Note the following from the diagram above:. Research Framework. Independent and Dependent Variable. Mediation and Moderation. Focus should be on the following:. Begin with a general contribution of your study and then proceed towards its contribution to individuals such as practioners such as teachers, managers , parents, administrators, policy planners and so forth. Significance of the Study. How to Write the Significance of the Study. You have to mention them because they may influence the results of your study.
Some researchers are reluctant to write about the limitations of their study because they feel it weakens their study and points out the flaws of your study. However, it should be pointed out that most studies especially in the behavioural and social sciences have limitations and it is better to indicate upfront to the reader. You stipulate the limitations but show why the results or findings of your study are still important or significant.
It important that you clearly mention the limitations of the study. The following are some possible limitations in a study:. Scope and Limitation of the Study. Limitations of Quantitative Research. Limitations of Your Research.
Limitations of the Study. The following are some guidelines:. How to write the Definition of Terms. Operational Definition. Operational Definition by Dr. The Academic Phrasebank provides an excellent list of phrases which you could adapt when writing Chapter 1 of your thesis or project paper.
Academic Phrasebank by Dr. John Morley, The University of Manchester. Writing the Thesis. Previous Lesson. Next Lesson. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This is where you tell the reader about the research problem also referred to a problem statement or statement of the problem which is a statement about an area you are concerned about, a condition that you feel should be addressed, a difficulty that you want to eliminate, an issue or question that exists in the literature you have read or something troubling encountered in your practice.
Example of Research Questions: Which leadership style is associated with staff satisfaction? Is there a difference is job satisfaction between women and men staff? Is there a difference is how more experienced and less experienced staff perceive leadership style? Hypothesis A hypothesis plural hypotheses is a proposed explanation for the occurrence of a specified phenomenon.
Use this checklist to test how good are your Research Questions. Checklist for Research Question. As suggested by Miles and Huberman , a conceptual framework as a graphical or narrative form of expression of the main concepts, factors or variables studied and the presumed relationships between them. Note the following from the diagram above: The conceptual framework is constructed by the researcher and not something that exists ready-made.
It acts like a map organising and connecting the key ideas that shape your thinking. It shows the relationship between several concepts or factors such as demographic variables, leadership style and job satisfaction in the workplace It identifies the phenomena you propose to analyse It shows the relationships which you are seeking to establish which will be reflected in the Research Questions.
The conceptual framework situates your study within prior theory and research questions. Focus should be on the following: Why is your work important? What are the implications of your study? How does it link to other knowledge? How does it inform policy making? What new perspective does your study bring to the field? Who would you share your findings with when the study is completed?
You may examiners irritating when they ask you during the viva voce — why you did not include varible X, why is you sample so small, why did you use intact classes, how do you ensure there is no bias since you are the main person collecting the data, how trustworthy is your data, how did you ensure subjects were truthful in responding to your questionnaire and so forth.
If you limitations section is comprehensive, the likelihood of such questions from examiners can be minimised. By stating the limitations of you study, you may preempt some of the queries examiners may have about your study. For example, if you had argued that even though your sample was small, the in-depth data you obtained through you interviews provided thick description of the phenomenon you studied.
When you state the limitations of your study, you are not listing the weaknesses of your research. All studies have limitations. You should argue that these limitations do not impact the findings and even if they do, you have taken steps to minimise the impact.
You need to include your three or four overarching research objectives. Also include corresponding research questions if it is a qualitative piece of research or hypotheses if it is quantitative-based. The former are usually derivatives of the research objectives. Note though that these objectives and questions or hypotheses are fluid in nature and can be tweaked as you undertake the research. The final part of the introduction is an overview of the rest of the chapters in the thesis.
The other sections can go in any order, providing it is a logical sequence. The majority of journal articles that you will read in the content of your topic will also provide useful insights. Remember to always speak with your supervisor and have regular catch-ups. They will be able to offer guidance and encouragement, and steer you in the right direction. If you would like to get in touch regarding any of these blog entries, or are interested in contributing to the blog, please contact:.
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Leeds University Business School Research and innovation Research and innovation blog How to write an introduction chapter for a thesis. Give an overview of your research topic Your discussion should then begin by detailing the broader aspects of the topic more, before focussing on the specific topic of your research. Detail how your research is going to make a contribution You must then sell your idea for undertaking the research topic, demonstrating the main reasons why the research will make a significant contribution to the current body of research.
It should be filled with proofs throughout. It is not a creative writing project in a creative writing class; hence, once a word or phrase is established in Chapter 1, use the same word or phrase throughout the dissertation. The content is normally stylized into five chapters, repetitive in some sections from dissertation to dissertation. A lengthy dissertation may have more than five chapters, but regardless, most universities limit the total number of pages to due to microfilming and binding considerations in libraries in those institutions requiring hard copies.
