It was addressed to all students and was notified through different electronic media. For the interviews, three students were selected from the active programs in e-learning mode at Unipanamericana, who voluntarily chose to participate in it. The interviews were conducted individually via Skype, following protocol and script, designed for the application of the instrument, where the interviewer created a bond of trust with the interviewees and thus achieved an in-depth interview.
Table 3 shows the predominant learning styles of the 54 students surveyed, defined from the model of learning styles by Felder and Silverman:. For their part, reflective students tend to think about and process information in silence before giving their point of view and generally prefer individual work. Sensitive students tend towards fact-based learning through problem solving and memorization of situations via laboratories and workshops, whereas intuitive students are often interested in discovery, exploration and connections, are innovative and often have a flair for abstraction and mathematical operations.
Verbal students generally tend to learn best through lectures, readings, discussions and other spoken or written expressions. The latter style is characterized by linear learning, following logical steps in search of solutions to problems, and through connections. Among the students surveyed, the global and sequential styles were not found to exist equitably.
This indicates that there is a higher prevalence for the same learning styles in both genders. The interview data were categorized retaining the classification of learning strategies Gargallo et al. Respondents expressed their interest in individual work; it allows them to optimize time because of the technical and timing difficulties involved in synchronous meetings.
However, in group work they are characterized as leaders and active. Among the strategies for organizing information, the most commonly used are the development of conceptual maps, summaries, keywords and data banks. A technique used to optimize learning is the association of terms. In addition, those interviewed agreed that they are methodical and linearly follow instructions when undertaking an activity. When they have doubts about a topic, the respondents stated that they initially turn to Internet sources and only turn to teachers when they require clarification of the instructions to undertake academic activities.
As for the work environment, there is a preference for spaces of silence and tranquility at night-time, something that coincides with the data collected in the survey. Undertaking activities is planned according to deadlines for delivery and the level of difficulty of the issues, giving priority to subjects of greater complexity. After receiving feedback from the teacher, the respondents said that they did not always explore the topic further unless, that is, the feedback was not clear or sufficiently detailed.
Finally, the respondents said that the role of the teacher was very important in terms of facilitating their education process. This study identified the learning strategies and styles of students using the e-learning mode at Unipanamericana, which showed that the active, visual and global styles predominant. One thing to consider when learning environments and educational resources involved in PLEs are provided — which is significant in the sample — is that students prefer an environment isolated from noise and distraction factors, so as to enable better concentration and enhanced learning.
For this reason, it is important to consider these conditions at the time of designing and publishing educational resources on virtual platforms, seeking balance between the different resources and ensuring that they are not distracting from the true purpose of learning that the students hope to achieve. As for learning strategies, the trend among students is to make enquiries and address their concerns through various online resources.
Faced with this situation, they have various options: to improve the quality and ultimately the accuracy of the information published on the network, though this does not depend solely on the teachers and students at Unipanamericana: while it is a viable alternative, it is insufficient. In short, we still need to generate the culture for students to seek out and identify reliable sources like books, specialist databases, scientific articles published in indexed journals, both nationally and internationally, and, finally to promote respect for copyright and the use of standards such as those of the American Psychological Association APA.
Among the learning strategies, worthy of note is the fact that the students have a structure and are organized to carry out their learning process, plan their activities and to devote extra time to study. As for self-regulation, when undertaking their activities, the students realize whether or not they have been done properly, that is, they independently reflect on their own learning. However, it is necessary to continue strengthening the self-assessment strategies currently implemented at the university.
This indicates that is necessary to recognize that every individual learns and constructs knowledge differently based on their cognitive abilities, interests and preconceptions. This implies that knowledge is unique to the individual and depends on the pace of learning and the meaning given to it.
Hence the importance of shifting towards active, dynamic and collaborative learning, sharing experiences and generating new knowledge, supported by the use of ICTs. This is possible if educational institutions have techno-pedagogical resources and strategies that are tailored to the learning styles of each student, and identifying them will allow them to build more assertive learning environments that are better tailored to their needs and interests.
It is also important to create action plans that allow educational resources, platforms and mentoring processes to be adapted to the learning strategies and styles of students using the e-learning mode. Finally, this study allowed a literature review to be conducted, which helped to determine the current status of the issue within the national and international context, and instruments to be made available to students using the e-learning mode at Unipanamericana to identify their learning styles and strategies, which are the cornerstones for building their PLEs.
