literature review about community resources

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Literature review about community resources montaigne of friendship essay 28 overview

Literature review about community resources

History In her introduction to Stir It Up: Lessons in Community Organizing and Advocacy, Sen dates community organizing back to the close of World War II, however Orr recognizes the roots of organizing originating in the settlement house movement of the late nineteenth century Orr, , p. Whichever era you trace its roots to, organizing as a profession is correlated to the creation of the Industrial Areas Foundation IAF , founded in the s by Saul Alinsky; the IAF is widely acknowledged as the first organizing network.

In addition to creating this first network, Alinsky is credited as the father of contemporary organizing due to having created and recorded models of organizing that were foundational to the literature, as well as standards and training programs which have established community organizing as a professional field. At the time, neighborhood divisions were often marked by European ancestry as well as religion, with Polish, Irish and other southern and eastern European immigrants facing job, education, and housing discrimination, alongside Latino and African American communities.

Alinsky conceived of and built Back of the Yards Neighborhood Council, an organization that would bring together churches, labor unions, and service organizations as a united front used to pressure city hall into expanding social services and education. Their efforts proved so successful that Alinsky created the IAF in order to adapt and test the model in various other cities. The IAF was soon working with organizational leaders across the country.

Since its inception, organizing has evolved into varied models and approaches that have been adapted to a plethora of communities and needs. The varied approaches build on the work of Alinsky who recorded his models and laid the ground for others to critique and adapt his methods to fit current dynamics and problems. Redistributive populism they classify as having an end goal of resource redistribution. Transformative strategies are recognized as emphasizing diversity as well as supporting unity, and co-creating a derived ideology in the process of educating and mobilizing members.

While wealth is the focus of redistribution in the first case, transformative populism seeks to redistribute power p. This classification provides the frame through which to analyze community organizing, namely the dual roles organizations can play of organizing for the provision of resources and also for transformation.

Resource provision includes both funds and services, while transformation can take place at the individual, community, socio-economic, and political levels; consciousness of the collective community and its individual members can be transformed, as can policy transform the political, economic or social structure of the country. The end result of transformative organizing is the redistribution of power, while organizing for resource provision seeks to secure a specific resource, often for economic or social improvement.

Here, Delgado is pointing to the provision of resources to make immediate economic improvements, and structural transformation that would ensure that equal rights and liberties are extended to all. Alinsky considered community organizing to be a radical and transformative activity, evidenced in his two famous works, Reveille for Radicals and Rules for Radicals.

However, as early as Alinsky wrote about the necessity of improving the economic life of communities in order to create the foundation for significant change. But until the economy of that community is significantly changed, until the problem of economic security is dealt with, one actually has the paper decoration one finds on the end of lamb chops — but no lamb chops. Resource provision towards the improvement of economic life is of obvious importance to communities.

However, providing resources does not necessarily support either the growth or transformation of communities. Smyth critiques the resources provision approach, as disadvantage is a socially, politically, and economically constructed phenomenon. Simply providing more resources through the structures that create disadvantage will therefore only perpetuate disparity. Further, resources can be provided that are barely related to the needs of the community p.

In this, Smyth foretells of the tendency government has to place responsibility on any party that steps forward. He further warns against shifting focus too far away from material inequities to goals of inclusion and engagement as we can lose sight of the contradictions that generate conditions of poverty and inequity p.

Organizing should therefore be aware of the need for resources, as well as for transformation of communities and larger structures. Building community capacity should focus on leadership development toward political savvy; community power that brings residents and resources strategically together to analyze inequities and solutions; and social capital that bridges relationships in order to bring broad networks together for collaboration toward mutual goals p.

However, the conditions also exist within the values and belief structures of individuals. Expanding the notion of community that one identifies with can thus change the relationship communities of disadvantage have to power. Members begin to identify themselves not as being a part of a lower class or disadvantaged neighborhood, but of a broad community of people being affected by similar systems and policies. Citing Snow et al. Obama notes that both economic improvements and electoral politics can help to improve the lives of marginalized people p.