Following is an outline of the content of the empirical argument of Chapter 1. Do not keep the reader waiting to learn the precise subject of the dissertation. State the general field of interest in one or two paragraphs, and end with a sentence that states what study will accomplish. This section is critically important as it must contain some mention of all the subject matter in the following Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 2 and the methodology in Chapter 3.
Key words should abound that will subsequently be used again in Chapter 2. The section is a brief two to four page summary of the major findings in the field of interest that cites the most current finding in the subject area. A minimum of two to three citations to the literature per paragraph is advisable. The paragraphs must be a summary of unresolved issues, conflicting findings, social concerns, or educational, national, or international issues, and lead to the next section, the statement of the problem.
The problem is the gap in the knowledge. The focus of the Background of the Problem is where a gap in the knowledge is found in the current body of empirical research literature. Arising from the background statement is this statement of the exact gap in the knowledge discussed in previous paragraphs that reviewed the most current literature found. A gap in the knowledge is the entire reason for the study, so state it specifically and exactly.
The Purpose of the Study is a statement contained within one or two paragraphs that identifies the research design, such as qualitative, quantitative, mixed methods, ethnographic, or another design. The research variables, if a quantitative study, are identified, for instance, independent, dependent, comparisons, relationships, or other variables. The population that will be used is identified, whether it will be randomly or purposively chosen, and the location of the study is summarized.
Most of these factors will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3. The significance is a statement of why it is important to determine the answer to the gap in the knowledge, and is related to improving the human condition. The contribution to the body of knowledge is described, and summarizes who will be able to use the knowledge to make better decisions, improve policy, advance science, or other uses of the new information.
The primary research question is the basis for data collection and arises from the Purpose of the Study. There may be one, or there may be several. When the research is finished, the contribution to the knowledge will be the answer to these questions.
Do not confuse the primary research questions with interview questions in a qualitative study, or survey questions in a quantitative study. The research questions in a qualitative study are followed by both a null and an alternate hypothesis. A hypothesis is a testable prediction for an observed phenomenon, namely, the gap in the knowledge.
Each research question will have both a null and an alternative hypothesis in a quantitative study. Qualitative studies do not have hypotheses. The two hypotheses should follow the research question upon which they are based. Hypotheses are testable predictions to the gap in the knowledge. In a qualitative study the hypotheses are replaced with the primary research questions. In Chapter 1 this is a summary of the methodology and contains a brief outline of three things: a the participants in a qualitative study or thesubjects of a quantitative study human participants are referred tyo as participants, non-human subjects are referred to as subjects , b the instrumentation used to collect data, and c the procedure that will be followed.
All of these elements will be reported in detail in Chapter 3. Your advisor must give you advice, and you must do the work. When your proposal is approved, the process of operationalizing your method s to find answers to your questions begins.
When it is finished, the process of rewriting the proposal can also start. The first chapter of a proposal consists of several subheadings or sections: background, research questions, objectives, limitations, rationale, hypothesis optional , statement of the problem, and methodology.
Discuss with your adviser as to which section should be omitted or added. Background — What is the context of this problem? In what situation or environment can it be observed? Provide sufficient information for the readers to understand the topic you are researching about. Statement of the Problem — What is it that we do not know? What is the gap in our knowledge this research will fill?
What needs to be improved? Rationale or Justification of the Study — Why is this research important? Who will benefit? Why do we need to know this? Research Questions — What is it that you want to find out? Objectives — What steps will the researcher take to try and fill this gap or improve the situation? Relate them to the research problem. Break down a general objective into minor, connected parts specific objectives. Specific objectives should systematically address the different research questions, and specify what you will do in your study, where and for what purpose.
Is there any aspect of the problem the researcher will not discuss? Assumptions — In considering the methods, model, formulation or approach, are there important conditions or states that the researcher takes to be true? The research problem is a part of the conceptual framework that you will build based on the existing theories and research. When writing the remaining chapters of the thesis, the Limitation of the Study should be included in Chapter 3 as part of the Methodology.
Below are some suggested steps for writing the first chapter or Introduction. Think of topics that interest you. Discuss your topics with your adviser before choosing the most interesting and practical one. You have to search for more information first in order to understand what has been studied about the subject or your topic of interest.
A pilot study or feasibility study can be done before the actual research process. Research questions should be developed keeping in mind time constraints—can these be answered by only one study or several studies? Qualitative research starts an investigation with a concept. Quantitative research approaches use the hypothesis as the frame for the methodology. Here, you will have an appropriate framework and variables considered.
In both approaches, the main research question is the basis for the hypotheses and objectives of the research. Hypotheses can be developed from the research questions. Designing a hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. The development of the research objective can be done after the development of the research questions or hypothesis. This should be applied all throughout your paper. See Citations and References — The APA Style Guide for a guide to acknowledging the works of other authors when incorporating their ideas into your writing.
The Literature Review. In this chapter and in the succeeding chapters of your thesis or dissertation , you need to write an introductory paragraph or paragraphs that show the following:.