During the course of the study, the greatest difficulty was encountered in the questionnaire implementation stage due to the timing of the academic recess for students in Colombia, which coincided with the data collection date. In the questionnaire implementation stage of future projects, it will be important to contact participants via email, social networks and institutional platforms to provide them with a preliminary summary of the study in order to encourage them to become part of the sample.
Based on the results of this study, a new project has been started. The new project seeks to design software to allow students to undertake activities, each designed according to the questions of the instruments used during the study. Los Entornos Personales de Aprendizaje PLEs : una nueva manera de entender el aprendizaje [Personal Enviroments of Learning, a new way to understand the learning process]. Alonso C, Gallego D Estilos de aprendizaje.
Cuestionario Honey-Alonso de Estilos de Aprendizaje. Honey-Alonso Questionnaire Learning Styles]. Number Fase I. Elements Phase I. Research Group Digital and Virtual Education]. Undergraduate thesis. Panamericana University Foundation. Una mirada integral sobre el e-learning, b-learnin… [The On-line training.
A comprehensive look at the e-learning, b —learning…]. Felder R, Soloman B Learning styles and strategies. North Carolina State University. Editorial McGraw Hill, Mexico, p Google Scholar. El cuestionario y la entrevista [The questionnaire and interview].
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Parra V Panamericana University Foundation, Colombia. Reseach Methodology Universitat Oberta de Catalunya. Retos Educativos en la Sociedad del Conocimiento. Educational Challenges in the Knowledge Society]. Download references. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Blanca J. Communication systems specialist and systems engineer. Teaching researcher with experience in e-learning project management, software design and development, web applications, virtual platforms, virtual learning objects, content design, e-learning design, database administration and migration processes, and Blackboard and Moodle LMS platform management.
Experience in university teaching, virtual mentoring and curriculum design. Reprints and Permissions. Parra, B. Learning strategies and styles as a basis for building personal learning environments. Download citation. Received : 06 May Accepted : 09 October Laurillard, D. Marton, F. Entwistle and D. Hounsel, eds. Nisbet, J. Northedge, A. Pask, G. Richmond: Systems Research Ltd. Perry, W. Ramsden, P. Rogers, C. Freedom to Learn. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill. Roueche, J. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Smith, M. Thomas, L. Wankowski, J. Teaching News University of Birmingham , 4: Watts, I. London: Barfield. Cited in Nisbet, , p. Download references. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Reprints and Permissions. Learning to learn: Research and development in student learning.
High Educ 8, — Download citation. Issue Date : July Search SpringerLink Search. Abstract This paper is concerned with systematic attempts to help students to learn more effectively. Immediate online access to all issues from Subscription will auto renew annually. References Augstein, E. Google Scholar Biggs, J. Google Scholar Brew, A. Google Scholar Buzan, T. Google Scholar Chibnall, B.
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Papers People. Computers in Science education, a new way to teach physics and mathematics? The first The first semester consists of courses in traditional Calculus, mathematical modelling and computer science. Topic such as solving differential equations numerically are introduced the first semester and the students learn to program such equation using modern computing languages, in adddition to the standard analytical procedures.
The first semester provides the basis for further introduction of computational topics. These are graduallly baked into many other undergraduate courses in mathematics and the sciences. We focus on training our students to use general programming tools in solving physics problems, in addition to the classical analytic problems.
Our students handle now at an early stage in their education more realistic physics problems than before. We believe that, in addition to educating modern scientists, this promotes a better physics understanding for a majority of the students. Save to Library. Introducing concurrency in CS 1. Because of the growing importance of concurrent programming, many people are trying to figure out where in the curriculum to introduce students to concurrency. In this paper we discuss the use of concurrency in an introductory computer In this paper we discuss the use of concurrency in an introductory computer science course.
This course, which has been taught for ten years, introduces concurrency in the context of event-driven programming. It also makes use of graphics and animations with the support of a library that reduces the syntactic overhead of using these constructs. Students learn to use separate Models are useful for teaching about the scientific process and the complex phenomena we investigate. Stimac et al. Analyses of Student Learning in Global Change.
