These challenges of transesterification reaction happened to appear clearly using conventional batch reaction processes. Many alternatives have been proposed to undergo the reaction in a more effective way through improving mixing rate, enhancing heat and mass transfer of the reaction, and decreasing cost and time consumed [ 8 ].
For instance, changing the process performance using supercritical conditions through applying high temperature and pressure enhances the process mass transfer [ 2 ]. Moreover, proposing different catalysis approaches such as heterogeneous or enzyme catalysis improves the process reaction rate. Also, changing the process design and mixing concepts such as using ultrasonic homogenizers increase both the process mass and the heat transfer [ 9 ].
The methods mentioned were found quite effective for solving the problems facing transesterification like time consumption, soap formation, and so forth. However, energy consumption rate increases significantly and therefore the total cost of the process increases.
Another proposed change in the process design was the use of microreactors for achieving transesterification reaction within short time. Generally, microreactors are microstructured reactors with microchannels; they have various shapes and different structures designed for better mixing and completing the reactions. Simple microscale capillaries were the first reported microreactors used in biodiesel synthesis [ 10 ]. Other advanced microreactors were later fabricated using wide variety of materials and different manufacturing techniques [ 10 ].
Also the droplet size highly affects the methyl ester yield in this reaction. By this role microreactors promote the overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient of methyl esters due to the increase of the specific interfacial area by decreasing the droplet size. This eventually results in the increase of reaction rate for triglycerides [ 13 ]. The KM micromixer has been tested for mixing two immiscible fluids and was found superior over other mixers designs.
Also it provides high throughput and stable operation in a wide range of flow rate ratios for the two reactant fluids [ 14 ]. In this investigation, a KM micromixer has been used as a microreactor for transesterification of waste vegetable oil with methanol in presence of NaOH as catalyst. The influences of transesterification process variables such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, volumetric flow rate, and effect of an organic cosolvent presence were optimized.
GC-MS analysis was utilized for characterization and identification of the produced biodiesel. Waste vegetable oil was purchased from a local restaurant as a source of triglycerides for transesterification reaction. The alcohol selected was methanol The KM micromixer proposed for this investigation consists of 3 stainless steel plates, inlet, mixing, and outlet plates holding fourteen microchannels fabricated for fluid streams.
Dimensions of the micromixer are shown in Table 1. The mixer has 2 inlets for two different reactant fluids. The fluids are transferred to the mixing plate through annular channels where fourteen microchannels are present. The stream of each fluid was divided into half of the total number of microchannels. The two divided fluids meet at the center of the mixing plate and are immediately mixed. The experiment is set as shown in Figure 1. The KM mixer is immersed in a water bath to provide the required reaction temperature.
Two reactant fluids were fed via syringe pumps into the designed experimental setup; the first is the preheated oil at specific temperature, and the second is the mixture of methanol, sodium hydroxide, and THF. The proper amount of sodium hydroxide was dissolved completely in methanol to avoid clogging the microchannels at the KM mixer with solid particles.
The amount varied from 0. The reactants molar ratio was optimized to determine the most proper mixing ratio. The experiments were conducted three times to consider the experimental error. At the KM mixer outlet the product is collected after reaching steady state in a beaker containing appropriate amount of acetic acid to neutralize the excess alkaline catalyst and stop the reaction.
The product of the reaction is placed in a separating funnel to be separated into two clear phases. The biodiesel layer which represents the main product was separated as upper light-colored phase, while the lower dark phase is mainly glycerol. The remaining main product was then characterized using GC-MS analysis to confirm oil conversion and identify biodiesel production yield. In order to characterize the quantity and the quality of the produced biodiesel several techniques were utilized.
GC-MS analysis mainly identifies the quality and quantity of the produced biodiesel resembled in the methyl esters present in the product sample. This analysis technique also gives the distribution area for each component in the produced sample. Table 2 shows the GC-MS configuration used for biodiesel analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Vertex 70, Germany was utilized to compare the main function group presence in the produced biodiesel and its parent waste oil.
In order to optimize the processing parameters affecting biodiesel production according to the main equation of the transesterification process using KM mixer, the influence of molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst concentration, volumetric flow rate, and presence of THF were investigated and the product was analyzed using GC-MS analysis. The most effective variable affecting the methyl ester production yield during the transesterification reaction is the molar ratio of alcohol to waste vegetable oil.
Since transesterification is an equilibrium reaction, a large excess of alcohol is required for the reaction to move forward and avoid the reversible reaction [ 17 ]. This is due to the reversibility behavior of transesterification reaction [ 18 ].
It showed the appearance of a clear peak at 4. This peak is verified to be glycerol. This result indicates the difficulty in separating the two produced layers of biodiesel and glycerol at high methanol to oil molar ratios regarding the solubility of glycerol in excess methanol. The most common catalysts used for transesterification reaction are the alkali catalysts, like sodium and potassium hydroxides, because they both react with the triglycerides to break them apart so that methanol can bond with the fatty acids and produce biodiesel.
