioactive steam, and ten days of fires and release of radionucleotides.

Water was dropped from helicopters as well. Stationary helicopters experienced levels of radiation that were too high to make this practical. The sand that was dropped may have increased the fire. Equipment broke down from the radiation and made the heroic efforts of the workers less than effective GreenFacts. The impact of the blast on people in the immediate area, the region, and Europe was worsened by the secrecy imposed by the government.

Numbers of the dead and wounded have been difficult to determine. The Soviet government has never been forthcoming. Twenty-eight emergency workers are known to have lost their lives in the immediate aftermath of the blast. Another 19 died within a year or so of the accident. These were among many thousand workers who went into the inferno over the ten days following the accident and attempted to offset it somehow.

They were given little protection from the radiation. Sadly, some of their efforts, for example, the dumping of sand on the fire, may, certain instances, have exacerbated the problem, adding to the tragedy of their sacrifice.

They were certainly not all officially warned of the real danger of their task, nor were their families, according to the testimony of those interviewed by Alexeivich Alexievich viii. At least thyroid cancer cases in young people were attributed to drinking milk from cows that had been contaminated.

Had the local population been warned by the governmental authorities, children could have drunk an alternative beverage or been removed to another location. Additionally, children and adults could have taken supplementary iodine to prevent some of the uptakes of the radioactive particles. Most of the thyroid cancers were treated successfully in the short run, but long-term impacts may not be known until these people reach middle age and beyond Peron The numbers of people who developed other cancers, as a result, are very difficult to determine.

Estimates of the degree of exposure have suggested that, outside the immediate areas that experienced fallout, people living in certain parts of Nevada might receive more radiation exposure Peron Much of the blame lies with the way that the government initially covered up the accident and only revealed information when forced to do so.

The local populations have certainly been labeled as victims, based on this exposure. Because of the poor living conditions in the area that had existed previously for decades, local people jumped at the chance to obtain government support and subsidies. This contributed to an inflation of the numbers of those reported as affected Peron This phenomenon is attributable to the way that the Soviet government handled both the disaster and the way that aid and support were distributed customarily in the USSR.

Once the truth of the disaster finally became public, the local population saw an opportunity to better their situation and exploited the fact that the Soviet government would only help them if there were an emergency Peron Additionally, the victim label and the subsidies have created a long-term culture of dependency based on a perception that the local people, being sick and therefore somehow helpless, can do nothing for themselves.

It has also encouraged fatalism. This means that the people believe that they are doomed and that therefore nothing that they do or avoid doing such as smoking, drinking, exercising, or taking other health and safety precautions will make any difference in their lives. This combination of attitudes has prevented local people from moving on with their lives and rebuilding the regional economy. As a result, this region has not rebounded economically to the extent it could have in the intervening years Peron It is directly attributable to the policies of the USSR, because the government initially tried to hide the problem, and then when it was impossible to conceal, evacuated many more people than perhaps was strictly speaking necessary Peron Wherever the radioactive steam or smoke cooled down, it precipitated out radioactive materials.

This left residues on buildings and streets. These were washed down to clean up the problem. However, this meant that the water used in the process was contaminated. This water and other run-off have contaminated the sewage system and related materials. Untreated soils continue to contaminate the air above them with elevated levels of radiation GreenFacts.

In response to the emergency, sand and boron were discharged on the reactor. Afterwards in a period of several weeks following the event , the reactor was covered by a concrete structure. You're lucky! Order Now. It should be noted that the emergency workers who helped deal with the situation developed health issues radiation sickness shortly after Hatch et al.

In his article, Jaworowski writes that early exposure to radiation leads to thyroid cancer; when the study was carried out 25 years following the accident , thyroid cancer risks were much higher in the younger population. In addition, an increase in the levels of breast cancer was also reported. Basically, the events that occurred during and after the Chernobyl disaster pointed to the importance of keeping careful watch of all nuclear processes.

From a sociological viewpoint, social change came about as the result of a highly threatening situation. The catastrophe occurred unexpectedly; it demonstrated how the release of radioactive material can lead to detrimental effects for society and the environment. Also, this situation helped to review the idea of nuclear weaponry as a rather cruel and highly dangerous means of warfare. Hatch et al. Hence, the Chernobyl disaster, while being a tragedy, allowed society to dig deeper into the topic of radiation.

This, in turn, has impacted various areas: from military to medicine. Introduction Hurricanes represent a significant problem for emergency managers. As a common natural disaster, emergency managers must be able to deal with the problems associated with them.

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This shelter also prohibits particles from travelling and further contamination. The shelter is currently under construction, spanning m x m. The shelter is on track to be completed at the end of this year Scientists are facilitating new research around the effect of radiation on wildlife and plant systems.

Wild boar, deer, elk and wolves have been spotted and filmed roaming the dense vegetation in Pripyat, proposing new findings that the effects of radiation may not be as detrimental for animals as they are for humans. Although it is still difficult to research this as the levels of radiation in the vegetation areas are extremely high and dangers of radiation are still present to researchers. Remember: This is just a sample from a fellow student.

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Top 10 Things HBO's Chernobyl Got Factually Right And Wrong

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