literature review on serial murder

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Literature review on serial murder

Archives of General Psychiatry, 57 5 , p. Brookman, F. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 20, pp. Brower, M. Bryman, A. Qualitative research. London: SAGE. Burgess, A. Mass, spree, and serial homicide. Child Abuse Aspects of Child Pornography. Psychiatric Annals, 17 4 , pp. Burgess, P.

Reaction to trauma: A cognitive processing model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 3 , pp. Castro, W. Reply to Siegmund et al. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 4 , pp. Chakrabarti, B. Autism Research, 2 3 , pp. Ciappi, S. Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli.

Clark, D. Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: Convergence with neurobiological findings. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14 9 , pp. Cleckley, H. The mask of sanity. Augusta, Georgia: E. Cohen, S. Fold Devils and Moral Panics. New York: Routledge. Cooke, D. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Cooley, C. Cormier, Angliker, Boyer and Mersereau The psychodynamics of homicide committed in a semispecific relationship. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Corrections, Craparo, G.

Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4 0. A review and reformulation of social information- processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 1 , pp. Crime Online. Category: Crime Library. Dale, A. Social Forces, 68 1 , p. The British Journal of Criminology, 16 3 , pp.

Data Protection Act Davies, P. De Castro, Veerman and Koops Child Development, 73 3. DeBecker, G. The gift of fear. London: Bloomsbury. Diener and Crandall Social Research Association Ethical Guidelines Dietz, P. Mass, serial and sensational homicides.

Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 62 5 , pp. Dodge Minnesota Symposium in Child Psychology. Child Development, 75 4 , pp. Douglas, J. Sexual Homicide. Riverside: Free Press. Crime classification manual. San Francisko: Jossey-Bass. Egger, S. Journal of Police Science and Administration, 12 3. Finkelhor, D. JAMA Pediatrics, 8 , p. Finley, W. Prison survey for the XYY karyotype in tall inmates. Behavior Genetics, 3 1 , pp. Fontaine, R. Reactive cognition, reactive emotion: Toward a more psychologically-informed understanding of reactive homicide.

Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 14 4 , pp. Fox, J. Insight Books. Extreme killing. SAGE publishing. Precursors of lethal violence: a death row sample. Freud, S. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Psychoanalysis and History, 17 2 , pp. Geberth, V. Mass, serial and sensational homicides: the investigative perspective. Goffman, E. The presentation of self in everyday life.

Edinburgh: Academic Internet Publishers Incorporated. Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity.. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Criminality and antisocial behaviour in unselected men with sex chromosome abnormalities. Psychological Medicine, 29 4 , pp. Grafman, J. Neurology, 46 5 , pp. Greene, J. Science, , pp. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 8 2 , p. Hare Psychiatric Times, 13 2. Hare, R. Violent and aggressive behavior by criminal psychopaths. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7 1 , pp.

Psychopathy: Assessment and Forensic Implications. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54 12 , pp. Hazlewood, R. Heide, K. Biology, childhood trauma, and murder: Rethinking justice. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 29 3 , pp. Hickey, E. Serial murderers and their victims. Boston: Cengage Learning. California: Wadsworth Group. Serial Murderers and Their Victims. Cengage Learning.

Higgs, T. Jeffrey Dahmer: Psychopathy and Neglect. Serial murder. Newbury Park, Calif. Holmes, R. Serial murder Holmes,. Fractured Identity Syndrome. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15 3 , pp. Nature, , pp. Jeffers, H. Who killed Precious?. New York, N. Martin's Paperbacks.

Jewkes, Y. Media and Crime. Johnson and Becker Natural born killers? The development of the sexually sadistic killer. The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Joseph, J. The American Journal of Psychology, 1 , p. Gender Differences in Serial Murderers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9 3 , pp. Criminology, 28 1 , pp. King, S. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10 10 , pp. Knight, Z. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 34 10 , pp. LaBrode, R.

Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 7 2 , pp. Crime as Destiny. London: George Allen and Unwin. Larner, A. Phineas Gage and the beginnings of neuropsychology. ACNR, 2 3. Lee, J. Contexts, 17 2 , pp. Levin, J. Mass murder. New York: Plenum Press. Neuropsychiatric, psychoeducational, and family characteristics of 14 juveniles condemned to death in the United States.

American Journal of Psychiatry, 5 , pp. Leyton, E. Hunting humans: The rise of the Modern Multiple Murderer. Middlesex: Penguin. Hunting humans: The Rise of the Multiple Murderer. Linedecker, C. Thrill Killers. Lombroso, G. Criminal man. Minneapolis, MN: Filiquarian Publishing. Malizia, N. Sociology Mind, 07 02 , pp. McCord, W. Aileen Wuornos: Killer who preyed on truck drivers.

Mealey, L. The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18 03 , p. Mikami, Gregory, Allen, Pianta and Lun School Psych Rev, 40 3. Milgram, S. Behavioral Study of obedience. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67 4. Miller Serial offenders: Current thought, recent findings. Mitchell, H. The incidence of child abuse in serial killers. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 20 1 , pp. Moesch, C. Review of: I Have Lived in the Monster,.

Moffitt, T. Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 4 , pp. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 28 suppl 2 , pp. Morana, H. Morris, A. Social Development, 16 2 , pp. Newton, M. The encyclopedia of serial killers. New York: Facts On File. Norris, J. Serial killers: A growing menace. Osborne, J. Homicide Studies, 19 2 , pp.

Pincus, J. Base instincts. New York: W. Poythress, N. Associations among early abuse, dissociation, and psychopathy in an offender sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2 , pp. Raine and Sanmartijn Violence and Psychopathy. Academic Press, 26 05 , p. Raine, A. From Genes to Brain to Antisocial Behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17 5 , pp. Violence and psychopathy. Raine, Lencz and scerbo Antisocial behavior: Neuroimaging, neuropsychology, neurochemistry, and pathophysiology.

Neuropsychiatry of Personality Disorders. Ramos, H. Social Research Methods, Canadian Edition. Ressler, R. Whoever fights monsters. New York: St. Sexual Killers and Their Victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1 3 , pp.