However, social justice literature broadly and organizing literature more specifically harbors exacting authors who have explored the concept as it relates to the field. As the scribe and arguable creator of radical organizing, Alinsky in the early s distinguished between organizing for rights and favors, defining work done to further rights as empowering while organizing for favors risks the opposite effect. He asserted that communities should be empowered to fight for their rights rather than asking for favors.

This position critiques the systems, political, economic and social, as having failed to extend similar if not equal rights to all citizens and acknowledges that equal rights and liberties are a part of our constitutional contract. It would therefore be a transformative act of organizing to shift the consciousness of the community from asking for favors to knowing and fighting for their rights; being empowered to do so, the community then transforms the system to ensure the provision of rights and their associated resources, rather than asking for resources without the structural changes that would ensure sustainability of access and provision.

In , Elizabeth Rocha took on the task of attempting to define and map out empowerment. The article therefore serves to address concerns as to what exactly empowerment is and how an individual or community comes about it. Rocha describes empowerment as one of many forms of the broader notion of power, and goes on to typologize the various experiences of power one goes through in becoming personally empowered, and then being a part of community empowerment.

Rocha characterizes five rungs or types of empowerment, beginning with the individual and ending with the community as the locus of power that has political influence. Both Rocha and Alinsky mark the movement of consciousness, from the individual to the collective level, as the growth of empowerment.

Individuals are able to address those issues which affect themselves, and then those issues which affect their community, and lastly there is a linking of personal and communal issues to the broader community affected, nationally and internationally. Smyth also distinguishes between different types of power, discriminating between relational and conservative power. Relational power Smyth characterizes as the ability to collaborate in order to accomplish a goal, versus conservative power, or power asserted over another.

While conservative power seeks influence or domination over members or groups, relational power is the coherence of inclusion and participation that influences and motivates social justice. There is yet another primary marker for distinguishing empowerment. Staples notes the importance of the participatory process and further asserts that for a community to be truly empowered, it must provide its own leadership.

Similarly, the existence of a community-based, member organization that handles multiple issues and is recognized as representative of the community is another hallmark of participation and empowerment. However, it is important to note that external leadership and skills can be crucial at various points in the life of an organizing campaign, or a community-based organization.

For instance, at the beginning of a campaign, especially if there is no existing organization, external leadership might be necessary to mobilize members and resources, as well as to create a campaign or organizational structure. The key to empowerment is the cultivation of indigenous leadership that will take over.

Community empowerment is then evidenced in the presence of sustainable, community-based organizations, member participation, self-advocacy, and indigenous leadership. Analysis A range of authors from Delgado to Fisher and Kling mark coalition building as a key factor for success in community organizing.

Yet because resources are scarce, there is much competition between organizations and organizing networks. Competition pits organizing networks against each other as they vie for membership and resources; networks therefore seek out other progressive organizations to partner with but rarely work with each other Delgado, , p. While there are many organizational factors at the micro level that explain a lack of resources, the lack of resources available to both communities and organizations can be attributed at the macro level to the two systemic tensions of scarcity and exclusion.

Our current neo liberal agenda that prioritizes individualism and competition generates, for example, an education system in which those who cannot afford to pay are excluded from private education Smyth, , p. Organizing efforts have seen some success at providing resources such as funding for education, housing and health care, as well as supporting the transformation of communities.

However, most of us still live in a society where we face these core issues of exclusion and scarcity. Stall and Stoecker note that race, gender and class remain as barriers to inclusion, yet resources are scarce in most if not all communities p. Even wealthy communities face the threat if not a current reality of water and clean air shortages, though for many communities the risk is markedly more severe than for others.

Much community organizing still exists within a competitive and individualistic paradigm; as noted by Delgado, organizing networks seek collaboration with other progressive organizations but not with each other. Competition between networks hinders larger collective mobilization toward systemic change. How then can we proceed to the next level of systemic or institutional transformation, which would transcend tendencies toward exclusion, competition and scarcity? I believe we must go deeper than community awareness, empowerment and action to the structural consciousness that still holds organizing within a paradigm marked by competition and individualism, scarcity and exclusion.