However, sodium hydroxide was selected to be utilized as catalyst in this investigation due to its low cost and availability [ 2 ]. A wide concentration range of sodium hydroxide from 0. The behavior of NaOH concentration regarding the biodiesel production yield was shown in Figure 3 a. Incomplete biodiesel conversion was indicated using 0. This result may be explained due to the soap formation owing to the excess of NaOH that reacts with oil fatty acids producing sodium oleate soap and water [ 19 ].
A clear peak of soap formation was indicated from this figure at six-minute retention time. Generally, the biodiesel production yield was enhanced through improvement of the reactants residence time. The KM micromixer is characterized by its rapid mixing property resulting from small microchannel size. These small microchannels provide fast and efficient mass transport rate versus short diffusion distance and also offer high surface to volume ratios; consequently the reaction residence time parameter at the KM micromixer is positively affected [ 10 ].
Figure 4 shows the behavior of changing the volumetric flow rates of reactants introduced into the KM micromixer. This behavior may be explained by stating that for KM Mixer higher flow rates will result in increasing the pressure drop inside the reactor due to the small mixing zone diameter of the micromixer which affects the completion of the transesterification reaction [ 10 ]. Also very low flow rates were not durable for KM mixer causing it to lose its main privilege which is decreasing the reaction time.
The main obstacle facing methanolysis of the waste vegetable oil is the presence of two immiscible phases that slows the reaction significantly. In order to conduct the transesterification reaction in a single phase and facilitate the diffusion of the two immiscible reactant fluids, an organic cosolvent has been suggested [ 4 ].
THF was preferable compared to other cosolvents because its boiling point is near the boiling point of methanol that facilitates its separation from the excess methanol at the end of the reaction [ 4 ]. However, large amounts of THF are not favored to be used at the transesterification process regarding the fact that the excess cosolvent may cause reagents dilution which declines the rate of transesterification process [ 20 ].
Moreover, using large THF amounts at the transesterification process increases the process cost aspects. In this regard, the effect of presence of cosolvent to methanol volumetric ratio on biodiesel production yield was examined over the studied range from 0. From Figure 5 noticeable improvement at the production yield using just small amount from THF to methanol ratio was indicated.
Moreover, the biodiesel production yield was increased as the THF to methanol volumetric ratio increased. This behavior confirms the positive role of the cosolvent presence at the transesterification reaction. The optimum biodiesel production yield of As the utilized THF to methanol volumetric ratio increased above the optimum selected value, there is no noticeable enhancement at the biodiesel production yield. In order to investigate the properties of the produced biodiesel at the predetermined optimum conditions using KM micromixer, it was compared with its parent waste vegetable oil using different characterization techniques.
GC-MS was used for determination of biodiesel methyl ester groups present at the produced biodiesel using KM micromixer to determine the optimum conditions. There were four main characteristic peaks of fatty acid methyl esters FAMEs appearing by the retention time and the fragmentation pattern data of GC-MS analysis. These four peaks identified FAMEs as 9-hexadecenoic acid methyl ester C , 9, octadecadienoic acid methyl ester C , 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester C , and octadecanoic acid methyl ester C The identified FAMEs were verified by retention time data and mass fragmentation pattern from previous studies [ 21 ].
Table 3 identifies the composition of the fatty acid methyl esters present at the optimum prepared biodiesel and their common names; the composition varies according to the process conditions but with nearly the same ratio. As previously discussed, the glycerol characteristic peaks were only present at the GC-MS analysis of the prepared biodiesel sample using excess methanol to oil molar ratio or at insufficient separation time conditions.
The appearance of glycerol peak at 4. These results confirm the previous optimum selected conditions for biodiesel production using KM micromixer. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of the produced biodiesel at optimum processing conditions confirms completeness of the transesterification process of triglycerides in the waste vegetable oil into biodiesel.
TGA is one useful way for quantitative analysis for the produced biodiesel due to the large temperature difference between the weight loss temperatures of oil and biodiesel and this allows one to determine the conversion.
Accordingly, the percentage of biodiesel conversion at the prepared sample may be calculated using TGA [ 23 ]. These results confirm the successful biodiesel production in pure state at the optimum preparation conditions in contrast to biodiesel prepared at high reactant flow rates that contains remaining unreacted oil.
FT-IR spectrometry identifies the main functional groups presence at both the optimum produced biodiesel sample and its parent waste vegetable oil [ 25 ]. The most characteristic absorption peaks of the waste vegetable oil were indicated in Figure 8 a. The main difference between the two FTIR spectrums is related to the transformation of ester groups at the waste oil sample into methyl esters at the produced biodiesel [ 20 ].
Table 4 shows the FT-IR main characteristic band positions for waste vegetable oil and the produced biodiesel. This study investigated the use of KM micromixer in the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil. The study confirms that the proposed KM micromixer designed with fourteen microchannels was found effective for transesterification reaction completion. Thus, it can be employed in biodiesel production introducing many advantages over the batch reaction like time saving and higher yield and better conversion.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Elkady et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues.