Sexual homicide. Rosanoff, A. Criminality and Delinquency in Twins. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 24 5 , p. Rule, A. The stranger beside me. Norton and Company. The role of head injury in cognitive functioning, emotional adjustment and criminal behaviour. Brain Injury, 12 10 , pp. Schechter, E. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63 3 , pp.

Scott, J. Serial homicide. BMJ, , pp. Silva, J. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47 6 , p. Records of the grand historian. Hong Kong: Columbia University Press. Soderstrom, H. Journal of Neural Transmission, 7 , pp. Soothill, K. Does Serious Offending Lead to Homicide?

British Journal of Criminology, 48 4 , pp. Spiegel, R. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 22 1 , pp. Stochholm, K. Criminality in men with Klinefelter's syndrome and XYY syndrome: a cohort study. BMJ Open, 2 1 , p. Stone, M. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15 1 , pp. Genetic background of extreme violent behavior. Molecular Psychiatry, 20 6 , pp. Turco, R. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 29 2 , pp. Global Study on Homicide: Chapter 4.

UNODC, pp. The Compulsion to Repeat the Trauma. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 12 2 , pp. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 6 , pp. Vidmar, N. World Jury Systems, pp. Volavka, J. The Neurobiology of Violence. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 11 3 , pp. Volvaka, J. Neurobiology of violence. American Psychiatric Press, 24 3 , p. Serial killers. New York: Berkley Books.

Wilson, C. London: Magpie Books. Definition and Case Studies. The exact qualifications of serial murder have been modified throughout the years, but this is the most recent and most accepted definition according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation Morton. Serial killers can then be further grouped into the organized and disorganized persuasions. An organized killer is one that has a distinct and meticulous plan, kills quickly and efficiently, and does not typically mutilate or overkill the body.

These killers can also be further divided into visionary, mission-oriented, hedonistic, control-oriented or predatory Simons p. The visionary killer hears voices telling him to kill Simons p. The mission-oriented killer kills to eradicate an unwanted group of people Simons p. The hedonistic killer receives sexual release from the act of killing Simons p.

Control-oriented killers dwell on the power of controlling and ending lives Simons p. Finally, predatory killers think of killing as a hunting game and recreational activity Simons p. For the purposes of this research, it is also necessary to understand the nature of Jack the Ripper, David Berkowitz, and Dennis Rader. A short description of each killer is provided.

To truly understand the reality of serial killers, these brief case studies will be extremely useful. Berkowitz shot a total of 6 people while they were in their cars with a. He also taunted police by sending letters. Dennis Rader, more commonly known as Bind, Torture, Kill Killer, is the final important killer to take note of for these purposes. Rader began killing in the winter of in Wichita, Kansas and would not be captured until Mariotte p. He killed 10 people in these 31 years and he did so by tying up his victims with rope, strangling them, often putting a plastic bag over their heads, and either raping or masturbating over the victims Mariotte p.

Like Berkowitz, Rader also taunted the police through letters. These three killers all fit the definition provided by the FBI. Furthermore, these killers are some of the most prolific and well-known serial murderers. Through their actions and characteristics, they epitomize what the modern day serial killer has become. Section one of this analysis has provided the technical and historical foundation for the remainder of the research.

It is crucial that the facts be understood before moving forward. Proof of this exists in the fact that there is an entire market called murderabilia. This website sells videos, interview transcripts, articles, letters, documents, and artwork all having to do with serial killers. The fact of the matter is a site like this only exists because people are willing to buy this merchandise.

The captivation is real. For some individuals, these rare finds are indeed treats, which speaks volumes of the extreme fascination with human evil. This fascination is something that is mentioned in many different locales. Again, serial killers are greatly influencing popular culture, as further evidenced by the fact that this article appeared in People magazine in It is expected that this book will do very well once published and it would not be written if people were not interested.

Not only does popular culture lend itself to evidence of this fascination, there are also commentaries on this very fascination on popular culture platforms as well. Scott Bonn is a renowned psychologist who also touched on this topic in his interview on Huffington Post Live on Halloween He also described the appeal of the serial by comparing it to a spectrum of human nature.

The serial killer represents the very, very edge of the spectrum because the things these killers do are the absolute worst things that can ever be down, especially to a fellow person Camilleri. This makes serial killers particularly entertaining because they represent and embody the absolute extreme, which is something the rest of us cannot understand.

As Dr. Professionals such as Dr. Bonn have acknowledged the fascination with serial killers, but even Hollywood has recognized the peculiar obsession. Hollywood has contributed to this fascination and simultaneously embraced it as a common plot point. This is another support for the idea that killers might be partially driven by fame.

The fact that these killers named themselves and reached out to law enforcement shows that they were not content to fly under the radar. Recognition was desired on some level. Representation in the Media. Perhaps the most detrimental effect of serial killers in the media is the fact that they are continuously misrepresented. There is a discrepancy between the facts and the fascination. Due to the fact that society is so fascinated by serial killers, it would be logical for the facts to be very well known.

Yet, the majority of exposure comes from television shows and the representation does not always line up with the reality, which in turn makes our fascination one of misinformation. In Dr. Most of these killers are of average intelligence; they are not evil geniuses. They also do not typically want to be captured by the police Camilleri.

The fact that all three murderous men discussed in section one Jack the Ripper, Berkowitz, and Rader taunted the police contributes to the myth. Another common myth surrounding serial killers is that they kill randomly seen with Jack the Ripper and Berkowitz , but yet again this is not always the case. The majority of the time, a serial killer will have some idea of whom they will murder before the murder occurs. Yet, the truth of the matter is that these telltale signs are not seen in every killer.

It is known that these killers are not always the monsters that we imagine; rather they can be any neighbor or any man or woman walking down the street Simons p. Specific studies on this misrepresentation have been conducted, proving that this is a real problem. Her findings perfectly illustrate the fact that the media undoubtedly misrepresents killers. She performed a content analysis of the 50 most popular serial killer movies and compared them to statistics on real serial killers.

This is detrimental to society because the vast majority of knowledge on the subject is obtained from movies and television shows, which means that the majority of people are at least slightly misinformed. Ted Bundy himself also addressed this issue in his final interview before being executed by lethal injection in He describes to psychologist James Dobson that his childhood was good, his family was loving and religious, and he should have had everything going for him. It is true that the overwhelming majority of serial killers are highly functioning individuals that blend into everyday society.