These can be in different fields and languages like Latin and English abbreviations. The text contains well-defined parts and chapters discussing the analysis of your thesis. Also, it should start with page 1 in Arabic numerals. It is referred to as the first chapter of a thesis project. Furthermore, a good thesis introduction must state the following aspects. This section contains an alphabetical list of all the sources used in the research. Follow the bibliography, footnote, and thesis reference format guidelines specified by the institution.
However, if your referencing section is longer than two pages, classify and divide it into subsections. It should be done according to the type of sources books, journals, etc. A writer must provide calculations, procedures, and data in separate and detailed appendices.
Moreover, give each appendix a letter A, B, C , a title, and an introduction paragraph. Here are some expert tips to format your thesis proposal or final thesis draft. Formatting and writing a thesis is a challenging assignment for most people as it requires a lot of time. Nevertheless, it can be stressful for students who work under a limited time frame. As a result, they end up submitting a low-quality thesis. Thus, instead of risking your grades, hire an expert writer who is dedicated and experienced in their work.
All the writers are qualified and make sure to fit every specific need of the clients. Similarly, we guarantee to deliver your writing assignments within the given deadline. You can also buy a thesis from us at budget-friendly rates. Simply contact our customer support team and place your order now. Thesis Introduction. Exclusive access to the MyPerfectWords. You'll get weekly tips and tricks for improving your own writing and for achieving academic success through your writing. We are U.
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Already have account? Log In. No account? Create an account Forgot Password? This can diminish the workload and provide accurate information needed of the school. Enrollment and Accounting System must be used in schools. It will provide and store the needed information faster and more convenient.
Moreover, it allows the retrieval of information of student enrollees and faculties in a computer system that will lessen their time and effort of faculty staff in storing files of each student and faculty every now and then. The information here can be viewed in just a second without becoming anxious that a single file is lost.
The idea behind an enrollment and accounting system is not a new concept since some schools are already using electronic enrollment system. In this study, the researchers concentrated on the developed of Enrollment and Accounting System for St. Andrew Academy to provide solution to the problem that they For the introduction section, you will need to do two things: introduce your topic and provide a thesis statement. Typically, these two tasks should be accomplished using only one paragraph for a short paper, but can be longer for longer papers.
First, introduce your topic. The introductory paragraph s should briefly orient the reader to the topic and provide a conceptual map of the rest of the paper. Your thesis statement is the main point of your paper and should address the paper topic assigned by your instructor.
Second, provide a thesis statement. Make sure your thesis statement is clear, specific, declarative, and on-topic. You should be able to provide the thesis statement in one or two sentences most instructors prefer one, concise sentence for a fairly short paper about 1 -8 pages. It is usually best stated at the end of your introduction section the end of the first paragraph if your introduction section is only a single paragraph in length.
Body The body section should consist of at least several paragraphs where you will provide support for your thesis statement in the form of reasons, evidence, arguments, justification, and so on. That is, you have something you want to communicate or argue for your Chapter 1 Introduction: This study is about the teaching style of a teacher in math subject.
Why teaching style? Because this study will know if the teaching style of old or new teachers is effective for teaching difficult lessons especially in major subjects. And also to know if this is the reason why the students hard to understand the lessons. Why math subject? I choose only 4th year students to be more specific and we all know that 4th year lessons is more difficult than other year levels.
So that I come up to this topic, that asking if the teaching style of math teacher in 4th year high school is still effective nor cause of their failing grades. This topic will emphasize why some students got failing grades and what is the other factors that affects their academic performance.
Background study: This study comes up based on my experience right now. I observe that being 4th year students is not just a joke, it is the level where should be serious to everything, and a time where the students encounter What is a thesis statement?
A thesis statement is a very specific argument that guides your paper. Generally, a thesis statement consists of two parts: 1. An effective thesis statement explains to your reader the case you are going to make and how you are going to make it. Traditionally, the thesis statement is found near the end of your introduction, though this may change depending on the assignment.
Note also: You do not need a perfect thesis statement before you draft the rest of the paper. In fact, you will likely need to modify your thesis once you have a complete draft to make sure that your paper does what your thesis says it will. Honing and tweaking a thesis statement during the revision process is ultimately more important than having it exact
Moreover, an abstract is of. Thus, instead of risking your creating a table of content a title, and an introduction. PARAGRAPHRegular thesis chapter results chapter. Tables usually list the tabulated. This section contains an alphabetical list of all the sources and English abbreviations. Also, it should start with quickly navigate to data on. Similarly, we guarantee to deliver. Thesis Proposal Docx Hypothesis Thesis. Contoh Summary Thesis Tgl 28. Dissertation Chapter 1 Creative Writing.The introduction of your Doctoral Dissertation, Masters Thesis, or Capstone Project. Introductory Paragraph. Background of the Problem.