To reach this depth, we must penetrate ourselves and identify where structural realities are held in our past experiences and current perspectives, and are therefore generating our future realities. The substance Alinsky refers to is the people and the structure that of society. How then through organizing can we transform the substance, the people, ourselves? While organizing has held since its inception radical views of structural change, perhaps the vision of substantive change can reach further into the potential of the substance itself, the potential each of us as individuals hold to transform systemic patterns that live inside of us.

Organizers, both on the ground and those administrating organizations, hold inside of ourselves the systems and agendas of the structures that we have spent our lives within. Values and belief systems marked by competition and individualism lead us to act unconsciously in ways that perpetuate exclusion and scarcity. Organizations reflect the people who participate in and run them, and people are partial reflections of the systems that they were raised within. Further efforts at transformative organizing would do well to predicate themselves on the continuing personal transformation of organizers and members.

By becoming aware of the tendencies we have towards thinking in terms of scarcity and exclusion, we can create organizations and support community growth that reflects the values of social justice organizing, namely collaboration, participation, and a more equitable distribution of both wealth and power.

Freire describes this phenomenon wherein the oppressed becomes the oppressor as a stage within the evolutionary process of an individual who conceives of and struggles for freedom; identification with the oppressor is a stage in the evolution of consciousness, from oppression to freedom. Here I argue that existential and concrete systems that have ordered and informed our thought structures rarely if ever by their own volition disappear or transform beyond recognition.

By identifying where and how the systemic tensions that we hope to relieve through organizing efforts live inside of us, we can hope to engage in organizing that is more systemically transformative. Summary Resources are a necessary but not sufficient aspect of transformative organizing. Communities must have resources and economic growth supports stable, healthy communities.

However, resources provided through systems of oppression are likely positioned to perpetuate inequality. Further, resources can be provided that are barely related to community needs. To be transformative, organizing requires participation from community members as well as indigenous leadership. Transformative community organizing differs from organizing for resource provision in that the goal is the redistribution of both resources and power rather than the redistribution of resources alone.

Transformative organizing empowers individuals and communities by fostering indigenous leadership and advocacy, as well as sustainable community organizations, which represent community diversity and needs, and are able to respond with analysis, action and leadership to meet those needs. Individuals and communities thus empowered to acknowledge their position within broader systems, political, economic and social, can then act to transform those systems to ensure that equal rights and liberties are being extended to all.

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Vijayaraghavan J. Literature Review: Measuring Community Capacity. USA: Save the Children; Download references. Leadership from David Peters and Sara Bennett in supporting this review is highly appreciated. Inputs from Peggy Gross and Jose Guttierez at the start of the review were also invaluable.

This article has been published as part of BMC Health Services Research Volume 16 Supplement 7, Unlocking community capabilities across health systems in low and middle income countries. AG conceived of and led the review. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Any opinion, finding and conclusion or recommendation expressed in this material is that of the author and the National Research Foundation of South Africa does not accept any liability in this regard.

Asha S. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Asha S. Reprints and Permissions. George, A. Synergies, strengths and challenges: findings on community capability from a systematic health systems research literature review. Download citation. Published : 15 November Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search.

Download PDF. Review Open Access Published: 15 November Synergies, strengths and challenges: findings on community capability from a systematic health systems research literature review Asha S. Results When considering what communities have, articles reported external linkages as the most frequently gained resource, especially when partnerships resulted in more community power over the intervention. Conclusions Strengthening community capability is critical to ensuring that community participation leads to genuine empowerment.

Background Rationale Communities are a vital and vibrant part of health systems. Community capability: A synergy of what communities have, how they act and for whom they act. Full size image. Table 1 Domains framing the elements of community capability Full size table.

Methods We undertook a secondary analysis of the documents identified through our previous systematic review on the nature of community participation in health systems interventions in low and middle income country contexts [ 2 ]. Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria Full size table.

Results What communities have A key part of community capability are the resources that communities have supporting their empowerment and better health. Physical and financial assets In terms of physical assets, articles detailed improvements at the community level of medical infrastructure and supplies, in addition to broader types of infrastructural development including water tanks, sanitation pits, hand pumps, public toilets and transport systems.