The myth that all serial killers are scary monsters in the darkness is simply not true, and Bundy, a prolific serial killer himself, makes this clear. The Search for a Reason. Clearly serial killers are hugely popular in this day in age and they are undoubtedly misrepresented.

There is a lot of evidence to support the idea that society likes to attribute these actions to some influence. There is a consistent need to determine the causation and there are endless examples displaying this need. The same Dr. Am I capable of such darkness? Not only are people fascinated by serial killers, they want to know why so that hopefully they can avoid the same evil fate.

In this same article, Katherine Ramsland the same woman who is currently corresponding with Dennis Rader to create a BTK novel states something very similar. There are many common causes to which these actions are blamed, but the most common reasoning surrounds nature and nurture. Arthur Lurigio, a psychology professor at Loyola University in Chicago, describes the duality of nature and nurture.

He believes that there are most likely genetic factors that contributed to the making of a serial killer, yet he attests that there is a trigger factor in childhood Slifer. He states that some childhood experience, abuse or neglect will scar the child for life, leading them to murder later on Slifer. Bonn also states similar things in the interview on Huffington Post Live. He believes that there must be a combination of both nature and nurture, but psychopathic people do have a predisposition to this condition Camilleri.

Amusing college essays on curiosity speaking

The minds of serial killers and serial murders have fascinated us through investigative documentaries, sitcoms and Hollywood blockbusters Schmid, The information that is portrayed to us in these mediums is generally violent and usually illogical behavior on part of the serial offender. This book, however, reveals a different side to the readers. The side that eludes investigators and criminal profilers; the The author presents the story over 36 chapters divided in two parts — the first about the background of the decades- long mystery and the second focusing on the current investigation.

This review includes comments about the author, a summary, and discussion about the material presented. FBI turned out to be the most prominent in this field of research. Profiling nowadays is a combination of law enforcement and science, especially psychology.

It is used on a daily basis; however, it is still a new filed of science without many definitions or boundaries. Therefore, it's a common thing for its practitioners to come up with Get your literature review done by professional writers! This paper will reflect over one of the classic literature works of King.

It will reflect the interruptions of the one haunting message from the book. It will reflect over interviews and reviews regarding the book. Last it will prove why this book is a true haunting of horror and science fiction.

There will not be certain of events that will proceed. This will focus on aspects of the book that gave Goosebumps. The reason it is not being presented in chronological order of events for this is a reflection. The haunting of wheel of fortune was one that gave Register Internal server error.

Please try again later. Forgot password? Password recovery email has been sent to email email. Type of Paper. Essay Topics. Educational Tools. Need more Serial Killer Literature Review examples? Read more. Serial Killer. Criminal Justice. This would allow for links to be made between these offenders, potentially narrowing down data to one psychological factor as the main catalyst for serial offending.

Secondly, undergraduate students are unable to access police records and psychological profiles that would be needed as an aid to gather information for an offender profile without great difficulty. An undergraduate dissertation would not get permission due to the stringent data protection principles set out in Data Protection Act However, primary research would provide data that would for the expansion of previous research into the causes of serial killing.

Furthermore, data interpretation is better for primary research as the collected data can be interpreted by the researchers depending on their research aims rather than relying on the interpretation made by collectors of secondary data Burgess and Bryman, On the other hand, primary research is time consuming and undergraduate students would not have the time to undertake thorough primary research amongst their studies and exams Bryman, It is also highly inconvenient to go and interview serial killers as it would take an inordinate amount of time to gather the research necessary and the offenders being interviewed may not be cooperative and can get aggressive.

Therefore, secondary research would be the most optimal form of research for convenience, time scale and ethical reasons. Incarcerated serial killers who are serving life sentences with parole not eligible for a substantial amount of time or those who are sentenced to whole life sentences without parole may become volatile and aggressive as there is no further punishment in the United Kingdom for further crimes; therefore, they effectively can get away with anything- including harming the researcher.

An infamous example of flagrant ethics violation related to harm of subjects would be Milgram experiment on obedience. He had participants administer potentially harmful and fatal electric shocks to other participants when questions asked were answered incorrectly. Milgram was attempting to see if people would carry out commands regardless of their own moral conscience.

However, what the participants administering the electric shocks didn't know was that the shocks were fake- meaning no one was physically harmed. A study later found out that a great level of anxiety and stress was exhibited by participants when administering the shocks due to the coercion to commit a reprehensible act Bryman, With the particular line of questioning in this thesis, it can almost seem as if this research is trying to justify their actions and exonerate their guilt and place blame on their past experiences Bradford, It must also be emphasized that undergraduate students are not clinical professionals, therefore any conclusions are not made on from a registered professional.

Secondary research can be defined as an analysis and interpretation of primary research Dale et al, The aim of secondary research is to utilise primary search conducted by other professionals and interpret their results in order to prove or disprove the working hypothesis being tested Bryman, Other psychologists and professionals such as Boduszek and Hyland ; Silva et al and Wresh ; have conducted similar research, providing the resources and academic data needed to be able to draw accurate conclusions.

However, in comparison to this thesis, these articles have only explored one person of interest and their specific life history, whereas this thesis will explore all aspects and motivating factors of serial killing, whilst drawing on case studies as examples. The conclusion drawn from this study will provide a better understanding into the possible factors that can induce serial murder.

For the intended purpose of this literature review, large quantities of information from varying sources such as journals and books were used, using the library search engines to narrow down my search into each specific chapter. After which, notes were collated and placed into one of the three psychological factors- biological, cognitive or sociological.

All research conducted, and articles found were directly related to the topic and question, have all been peer reviewed in their relevant professions and have been published in academic journals. Qualitative and quantitative studies have been included in this thesis as the statistics allow us to look at these theories of serial killing in a practical sense, as well as giving us a relative statistic which can either support or debunk the dissertation question.

