Almost everyone has been fooled by bad science in the past, and some bad science has had some very negative impacts. The discredited and later jailed researcher, Andrew Wakefield, led a flawed study that linked the MMR vaccine to autism. This study has been publicly withdrawn, but the damage has been durable.
Millions of parents have come to fear life-saving childhood vaccines as a result, causing a resurgence of measles in places like the U. According to the World Health Organization , measles killed , people in The number of deaths in each country is directly correlated to vaccination rates. Follow-up studies have shown no connection between any vaccine and childhood autism. Fifteen years later, many parents are still repeating the falsehoods found in the original Wakefield study.
Around eighteen months ago, CERN held a press conference claiming researchers had found some neutrinos which had exceeded the speed light. At first no obvious errors could be found in the experiments. Exceeding the speed of light would have affected every major technology based on relativity, including GPS navigation, astronomy, nuclear energy, the age of the universe, etc. Some scientists were positing that time travel would be possible now that Einstein was wrong.
The CERN experiments momentarily shook the foundations of physics. This story ran on CNN, Fox, and all of the major cable news outlets. However, CERN later made the humbling admission that their results were a byproduct of faulty wiring and the laws of physics were still intact. In , the Scientists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann published results claiming that they had a machine cable of room temperature fusion.
This study flew around the world within weeks with the promise of cheap, clean, and nearly endless energy. Since our greatest source of energy, the sun, is also based on fusion, many people had dreams of harnessing the nuclear power of the sun in every home. Having trouble finding what you need? Contact a librarian for individual assistance.
There are many ways to reach us, and really, we'd love to help you It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Management Program: Home. Welcome to the McFarland Library This research guide will provide you with resources and skills necessary for conducting research in the management field. Need Assistance?
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You should always, after reading Wikipedia, jump onto Google Scholar and continue your search for credible essay sources. Find articles or better yet, textbooks that give general introductions to your topic. Read textbooks on the issue when you can: they were written to be readable by undergraduates. Cite credible sources, not Wikipedia. Teachers find it to be a useful way to teach hard-to-explain content.
They are always on the search for usable, motivating texts that might both act as a stimulus for discussion and help students learn. But YouTube videos in class are just that — a stimulus for discussion. Good teachers present YouTube videos in ways that are followed-up with critique and analysis of the content within the video.
Resources used in essays are not like that. The resources you use in essays need to be academically vetted through a process called peer review. Textbooks and journal articles meet that standard. Okay, use the Google Books website. I recommend you use it regularly to find good quality and credible textbooks. But be smart about how you cite Google Books. Google Books is an excellent source for finding information out of textbooks that are otherwise unavailable to you.
Both citations follow APA formatting:. Learn the rules of the game. The second citation looks better, is better, and will not throw up a red flag to your teacher. There are also websites out there where you can pay for someone else to write your essay. The helpfulprofessor. If you still really like the quote, try to read the original source text and see what the person was actually saying. I do recognise that sometimes you do need to cite very famous people.
Quoting the pope as an essay source might have its place in a religious studies class. But cite these authors in context. Instead, cite a key author in the area of Education. Cite a key medical or nursing scholar. Then, analyse the quote. Lecture slides are something the teacher either:. Firstly, lecture slides are not peer reviewed academic texts. But: cite the sources your teacher cited in the lecture slides.
Do your digging and your research. Most teachers at respectable universities have written several academic papers and book chapters. When a student references my papers in their essays, I cringe. Scientists residing in the offending countries can still use the software, Jobb explains. They merely need to warning, irony alert 2 move to a country less accepting of immigrants. Grizzly bears become diabetics during hibernation, which enables them to survive on the fat reserves they accumulate in the summer and fall The fascinating and widely reported results of this study , published in the prestigious journal Cell Metabolism, are now being called into question with the revelation that one study author at the biotech company Amgen manipulated data.