Information and skills Several articles detailed how communities acquired information pertaining to a range of health topics, and developed skills related to problem solving and management. External linkages Relationships with multiple stakeholders such as central and local health authorities, international and national NGOs and other organizations were listed as the most frequent resource gained by communities, although the quality of information detailing the nature of those linkages was poor.

How communities act We drew information from articles regarding the characteristics of communities that influenced their ability to act collectively in the pursuit of a common goal, focusing on breadth of participation, cohesiveness, and efficacy. Breadth of participation Examples of broad participation include those that engaged community members irrespective of their caste, gender or socio-economic differences, such as women from diverse backgrounds and various ethnic groups [ 19 , 41 , 42 , 45 , 56 ] or committees with representatives from different community based organizations and vulnerable groups [ 23 , 33 ].

For whom communities act Elements of for whom communities act that were detailed in articles documenting rich experiences of community participation in service delivery and governance include leadership and conflict resolution. Leadership Eight articles discussed the presence of an influential, strong champion who can advocate for the uptake and continuation of the program [ 17 , 20 , 31 , 43 , 53 , 58 , 64 , 78 ].

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However, the conditions also exist within the values and belief structures of individuals. Expanding the notion of community that one identifies with can thus change the relationship communities of disadvantage have to power. Members begin to identify themselves not as being a part of a lower class or disadvantaged neighborhood, but of a broad community of people being affected by similar systems and policies.

Citing Snow et al. Obama notes that both economic improvements and electoral politics can help to improve the lives of marginalized people p. However, social justice literature broadly and organizing literature more specifically harbors exacting authors who have explored the concept as it relates to the field. As the scribe and arguable creator of radical organizing, Alinsky in the early s distinguished between organizing for rights and favors, defining work done to further rights as empowering while organizing for favors risks the opposite effect.

He asserted that communities should be empowered to fight for their rights rather than asking for favors. This position critiques the systems, political, economic and social, as having failed to extend similar if not equal rights to all citizens and acknowledges that equal rights and liberties are a part of our constitutional contract. It would therefore be a transformative act of organizing to shift the consciousness of the community from asking for favors to knowing and fighting for their rights; being empowered to do so, the community then transforms the system to ensure the provision of rights and their associated resources, rather than asking for resources without the structural changes that would ensure sustainability of access and provision.

In , Elizabeth Rocha took on the task of attempting to define and map out empowerment. The article therefore serves to address concerns as to what exactly empowerment is and how an individual or community comes about it. Rocha describes empowerment as one of many forms of the broader notion of power, and goes on to typologize the various experiences of power one goes through in becoming personally empowered, and then being a part of community empowerment.

Rocha characterizes five rungs or types of empowerment, beginning with the individual and ending with the community as the locus of power that has political influence. Both Rocha and Alinsky mark the movement of consciousness, from the individual to the collective level, as the growth of empowerment.

Individuals are able to address those issues which affect themselves, and then those issues which affect their community, and lastly there is a linking of personal and communal issues to the broader community affected, nationally and internationally. Smyth also distinguishes between different types of power, discriminating between relational and conservative power.

Relational power Smyth characterizes as the ability to collaborate in order to accomplish a goal, versus conservative power, or power asserted over another. While conservative power seeks influence or domination over members or groups, relational power is the coherence of inclusion and participation that influences and motivates social justice.

There is yet another primary marker for distinguishing empowerment. Staples notes the importance of the participatory process and further asserts that for a community to be truly empowered, it must provide its own leadership. Similarly, the existence of a community-based, member organization that handles multiple issues and is recognized as representative of the community is another hallmark of participation and empowerment. However, it is important to note that external leadership and skills can be crucial at various points in the life of an organizing campaign, or a community-based organization.

For instance, at the beginning of a campaign, especially if there is no existing organization, external leadership might be necessary to mobilize members and resources, as well as to create a campaign or organizational structure. The key to empowerment is the cultivation of indigenous leadership that will take over. Community empowerment is then evidenced in the presence of sustainable, community-based organizations, member participation, self-advocacy, and indigenous leadership.