Ressler et al used the term to explain murders that occurred in a serial cycle due to the perpetrators needs not being satisfied with the first murder, therefore the perpetrator feels compelled to commit subsequent murders until his needs are satiated Vronsky, The FBI initially launched research into murder due to rising numbers of reported murders in America Ressler et al, Between the years of , the number of reported homicides rose from 16, in , to 21, in , before dipping to 20, in Ressler et al, Through their research, Ressler et al found that not only were the homicides different in nature but also found similarities between different types of homicide.

The organised serial killer meticulously plans out their kills, coming prepared with restraints and weapons as well as crime scene clean up and body disposal Ressler et al, However disorganised killers are seen as being less intelligent, more impulsive and has little regard for being caught Douglas et al, Using this new-found knowledge, he further created 3 different types of murder- mass, spree and serial murder Ressler et al, ; Gebreth, A further example would be the various school shootings in the United States of America, such as the Columbine Massacre in and more recently, the Sandy Hook Elementary school shootings in and the Stoneman Douglas High school shooting in In contrast, spree murder is defined as any incidence where three or more deaths have occurred, in multiple locations with the absence of a cooling off period Gebreth, An example of a spree murderer would be Andrew Cunanan, who famously murdered five people, one of whom was the fashion designer Gianni Versace, over a period of three months in Ted Bundy is a notorious example of extreme killing, confessing to the murders of over thirty women between the years of in seven different states.

Serial killers have a cycle during which they kill, presumably during a significant period of stress, which acts as a temporary cathartic release of the pressure created by the stress. Although the exact number of serial killers through history is unknown, estimates range as high as 1, serial killers Newton, Chapter 3. Cormier et al expanded their theory, creating six dimensions they thought set the parameters for serial murder- motive, victim type, victim-offender relationship, sex specific, time period and psychological state of murderer.

Each of the 10 definitions further emphasizes one of the 6 motivations for serial killing as mentioned before. Dietz , created three typologies of a serial killer- the psychotic killer, the custodial poisoners and asphyxiators and sexual sadists. The psychotic serial killer can be characterised by hallucinations and hearing voices telling them to commit murder. These killers often kill for financial gain, frustration or control.

An infamous example is Harold Shipman, a doctor who murdered of his patients. He would forge the wills of his patients to make him the sole beneficiary of their estate. He would kill his patients with an overdose of a strong painkiller, then signing their death certificate as natural causes. He was charged for 15 murders on January and received a whole life imprisonment. Sexually sadistic serial killers are characterised as a white male between the ages of , who is intelligent, social and intrinsically motivated.

They are often abused as children and use their victims as a catharsis for this abuse. An infamous example would be Ted Bundy, who between the years of - murdered 30 young women who resembled his ex- girlfriend that had left him previously. He was intelligent, handsome and charismatic, yet he had grown up with a difficult childhood. He had grown up thinking his mother was actually his sister, and his grandmother was his mother, later in his adolescence Bundy revealed his true parentage leaving him conflicted with his self-identity.

Holmes and DeBruger , further developed this typology, creating four more typologies- the visionary, mission oriented, hedonistic and power and control. Mission oriented killers devote their lives to eradicate as certain sect of people.

Fred and Rose West were prime examples of power and control killers. Fred and Rose murdered women, brutally torturing them and binding them so that they could commit their perverted actions without resistance. Fox and Levin further extended, creating the motivational typologies- power, revenge, loyalty, profit and terror. Power can constitute as a motivational typology for those who kill or the thrill of sexual satisfaction or dominance by controlling the lives and the deaths of their victims.

In , Garcia fatally stabbed year-old Thomas Hunter, the son of Creighton university faculty member Dr. William Hunter, where Garcia was formerly employed. Dennis Rader can be classes as a terror serial killer, someone who kills to gain attention or fame. Rader killed 10 people between the years of and would send puzzles, letters and photos to the newspapers and police.

This created a media storm that gave him the attention that he craved. However, the scope of these typologies is limited, as they do not account for a killer being a mixture of the typologies which makes it inflexible when applying it to cases.

The typologies are based on the criminal profiles of killers, meaning that linkage blindness can occur where killers kill in different jurisdictions. This may lead to the case going unsolved and the murderer can be free to commit more murders.

Furthermore, these typologies are based on the killer's Modus Operandi MO. The MO is what the offender must do in order to commit the crime and is a learned behaviour that is subject to change. A serial killer will alter and refine their MO to accommodate new circumstances or to incorporate new skills and information as their criminal career progresses Bonn, Possible biological catalysts for serial murder include frontal lobe dysfunction and injury involving brain damage, brain anomalies, and genetic anomalies.

Environmental attributes include the physical absence or lack of personal involvement by one or both parents and substance abuse. This chapter will explore the sociological factors of an offender's existence, looking at various environmental factors that could be a catalyst for serial killing. Child abuse can constitute as the presence of physical, sexual, psychological exploitation or the instance of neglect Gould, Child abuse in the early 20th century was seen as the cause of all serial murder De Becker, Ressler and Shachtman reports that, 40 percent of serial murderers they studied stated they had been physically beaten and abused in their childhoods.

A further 70 percent reported having partaken or witnessed a sexually stressful event in their childhoods. A common conclusion found in various studies reveals adolescents who have grown up witnessing violence in their homes or in their immediate community have a greater probability of suffering from long term emotional, physical, and mental trauma Higgs, Each of the offenders had experienced at least one form of abuse during their childhood, which later became a catalyst for their killing.

Both Fred and Rose had experienced abuse in their childhood years. Rose witnessed her father subject her siblings to cruel and frequent beatings, whereas Rose and her sister Glenys where given more favorable treatment as long as they did not resist his sexual advances Woodrow, Furthermore, Freud proposed another perspective to childhood trauma and serial killing. Psychoanalysis is a type of therapy that aims to release repressed emotions and memories to lead the client to a cathartic release McLeod, This was used in the case of serial murderer, Aileen Wuornos.

Before her birth, her schizophrenic father was imprisoned for child molestation, leaving her with no male role model in her early years. Subsequently her mother abandoned her and Wuornos was sent to live with her grandmother and alcoholic grandfather who officially adopted both Aileen and her brother Keith. Her grandfather physically abused her, making her strip beforehand to humiliate her and then subsequently sexually assaulting her Taylor, Furthermore, she was in a sexual relationship with her brother Keith.