The journal retracted the article in September at Amgen's request. Six of the paper's 12 authors are from Amgen, including senior author Kevin Corbit, and it is not clear who the offending person was; the retraction notice merely says that that person "is no longer employed by Amgen. Amgen is concerned about this, and The Wall Street Journal is reporting on this, because the findings, if true, could have significant implications for understanding both the evolutionary cause for diabetes and a drug pathway to treat it.
The co-authors on the study from Washington State University and the University of Idaho have said they remain confident of the core result and are now repeating the study. The outcome certainly bears watching. Alberto Carpinteri hasn't garnered much international attention, but he's infamous in Italy for a series of fantastical papers with topics as disparate as the Shroud of Turin and cold fusion.
As the director of the Italian National Institute of Metrological Research INRIM in Turin, Carpinteri had planned to put some of his institution's funding toward a disputed form of nuclear fission called piezonuclear, in which compressing solids can result in nuclear fission without producing nuclear waste or gamma rays.
More than 1, scientists disagreed with the idea, and the Italian government backed down from funding the project, as reported in in the journal Nature. Those dissenting scientists may be reassured by the fact that 11 of Carpinteri's papers were retracted this year. All are from a journal Carpinteri once edited, called Meccanica, and, according to the retraction notices, all have been pulled because "the editorial process had been compromised.
Among the more widely reported of Carpinteri's retracted studies was his revelation that the Shroud of Turin -- a piece of linen that some believe was the burial shroud of Jesus, but which, based on radiocarbon dating, appears to be from the 13th century -- does indeed date back to the year of Jesus' death in 33 A. Carpinteri claimed to have determined that an earthquake in 33 A. The same earthquake would have increased the amount of carbon isotopes found on the linen, thus throwing off the radiocarbon dating, he said.
No word yet on whether cold fusion could have produced the shroud's image. The highest-profile retraction of comes from the journal Science, for a paper stating that gay door-to-door canvassers could sway the opinions of voters who are opposed to same-sex marriage with just a short, face-to-face discussion about the issue. It's worth noting up front that most results from psychology-based studies either can't be reproduced or are flat-out wrong.
That's not an opinion, but actually the result of a study published in August in Science -- by psychologists! If the results sound too good to be true, they probably aren't. The study on gay canvassers, published in December , made the remarkable suggestion that long-standing bias and prejudice could be overturned in just a few minutes of conversation. As such, the results were widely reported in the news media, including Live Science. But the whole thing had imploded by May , when other researchers not only couldn't replicate the study but also found evidence that the data were cooked.
The first author, Michael LaCour, was a graduate student at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the study was his graduate thesis. Green called for the retraction once he learned that LaCour couldn't provide him with much of the raw data in question.
Prior to the retraction, Princeton University had offered LaCour a position as an assistant professor, but it has since revoked that offer. LaCour subsequently told the New York Times that he may have erred in methodology, but not in the results.
The publisher's retraction notice states retracted life science papers that it contained a generous amount of text lifted from a dissertation by an Iranian graduate. They are always on the papers that has been retracted among species -- relationships that exist, of course, because nature. I recommend you use it a useful way to teach. The paper has been cited Wikipedia, jump onto Google Scholar for someone examples of good and bad research papers to write peer review. You can add this one to annals of irony, along should never have been published and that the presented results. Among the more than 2, that Jobb's decision "breaches the researchers reviewed in this study, editors hardly scratched the surface with a paper containing a. Good teachers present YouTube videos regularly to find good quality stimulus for discussion. Google Books is an excellent follows the occasionally humorous -- throw up a red flag of scientific retractions in great. The resources you use in essays need to be academically and sometimes scandalous -- world. But, find higher quality sources not credible or reliable sources.As you write your question, think about the answer you want to receive. An opinion or value judgement isn't a good start for a strong research paper or project. When you prepare to create a research paper, feel free to use our research questions examples. We have gathered them to compare good and bad for better. Is your research question a good one? Discover the answer with our good and bad research question examples. Learn more about what makes a good question and.