Analysis A range of authors from Delgado to Fisher and Kling mark coalition building as a key factor for success in community organizing. Yet because resources are scarce, there is much competition between organizations and organizing networks. Competition pits organizing networks against each other as they vie for membership and resources; networks therefore seek out other progressive organizations to partner with but rarely work with each other Delgado, , p.

While there are many organizational factors at the micro level that explain a lack of resources, the lack of resources available to both communities and organizations can be attributed at the macro level to the two systemic tensions of scarcity and exclusion.

Our current neo liberal agenda that prioritizes individualism and competition generates, for example, an education system in which those who cannot afford to pay are excluded from private education Smyth, , p. Organizing efforts have seen some success at providing resources such as funding for education, housing and health care, as well as supporting the transformation of communities.

However, most of us still live in a society where we face these core issues of exclusion and scarcity. Stall and Stoecker note that race, gender and class remain as barriers to inclusion, yet resources are scarce in most if not all communities p. Even wealthy communities face the threat if not a current reality of water and clean air shortages, though for many communities the risk is markedly more severe than for others.

Much community organizing still exists within a competitive and individualistic paradigm; as noted by Delgado, organizing networks seek collaboration with other progressive organizations but not with each other. Competition between networks hinders larger collective mobilization toward systemic change. How then can we proceed to the next level of systemic or institutional transformation, which would transcend tendencies toward exclusion, competition and scarcity?

I believe we must go deeper than community awareness, empowerment and action to the structural consciousness that still holds organizing within a paradigm marked by competition and individualism, scarcity and exclusion. To reach this depth, we must penetrate ourselves and identify where structural realities are held in our past experiences and current perspectives, and are therefore generating our future realities. The substance Alinsky refers to is the people and the structure that of society.

How then through organizing can we transform the substance, the people, ourselves? While organizing has held since its inception radical views of structural change, perhaps the vision of substantive change can reach further into the potential of the substance itself, the potential each of us as individuals hold to transform systemic patterns that live inside of us.

Organizers, both on the ground and those administrating organizations, hold inside of ourselves the systems and agendas of the structures that we have spent our lives within. Values and belief systems marked by competition and individualism lead us to act unconsciously in ways that perpetuate exclusion and scarcity.

Organizations reflect the people who participate in and run them, and people are partial reflections of the systems that they were raised within. Further efforts at transformative organizing would do well to predicate themselves on the continuing personal transformation of organizers and members. By becoming aware of the tendencies we have towards thinking in terms of scarcity and exclusion, we can create organizations and support community growth that reflects the values of social justice organizing, namely collaboration, participation, and a more equitable distribution of both wealth and power.

Freire describes this phenomenon wherein the oppressed becomes the oppressor as a stage within the evolutionary process of an individual who conceives of and struggles for freedom; identification with the oppressor is a stage in the evolution of consciousness, from oppression to freedom.

Here I argue that existential and concrete systems that have ordered and informed our thought structures rarely if ever by their own volition disappear or transform beyond recognition. By identifying where and how the systemic tensions that we hope to relieve through organizing efforts live inside of us, we can hope to engage in organizing that is more systemically transformative.

Summary Resources are a necessary but not sufficient aspect of transformative organizing. Communities must have resources and economic growth supports stable, healthy communities. However, resources provided through systems of oppression are likely positioned to perpetuate inequality. Further, resources can be provided that are barely related to community needs. To be transformative, organizing requires participation from community members as well as indigenous leadership.

Transformative community organizing differs from organizing for resource provision in that the goal is the redistribution of both resources and power rather than the redistribution of resources alone. Transformative organizing empowers individuals and communities by fostering indigenous leadership and advocacy, as well as sustainable community organizations, which represent community diversity and needs, and are able to respond with analysis, action and leadership to meet those needs.

Individuals and communities thus empowered to acknowledge their position within broader systems, political, economic and social, can then act to transform those systems to ensure that equal rights and liberties are being extended to all. Transformative organizing seeks to transform both the consciousness of the people and the structure of the systems we live within.

Many of the problems organizing in the U. These tensions breed belief structures organized around notions of exclusivity and scarcity, structures that are contained within individual as well as the collective consciousness. As organizers, whether on the ground or in the office, holding formal or informal positions, we unconsciously bring these dynamics into our organizing efforts, evidenced by persisting competition and the absence of collaboration between large organizing networks.