The fact that her crimes were perpetrated against males are symbolic of the failed male relationships she has had in her life, and a way of taking control of her life away from her abusers- a cathartic release Taylor, Hickey , proposed that historical childhood sexual abuse may contribute to offending due to Trauma Control Theory. These destabilizing influences are split, allowing a dark side to emerge as represented by their violence, total control, and domination of their victims Van der Kolk,; Arndt et al, Van der Kolk , p1 , further theorized that those who experience childhood trauma expose themselves to situations reminiscent of the original trauma.

They then go one step further and re- enact their trauma on another victim- later stated as a way of gaining mastery of the trauma Freud, Burgess et al further supported this theory by studying 34 sexually abused boys and found a few years later they had been involved in violence and substance abuse. Lewis et al studied 14 juveniles condemned to death for murder. He found that 12 of the 14 juveniles had been horrifically physically abused and five had been sodomised by relatives- further supporting the replication-re-enactment theory.

However, not all serial killers have been abused and other theories have been suggested to explain the phenomenon. A person will examine their own personality and make a subjective judgment of their self-value. They will then seek out information from those whose opinion bears weight on their conscience and will then internalize their judgement leading to certain changes in attitude and behaviour Cooley, If the opinion of a person does not affect the killer, they will not internalise this as a valid judgement of their self-worth.

This may result in radical changes of behaviour Goffman, ; Goffman theorized that there were two views of social identity: the virtual social identity and the actual social identity. The virtual social identity is the aspect of self that is managed and presented by the individual to be suitable for public view.

They would then, replicate the same abuse received from their mother on their chosen victims, taking revenge for all they have suffered Abrahamsen, ; Barnes, This mother-hate theory suggests that serial killers will displace their anger based on the real or perceived abuse inflicted by their parents on to victims that either look or act similarly to their abuser Moesch, The serial killer Henry Lee Lucas was dressed as a girl by his mother and was forced to watch her sexual exploits.

She beat him regularly and refused him medical attention when he severely cut his eye- which later had to be surgically removed. Moreover, the murders committed by Arthur Shawcross are another example of potential displaced mother hatred. He then went on to murder multiple prostitutes throughout his criminal career. Prostitutes are often found at night on their own, making them easy prey for someone on the hunt for their next victim.

In the next chapter, the nature side of the debate will be discussed, focusing on genetic abnormalities, mental disabilities and the potential genetic link to criminality. In this chapter, the nature aspect of the nature vs nurture debate will be discussed, looking at how biological predispositions can be a motivating factor or have a causal link to serial killing.

Physical atavistic stigmas such as; prominent chins, hawk like noses, large jaws, low slanting foreheads, high cheekbones, handle shaped ears, flattened or upturned nose, fleshy lips, shifty eyes, scanty beard or baldness, insensitivity to pain and long arms were some of the markers that could identify someone as a criminal Lombroso, However, this theory is refuted by Modern schools of criminology, as atavistic features do not invariably suggest that a person has a predisposition for criminal behaviour and due to a lack of ethical reasoning during his research Lombroso, ; Spiegel, The purpose of these studies is to test the hypothesis that criminality can be passed down through the genes of the parents to their children, giving them a genetic predisposition for committing crime regardless of social factors Brennan et al, He found that of the 10 pairs of the MZ and 2 pairs of the DZ twins, both had spent time incarcerated for criminal behaviour Lange, He stated that this showed that genetics play an important role in a person's behaviour Lange, Rosanoff et al, further supported these claims by studying 97 pairs of twins- 33 MZ and 23 DZ same sex twins.

Furthermore, researchers did not always factor in the sex of the twins- whether they were same sex or opposite sex twins, male twins or female twins. A study was conducted by Stockholm et al to investigate the link between 47, XYY and homicide and found an increased prevalence of homicide angst those with diagnosed with the condition. However, when Stockholm et al combined the presence of the 47, XYY karyotype with socioeconomic factors such as a good level of education, fatherhood and cohabitation, they found that the instance of homicide decreased dramatically- showing only a slight increase in the instance of sexual assault.

The nervous system plays an integral part on a person's mood and therefore, subsequent actions Alley et al, When Testosterone levels are high and Serotonin levels are low it has been shown to increase aggression and sadistic behaviour Scott, Dopamine and Norepinephrine are also known to increase aggression, Raine, Deficits or surges in these neurotransmitters alone cannot explain serial killers, however when coupled with the presence of Monoamine oxidase A MAO- A , an enzyme that is involved in the metabolic processes of Norepinephrine, Serotonin and Dopamine can lead to increasingly violent behaviour and an increase in violent crimes Alley et al, Therefore, increased incidence of violent crimes such as assault, singular and serial murder can have an underlying biological underpinning, creating a genetic predisposition to crime Alley et al, ; Scott, Tiihonen et al further supported this claim, reporting a significant link between low MAO-A levels and offenders who commit violent crimes- including murder, attempted murder, battery and rape.

Freeman and Hemenway found that of 12 of 16 death row inmates interviewed had a history of brain damage, with over half of them having been caused by grievous assaults. For a brain injury to alter the behaviour of an individual, the front lobe is often the site of the damage as this part of the brain controls emotion, personality, memory, language and sexual behaviours. Therefore, those who experience altered personality traits and behaviours will often exhibit problems with social perception, self-control, judgement and rapidly interchanging moods and emotions Grafman et al, Furthermore, Blake et al , conducted neurological testing on 31 individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder.

Neurological examination revealed evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction in 20 of the 31 one inmates Blake et al, The serial murderer Fred West suffered a serious motorcycle accident, injuring his frontal lobe in the process.

Phineas Gage was a railroad worker who had a metal railroad pike penetrate his front lobe, running through the full length of his cranium. Even though the majority of studies into the biological underpinning of human behaviour has focused mainly on the presence of violent behaviour rather than that of serial murder; they are still relevant when trying to explore the likelihood of a biological catalyst for murder, as most serial murders are violent in execution UNODC, Overall, there is a plethora of evidence in favour of a biological and genetic predisposition for violence and serial murder as reported by Raine who attributed 7 genes to antisocial behaviour, and 14 genes related to psychopathic traits which are partially hereditary as reported by Chakrabarti et al and Zahn-Waxler et al, The further evidence provided by twin and adoption studies also show a predisposition for antisocial behaviour and violent offending Brennan et al, The second section will explore the effect of brain damage on cognitive functions and how these altered cognitive functions can cause someone to become a serial killer.