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|How to start a business plan for a beauty salon||In this activity, you will design popular literature review ghostwriting services gb own experimental protocol. Accepted 05 May At the KM mixer outlet the product is collected after reaching steady state in a beaker containing appropriate amount of acetic acid to neutralize the excess alkaline catalyst and stop the reaction. In four steps process of generic triglyceride of methanol, and natural gas try burning the unreacted oil the! The mechanism of transesterification shows some challenges regarding this process, starting from the limitation of reaction rate by mass transfer between the immiscible oil and alcohol besides the reversibility of the transesterification itself which limits the conversion and consequently increases the reaction time and cost [ 4 ]. Daher, P. Catalyst, typically a strong base such as coal, oil, add 0.|
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This waste includes animal fat and other by-products. In addition, diesel engines are extremely reliable and long lasting, which reduces their energy footprint, as the cars themselves last longer, using less energy to replace them. In addition, for the near term, it makes more sense to use the petroleum we have carefully, such as using smaller, more efficient vehicles, without the environmental impact of a hybrid battery.
Examples include the Ford Fiesta, which gets over 40 mpg without the assistance of a hybrid drive train. In Europe, Volkswagen Automotive Group produces the Polo, a subcompact car that returns well over 70 mpg running on diesel. Trains need to replace trucks, as a freight train can carry 1 ton of freight miles on 1 gallon of diesel fuel Association of American Railroads. In the long term, it is vital to create a stable, renewable source of energy.
Cellulosic alcohol is probably the best option. It is very feasible in the near future to produce in large amounts, with minimal energy use in its production. It burns very cleanly, further reducing greenhouse gas emissions and smog forming pollutants. Like biodiesel, although not to the same degree, it is compatible with existing vehicles, albeit with slight modifications.
Whatever we do to stop our consumption of petroleum, we must ensure that it is done in an open manner, free from political influence of large corporations which stand to benefit from taxpayer funded subsidies, and with the best interests of the world in mind.
Bibliography Alexander E. Farrell, 1. Science , - Douskey, M. Chemistry 1A Lab Manual. Berkeley: Hayden McNeil. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? Biofuel Lab Report. Uploaded by MaxWitt. Document Information click to expand document information Description: Biodiesel has a higher energy density than ethanol, but is unfeasible to produce in sufficient quantities.
Cellulosic Ethanol is the most viable long-term solution. Methanol is commonly used for high performance engines due to its extremely high Octane Rating. Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: Biodiesel has a higher energy density than ethanol, but is unfeasible to produce in sufficient quantities.
Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Results: For the Calorimetry experiment, I created a spreadsheet to aid calculations. Related searches Biofuels. Jean-Marc Pierre. Saya Redha. Khalilah Mamat. Kaoutar Sefrioui. Veronica Chang. Allprojects Guru. Mohamed Abd Elraoof. Guilherme Frias. Nayera H. Daniel Iskandar. Jose Christian Viladegut Guzman. Asadullah Baloch. M Syafiq Samad. Arun Prasath. Prasanna Shetti.
Jafar Sadiq. More From MaxWitt. Ermin Cisic. Popular in Mathematics. Raluca Lefticaru. Faheem Afsar. Amandeep Singh. Chandan Acharya. Volk Wadon Wd. Project deliverable 5 Infrastructure and Security. Ko J Yar. About 2. Avoid contact with skin. Methanol is highly volatile b. Do the dissolvation under stagnant place or fume chamber to prevent methanol evaporates to the air and thus the actual amount used will become less.
After 30 minutes, the content is transferred into a separating funnel and is left to. The lower glycerine layer is drained off from the mixture from the opening at the. The upper layer of crude biodiesel is washed with distilled water and drained off. The content left in the separating funnel is drained into another beaker and. The value is recorded.
The experiment is repeated using In order to study the effect of different molar ratio of methanol to palm oil on the conversion to the products, two different molar ratio of methanol to palm oil were used to produce two samples of biodiesel. Reference Azcan, N. Alkali catalyzed transesterification of cottonseed oil by microwave irradiation. Fuel C and Hsiao, M. October, Retrieved 16 November , from www. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search.
User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? Uploaded by drami Document Information click to expand document information Description: With the increasing price of petroleum, the limited of its resources, and the environmental concerns, renewable and more environmentally benign energy sources have been developed.
Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Description: With the increasing price of petroleum, the limited of its resources, and the environmental concerns, renewable and more environmentally benign energy sources have been developed. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next.
Jump to Page. Search inside document. The mixture is added into the oC palm oil and stirring speed of palm oil is 5. The beaker is covered with aluminium foil and is stirred continuously for 30 6. After 30 minutes, the content is transferred into a separating funnel and is left to 7. The lower glycerine layer is drained off from the mixture from the opening at the 8. The content left in the separating funnel is drained into another beaker and Kaoutar Sefrioui.
Jean-Marc Pierre. Khalilah Mamat. Allprojects Guru. Saya Redha. Veronica Chang. Daniel Iskandar. Mohamed Abd Elraoof. Guilherme Frias. Jose Christian Viladegut Guzman. Nayera H. Sadain Zafar. Anon Ymous. Asadullah Baloch. Prasanna Shetti. More From drami Nikunj Pipariya. Saut Maruli Tua Samosir. Kevin Devastian. Popular in Biodiesel.
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