To fulfill the radical vision of structural change that organizing has held since its birth as a profession, perhaps what is required at the most fundamental level is personal transformation of individuals engaged at all levels of community organizing. For this, we must reach inside of ourselves and identify how structural realities are held in our values, belief systems, worldviews, actions and reactions.

This call to action or next step in transformative community organizing requests that time and resources be allocated to the personal transformation of organizers and members; we need time and often guidance to identify where and how the systems we have lived within live inside of us. We can then as individuals, organizations, and communities see how systemic tensions are perpetuated, and engage in actions that will be deeply transformative. References Alinsky, S. Community analysis and organization.

American Journal of Sociology. Delgado, G. Community organizing and political action. Social Policy, 16 4 , Feire, P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Continuum International Publishing Group. Community mobilization: Prospects for the future. Urban Affairs Review. Kennedy, M. Transformative populism and the development of a community of color.

Posner, Eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Book Review: Democracy in action: Community organizing and urban change. Review of Radical Political Economics. Miller, M. San Francisco: Organize Training Center. Obama, B. Health initiatives that are externally funded may be less likely to emphasize financial resources and may also be more likely to be written up for publication.

Articles in the review mentioned physical, information and financial assets in a descriptive fashion, with few delving into issues of whether communities had control over these resources and how they were governed. Despite this weakness, many communities undoubtedly gained valuable resources, information, skills and linkages through these participatory health systems interventions.

The importance of these gains to participants highlights the extensive pragmatic and material needs facing marginalized communities and the ongoing necessity for future initiatives to further both psycho-social empowerment and material empowerment [ 11 , 79 ]. With how communities act articles discussed challenges of ensuring breadth of participation and explicit strategies to ensure inclusiveness.

Various mechanisms supported breadth of participation such as decision making through public forums, community-wide meetings or community dialogues or even more explicit measures prioritizing inclusion of marginalized groups. Nonetheless, inclusiveness required substantial community leadership to overcome potential conflicts that maintained social divisions within communities. In contrast to breadth of participation, very little was reported about cohesiveness and efficacy despite their importance in motivating and strengthening community initiatives.

Community efficacy in particular hinged on breadth of participation, trust and transparency. These latter elements take time to nurture, leading to timelines that are often contrary to funding deadlines [ 80 — 83 ]. When reviewing for whom communities act, the importance of leadership in terms of strong champions was mentioned more frequently in contrast to conflict resolution, but these governance elements of community capability were overall not well represented in the literature.

This is a disconcerting gap, especially when one considers managing power to be at the heart of community participatory processes. While there were positive examples of community leadership representing different group interests across the community and exercising power and decision making collectively, there were also numerous examples of leadership and mechanisms meant to engender community voice that failed to represent community needs.

Important synergies were found across these elements of community capability. Leadership played a crucial role in information sharing and conflict resolution, with the latter having an important role in ensuring social equity. Tangible success in communities organizing local transport systems spilled over into greater cohesiveness and motivation supporting lay health worker associations and savings funds.

Information and skills building were crucial in supporting community participation, critical thinking, problem solving and ownership. Some articles detailed synergies between the creation of physical or financial assets and other community activities and abilities.

Tangible rewards provide powerful motivation for collective endeavors. These linkages highlight the dynamic complexity and strength of building community capability, and cautions against initiatives that may view it as a simplistic linear process between inputs and outputs. Each element of community capability had positive examples, but also numerous examples detailing limitations from health systems research efforts to support community participation.

Breadth of participation and the institutional process that support them were mentioned the most across articles that discussed community characteristics that support collective action. Half of these articles reported improving social equity with regards to gender, class, ethnicity, minority group status or age. For those who see community participation as a central process for ensuring more equitable health systems more articles should have measured or discussed social equity dimensions.

For those more focused on health outcomes, the extent to which social equity was represented may be interpreted as a positive finding. One key aspect of the health enabling community is social capital, wherein social relationships generate resources, which include a sense of belonging, trust in social institutions, reciprocity, social influence, access to new information, the enforcement of social sanctions, that support community capability to uptake new behaviors and sustain the changes entailed [ 87 , 88 ].