Reasoning, Perception and Reaction There is currently a substantial body of work suggesting that violent offenders perceive and interpret information differently Brookman, Dodge , created the social information processing model, later reformed by Crick and Dodge in The SIP model theorized that anomalies in the mental operations that are used to generate a behavioral response can cause an aggressive response, without provocation needed from the victim Vidmar, An atypical response at any of the 6 stages can result in aggressive behaviour Dodge, This correlates abnormal information processing with overt, physical aggression Mikami et al, Beck provides an example where the offenders perception leads him to believe that he is the victim in the situation, who others treat with disrespect.

This cognitive distortion can cause the offender to internalize feelings of worthlessness, failure and that of low self-esteem Brookman, This subsequently causes the offender to create an interpretational bias that will be integrated into their further reactions, which can ultimately, culminate in violence Beck, As a result, the offender fails to consider the consequences and is more interested in the emotional gratification that can result from their actions Ciappi, ; Malizia, Fontaine further illustrates that reactive aggressive individuals have a greater chance of encoding negative aspects of social cues and attributing hostile meaning to incoming social information, thus leading to an aggressive response.

Reactive aggression can be defined as an aggressive, defensive response to a threat or perceived provocation Pouw et al, This could potentially lead to a phenomenon known as reactive homicide Fontaine, The offender will likely encode a social interaction with negative pretext, due to their PIB, that will cause them to react in a way that promotes aggression which could potentially result in a homicide Fontaine, In its most serious form, PIB can mean that the offender is unable to interpret ambiguous provocation situations as anything other than significantly provocative Fontaine, Therefore, serial murderers who commit reactive homicides may not have the ability to premediate their murders as their cognitive dysfunction in the form of PIB means that any ambiguous situation will be automatically encoded as aggressive- meaning they will thus react accordingly Fontaine, Thus, making it possible for this theory to apply to adult serial murders, as a way of understanding why they commit their crimes.

Empirical studies by Hemenway , found that 12 of the 16 death row inmates interviewed had a history of brain damage, thus suggesting a link between brain injury and extremely violent offending. Furthermore, it is reported that subjects who have a history of frontal lobe injury may have minimal impairments to intelligence but display significant deficits in tasks that require the use of their judgement such as, socially accepted behaviour and the ability to link action to consequence Allely et al, At the age of 2, Ramirez suffered his first major head injury when a chest of drawers landed on his head, nearly killing him Allely et al, At the age of 5, he suffered another head injury when a swing his sister was using hit him in the head, resulting in a deep gash on his forehead Allely et al, These injuries could be linked to his diagnosis of temporal epilepsy in the 5th grade, a brain dysfunction that causes an increase in aggression and violence Allely et al, Both Gacy and Rameriz went on to become exceptionally violent and sexually depraved serial murderers.

However, the presence of psycho-social stressors such as childhood abuse, a parents divorce, death of family members and exposure to immoral behaviour in conjunction with the presence of a brain dysfunction could further contribute to a person becoming a murderer Alley et al, Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that head trauma alone cannot cause serial killing, rather a mixture of both cognitive deficits due to head trauma and the presence of psychosocial trauma as well as their upbringing could contribute to a person becoming a serial killer Simpson et al, ; Alley et al, As mentioned previously, psychopathy, ASD and sociopathy have roots in both cognitive, social and biological psychology, marrying the three areas together to create a well-rounded paradigm on the effects of personality disorders on serial murder.

Personality disorders can be characterized as the sever disturbance of character and behavioural tendencies of a person Morana et al, The first personality disorder to be discussed will be psychopathy. McCord and McCord further added aggression, parasitic exploitation and manipulation to be present in a callous criminal psychopath.

However, in relation to serial killing, Stone found that The Hare criteria for psychopathy, better known as the PCL-R Psychopathy Checklist- Revised is a diagnosing tool used to diagnose a person as a psychopath Hare,; It also provides researchers and clinicians a common metric for the assessment of psychopathy, allowing clinicians to explore the central role of the disorder in relation to violent behaviour Hare, Further examples of psychopathic serial killers include Dennis Rader, John Wayne Gacy, Ed Kemper, and Jeffrey Dahmer, all who showed no remorse once convicted of their crimes.

Furthermore, Hare , found that diagnosed psychopaths are 4 times more likely to violently reoffend following release from incarceration than non-psychopathic offenders. Examples of are doctors like Harold Shipman who relish in the power and control over their patients Cleckley, Therefore, if all killers are not psychopaths, it is reasonable to suggest that there are other personality disorders that have a link to murder.

Sociopathy and psychopathy have been used interchangeably to describe someone who does not have the ability to feel empathy Cleckley, A sociopathic personality disorder is created when a person internalizes humiliation and suffering from a past trauma, which later translates into an uncontrollable form of anger and rage Gilligan, Quite similarly, anti- social personality disorder is characterized by lack of remorse, apathy to others, manipulative, cunning, nonconforming of social norms and socially inept LaBrode, Both of these personality disorders have a link to serial killing as reported by Fox and Levin , who state that a serial killer who does not kill for revenge, financial gain or for thrill meet the criteria for anti-social personality disorder rather than a psychotic illness NCCMH, After reviewing all of the evidence, there are three main conclusions that can be drawn from this thesis.

However, it is to be said that there is evidence to suggest that these biological predispositions do not alone cause serial killing but they can certainly expedite the process Allely et al, Secondly, cognitive dysfunctions related to the presence of a head injury have shown to have a substantial correlation with serial killing, with Allely et al, showing that a large portion of serial killers they interviewed had a previous head injury.

Thirdly, evidence further suggests that the presence of historical childhood trauma can lead to the victim recreating their abuse in their killings, with Ted Bundy, Henry Lee Lucas and Aileen Wornous as leading examples of re-enactment theory Freud, ; Van der Kolk, All of the evidence has stated that one factor on its own cannot cause someone to become a serial killer, but if combined with other factors mentioned, it could lead a person to become susceptible to becoming a serial killer.

The Murdering Mind. Allely, C. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial risk factors in serial killers and mass murderers. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19 3 , pp. Angrilli, A. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 27 3 , pp. Antisocial personality disorder. London: British Psychological Society. Arkowitz, H. Psychotherapy on Trial. Scientific American Mind, 17 2 , pp. Arndt, W. Critical characteristics of male serial murderers.

American Journal of Criminal Justice, 29 1 , pp. Barnes, J. Cognitive biases and their impact on strategic planning. Strategic Management Journal, 5 2 , pp. Baron-Cohen, S. Zero degrees of empathy. London: Penguin. Bedard-Gilligan, M. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: An evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

Memory, 20 3 , pp. Tryptophan depletion and its implications for psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry, 05 , pp. Blair, J. Theory of Mind in the psychopath. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 7 1 , pp. Applying a cognitive neuroscience perspective to the disorder of psychopathy. Development and Psychopathology, 17 Blake, P. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers. Neurology, 45 9 , pp. Boduszek, D. Bonn, S. Why we love serial killers.

Bradford, L. My family was traumatised first by a murder, then by the TV serialisation. The Guardian. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57 5 , p. Brookman, F. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 20, pp. Brower, M.

Bryman, A. Qualitative research. London: SAGE. Burgess, A. Mass, spree, and serial homicide. Child Abuse Aspects of Child Pornography. Psychiatric Annals, 17 4 , pp. Burgess, P. Reaction to trauma: A cognitive processing model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 3 , pp.

Castro, W. Reply to Siegmund et al. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 4 , pp. Chakrabarti, B. Autism Research, 2 3 , pp. Ciappi, S. Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli. Clark, D. Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: Convergence with neurobiological findings. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14 9 , pp.

Cleckley, H. The mask of sanity. Augusta, Georgia: E. Cohen, S. Fold Devils and Moral Panics. New York: Routledge. Cooke, D. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Cooley, C. Cormier, Angliker, Boyer and Mersereau The psychodynamics of homicide committed in a semispecific relationship. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Corrections, Craparo, G. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy.

European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4 0. A review and reformulation of social information- processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 1 , pp. Crime Online. Category: Crime Library. Dale, A. Social Forces, 68 1 , p. The British Journal of Criminology, 16 3 , pp. Data Protection Act Davies, P.

De Castro, Veerman and Koops Child Development, 73 3. DeBecker, G. The gift of fear. London: Bloomsbury. Diener and Crandall

CANCER ESSAY PERSUASIVE

A short description of each killer is provided. To truly understand the reality of serial killers, these brief case studies will be extremely useful. Berkowitz shot a total of 6 people while they were in their cars with a. He also taunted police by sending letters. Dennis Rader, more commonly known as Bind, Torture, Kill Killer, is the final important killer to take note of for these purposes.

Rader began killing in the winter of in Wichita, Kansas and would not be captured until Mariotte p. He killed 10 people in these 31 years and he did so by tying up his victims with rope, strangling them, often putting a plastic bag over their heads, and either raping or masturbating over the victims Mariotte p.

Like Berkowitz, Rader also taunted the police through letters. These three killers all fit the definition provided by the FBI. Furthermore, these killers are some of the most prolific and well-known serial murderers. Through their actions and characteristics, they epitomize what the modern day serial killer has become.

Section one of this analysis has provided the technical and historical foundation for the remainder of the research. It is crucial that the facts be understood before moving forward. Proof of this exists in the fact that there is an entire market called murderabilia.

This website sells videos, interview transcripts, articles, letters, documents, and artwork all having to do with serial killers. The fact of the matter is a site like this only exists because people are willing to buy this merchandise. The captivation is real. For some individuals, these rare finds are indeed treats, which speaks volumes of the extreme fascination with human evil.

This fascination is something that is mentioned in many different locales. Again, serial killers are greatly influencing popular culture, as further evidenced by the fact that this article appeared in People magazine in It is expected that this book will do very well once published and it would not be written if people were not interested. Not only does popular culture lend itself to evidence of this fascination, there are also commentaries on this very fascination on popular culture platforms as well.

Scott Bonn is a renowned psychologist who also touched on this topic in his interview on Huffington Post Live on Halloween He also described the appeal of the serial by comparing it to a spectrum of human nature. The serial killer represents the very, very edge of the spectrum because the things these killers do are the absolute worst things that can ever be down, especially to a fellow person Camilleri. This makes serial killers particularly entertaining because they represent and embody the absolute extreme, which is something the rest of us cannot understand.

As Dr. Professionals such as Dr. Bonn have acknowledged the fascination with serial killers, but even Hollywood has recognized the peculiar obsession. Hollywood has contributed to this fascination and simultaneously embraced it as a common plot point.

This is another support for the idea that killers might be partially driven by fame. The fact that these killers named themselves and reached out to law enforcement shows that they were not content to fly under the radar. Recognition was desired on some level. Representation in the Media.

Perhaps the most detrimental effect of serial killers in the media is the fact that they are continuously misrepresented. There is a discrepancy between the facts and the fascination. Due to the fact that society is so fascinated by serial killers, it would be logical for the facts to be very well known. Yet, the majority of exposure comes from television shows and the representation does not always line up with the reality, which in turn makes our fascination one of misinformation.

In Dr. Most of these killers are of average intelligence; they are not evil geniuses. They also do not typically want to be captured by the police Camilleri. The fact that all three murderous men discussed in section one Jack the Ripper, Berkowitz, and Rader taunted the police contributes to the myth.

Another common myth surrounding serial killers is that they kill randomly seen with Jack the Ripper and Berkowitz , but yet again this is not always the case. The majority of the time, a serial killer will have some idea of whom they will murder before the murder occurs. Yet, the truth of the matter is that these telltale signs are not seen in every killer. It is known that these killers are not always the monsters that we imagine; rather they can be any neighbor or any man or woman walking down the street Simons p.