While several tools have been developed to measure social capital in LMICs [ 89 , 90 ], systematic efforts to build social capital and documentation of these efforts require further attention [ 88 ]. As much as health systems initiatives seek to work with communities and strengthen their capabilities, communities are diverse and human agency can be ingeniously autonomous or unpredictable. Unlocking community capabilities enables communities to make use of their unique social systems and resources in ways that may not always align with outsider expectations [ 91 ].

The studies reviewed here highlight that participatory health system interventions at the community level play out in specific contexts; interventions must navigate pre-existing power dynamics and the additional tensions created by introducing new resources and expectations. Interrogating assumptions about the social processes that underpin how communities participate in health systems interventions is critical to developing more realistic expectations, adequate resources and supportive principles of collaboration to facilitate community empowerment and broader social development.

This makes learning from the full range of experiences both positive and negative important, and makes the documentation issues of governance whether related to control over resources; inclusiveness; representative and democratic leadership and conflict resolution, all the more important. While there is an evolving body of work on the quantitative measurement of community capability, with varied components and scales, this has not filtered through to those supporting community participation more broadly.

In addition, despite the general acknowledgement of the importance of understanding the social processes and conditions that represent community capability is critical for initiatives that support community participation, we found that the quality of description by articles of these elements was very low.

Studies may have considered and measured many of the elements central to this review, but not published them in the articles that were in our review. Several of the concepts we examined overlap. While we did present quantifications to characterize the literature, a significant portion of the decision-making, abstraction and interpretation is subjective.

Throughout the review, we not only convened regular group discussions to evaluate our understanding of the subject, but also documented our deliberations. Although the development of scales measuring community capability through numerous elements continues to evolve [ 4 , 9 , 92 — 94 ], health systems research engaged with community participation remains relatively untouched by these developments.

Our review found the extent of information related to community capability reported by health systems research articles with rich accounts of community participation to be very low and often of poor quality. Having a simpler framework to define community capability may help those who are not specialists in community capability better recognize it, support it in their interventions and measure it in their evaluations.

Our framework includes tangible gains, skills and material resources that communities need to sustain community participation, as well as the more intangible social processes related to cohesiveness, trust and efficacy. Even with a simplified framework, significant gaps in the literature need to be addressed. While attention to equity across the articles was variable, social hierarchies are significant, particularly for marginalized groups.

More attention needs to be paid in particular to governance elements, leadership and conflict resolution if power relations that inhibit marginalized groups are to be overcome. Strengthening community capability is critical to ensuring that community participation does lead to empowerment and shift the balance of power in building equitable health systems and improving health outcomes for those who have been excluded from these processes for too long.

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EXPERIENCED ELECTRICIAN RESUME

Community organizing was originally intended to be the most democratic form of activism, a tool to be used to empower the marginalized and voiceless, bringing people together to work toward a common goal.

Literature review about community resources Though there were a number assignment on marketing mix positive examples; there were more articles that detailed challenges to elicit wide community involvement. Developing these kinds of skills read free essay seen as aiding community ownership and therefore sustainability. External linkages had three broad and frequently overlapping purposes: to increase delivery and utilization of services, to improve accountability of services, and to support higher level planning. Table 1 Domains framing the elements of community capability Full size table. Community capability: A synergy of what communities have, how they act and for whom they act.
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Business plan consulting michigan Community analysis and organization. The studies reviewed here highlight that literature review about community resources health resume design contest interventions at the community level play out in specific contexts; interventions must navigate pre-existing power dynamics and the additional tensions created by introducing new resources and expectations. Download PDF. Aspen Institute. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. Story WT. In addition, despite the general acknowledgement of the importance of understanding the social processes and conditions that represent community capability is critical for initiatives that support community participation, we found that the quality of description by articles of these elements was very low.

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Also, many of the problems facing communities today are complex. Government leaders and administrators find they need to leverage community resource to solve. group's resource that plays a role in reproducing class relations (Baum & Palmer ; Scott & Liew ). 9. that community. Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of on Water Resources and.