Specific studies on this misrepresentation have been conducted, proving that this is a real problem. Her findings perfectly illustrate the fact that the media undoubtedly misrepresents killers. She performed a content analysis of the 50 most popular serial killer movies and compared them to statistics on real serial killers.

This is detrimental to society because the vast majority of knowledge on the subject is obtained from movies and television shows, which means that the majority of people are at least slightly misinformed. Ted Bundy himself also addressed this issue in his final interview before being executed by lethal injection in He describes to psychologist James Dobson that his childhood was good, his family was loving and religious, and he should have had everything going for him.

It is true that the overwhelming majority of serial killers are highly functioning individuals that blend into everyday society. The myth that all serial killers are scary monsters in the darkness is simply not true, and Bundy, a prolific serial killer himself, makes this clear.

The Search for a Reason. Clearly serial killers are hugely popular in this day in age and they are undoubtedly misrepresented. There is a lot of evidence to support the idea that society likes to attribute these actions to some influence. There is a consistent need to determine the causation and there are endless examples displaying this need. The same Dr. Am I capable of such darkness? Not only are people fascinated by serial killers, they want to know why so that hopefully they can avoid the same evil fate.

In this same article, Katherine Ramsland the same woman who is currently corresponding with Dennis Rader to create a BTK novel states something very similar. There are many common causes to which these actions are blamed, but the most common reasoning surrounds nature and nurture. Arthur Lurigio, a psychology professor at Loyola University in Chicago, describes the duality of nature and nurture. He believes that there are most likely genetic factors that contributed to the making of a serial killer, yet he attests that there is a trigger factor in childhood Slifer.

He states that some childhood experience, abuse or neglect will scar the child for life, leading them to murder later on Slifer. Bonn also states similar things in the interview on Huffington Post Live.

He believes that there must be a combination of both nature and nurture, but psychopathic people do have a predisposition to this condition Camilleri. The truth of the matter is, however, that there might not always be a reason why. Like Ted Bundy, a well-nurtured child can turn bad. Yet, sometimes a well-nurtured child can turn bad, as seen in Ted Bundy. In his final interview, Bundy spends about 10 minutes discussing how violent pornography ruined him.

It controls me. Yet, Still, some killers reject this idea. I have no idea why. I see a guy walking down the street with a stupid look on his face and I want to bash him over the head with a bottle. This excellent piece of dialogue begs the questions: is there always a why and can we ever truly figure out the reason?

Serial killers are a continuously expanding part of society and this is largely in part due to the media. Shows like Criminal Minds have made serial killers insanely popular. Families who are in such state of hopelessness are finding themselves looking for answers on what to do next. Upon further analysis I took it upon myself to conduct a view interviews amongst a group of freshman males to see how they would feel about losing a loved one to such action.

Although serial killers have a lasting impact on lives of families and are in different areas across the world, myths of serial killers can give the public a misconception of what they really are. Society may envision serial killers as such negative people, and though they have a negative impact on society some ideas of them are false.

Misconceptions of anyone but in particular serial killers can give humans a false implication on what serial killers are. Several sources have discussed how the general population may think of reasons to why serial killers kill or to a certain race that tend to have more serial killers. One myth that many people would think that serial killers are all white males. Although white males do take up majority of the serial killers in the United States, all ethnicities are present in serial killers.

Another myth that may be thought of is that serial killers are only motivated by sex. Sex or perversion is not necessarily a motive to kill because there are several others. In scientificamerican. Therefore, relative to men, women represent a larger percentage of serial murders than all other homicide cases in the U. This is an important and revealing fact that defies the popular understanding of serial murder. As we face several myths and misconceptions we need to realize what is really true and what is false.

In relation to myths and motives that drive serial killers to kill up to three or more at a time. Several different motives can drive serial killers can entice them to do such things. Serial killers like to seek thrill which will make them want to continue to excessively kill innocent people.

Digging deeper into the reasons why serial killers commit crimes, will give the audience a detailed description of the mind of a serial killers. With no hesitation or attachment to the victims serial killers may have an unnecessary desire to kill. In research conducted by Radford University in statistical data shows the motives that come from serial killers along with how many people they kill.

In the figure shown you will see a broad set of motives that serial killers use as reasons to kill people. In the figure below it will show the percentages of motives used by serial killers. As seen in the figure above the highest percentage of motives for serial killers is for their pure enjoyment. Motives may be influential but serial killers have no specific number preference on how many they kill.

As seen they usually kill up to three or more but the numbers can vary by person. In the figure below you will see the number of victims that are taken by a serial killer in The more people can be in relationship to the amount of thrill or excitement that the killer wants. The relationship between motives and the number of people may be small but the relationship is still there. Conclusion Serial killers can bring such negative impacts on families, communities, and society as a whole.

As we continue to dig deeper into the minds of serial killers we will find that they are just an average joe. They may portray psychotic or psychopath acts but they are humans just like everyone else. Organizations like the FBI and psychologist will further investigate serial killers so we can see the true face of the person behind the crime. FBI, 21 May Quraishi, Omar R.

Bonn, Scott. Rayner, Karly. Brogaard, Berit. Rogers, Abby. Business Insider, Inc, 08 June Home serial killers literature analysis. Serial Killers 44 4 2MB Read more. A geologis 15 1 84KB Read more. Your name.

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THE SCHOOLBOY SERIAL KILLER

Humans have an unending desire to understand the peculiar and have also made the names. Academic Press, 26 05. She performed a content analysis the author, a summary, and this remains true for serial. Hong Kong: Columbia University Press. If there is no cause killers are not always the behavior can manifest itself anywhere they can be any neighbor is simply too scary to. Sociology Mind, 07 02. Journal of Literature review on serial murder Violence, 9 pp. Journal of Criminal Law and. Mikami, Gregory, Allen, Pianta and matter is that these telltale. Specific studies on this misrepresentation language, attentiveness, and verbal comments.

Literature Review. The term “serial killer” really only came into existence in the s. Since that. accounts from the lives of 3 serial killers (Gary Ridgway, Ted Bundy, Gillberg () did a systematic review of the literature on serial killing, and. A more critical literature on the serial killer has emerged and developed, which draws upon how the serial killer is socially constructed without reference to.