Student Success Strategies give this to your students. This student guide grew from my personal experiences as a student and as the parent of college students, grounded in my work as a faculty member, academic administrator, and scholar of teaching and learning. My goal is to empower you to My goal is to empower you to make the most of your college experience by sharing strategies for success that will help you avoid common pitfalls and navigate around the obstacles that can subvert your aspirations.
Please consider this guide in the same spirit that you would a friendly conversation with an adult mentor who has your best interests at heart. Even if you only act upon some of the advice in the following pages, I believe you'll enhance your college experience and be more successful academically. Strategies for Success: A Student Guide to Getting the Most Out of Higher Education give this to your students education students highereducation college teaching university scholarship success studentsuccess studentaffairs studentengagement studentexperience learning learningexperiencedesign grit mindset growthmindset cultureofcare empathy learningtolearn learningstrategy faculty chair dean provost designthinking firstprinciplesthinking meetstudentswheretheyare studentready studentsupport studentlife studentsfirst learninganddevelopment learningexperience learningstrategies leadership leadershipmatters leadershipmindset coaching mentor mentoring mentorship mentorshipmatters.
Many teacher educators stress the need to prepare teachers who will be reflective. How do we accomplish this goal? A number of approaches have been described in the literature. A piece that influenced my particular project appeared in A piece that influenced my particular project appeared in Ross summarized research showing that faculty members can model reflection by sharing their reasoning about teaching with their students, thereby.
Classroom activities and the teacher. Research into the Chinese Students' experience. Summary This paper reports on the findings from a research project looking into the experiences of Chinese students at Southampton Institute. The project also highlights the views of academic and support staff on the behaviour and needs The project also highlights the views of academic and support staff on the behaviour and needs of Chinese students.
The overriding factor of importance in the Chinese student experience appears to be the English language. The language difficulties experienced. Fact, pubs and rock n' roll: key findings from a student learning experience survey. The outcomes under scrutiny in this study include performance, motivation, satisfaction and knowledge construction. Research shows that high motivation among online learners leads to persistence in their courses Menager-Beeley, Lim and Kim, indicated that learner interest as a motivation factor promotes learner involvement in learning and this could lead to learning effectiveness in blended learning.
A lack of prompt feedback for learners from course instructors was found to cause dissatisfaction in an online graduate course. In addition, dissatisfaction resulted from technical difficulties as well as ambiguous course instruction Hara and Kling These factors, once addressed, can lead to learner satisfaction in e-learning and blended learning and eventual effectiveness. A study by Blocker and Tucker also showed that learners had difficulties with technology and inadequate group participation by peers leading to dissatisfaction within these design features.
Student-teacher interactions are known to bring satisfaction within online courses. Study results by Swan indicated that student-teacher interaction strongly related with student satisfaction and high learner-learner interaction resulted in higher levels of course satisfaction. Descriptive results by Naaj, Nachouki, and Ankit showed that learners were satisfied with technology which was a video-conferencing component of blended learning with a mean of 3.
The same study indicated student satisfaction with instructors at a mean of 3. Askar and Altun, found that learners were satisfied with face-to-face sessions of the blend with t-tests and ANOVA results indicating female scores as higher than for males in the satisfaction with face-to-face environment of the blended learning. Such improvement as noted may be an indicator of blended learning effectiveness.
Our study however, delves into improved performance but seeks to establish the potential of blended learning effectiveness by considering grades obtained in a blended learning experiment. This will make our conclusions about the potential of blended learning effectiveness.
Effective blended learning would require that learners are able to initiate, discover and accomplish the processes of knowledge construction as antecedents of blended learning effectiveness. A study by Rahman, Yasin and Jusoff indicated that learners were able to use some steps to construct meaning through an online discussion process through assignments given. In the process of giving and receiving among themselves, the authors noted that learners learned by writing what they understood.
From our perspective, this can be considered to be accomplishment in the knowledge construction process. Their study further shows that learners construct meaning individually from assignments and this stage is referred to as pre-construction which for our study, is an aspect of discovery in the knowledge construction process. Researchers have dealt with success factors for online learning or those for traditional face-to-face learning but little is known about factors that predict blended learning effectiveness in view of learner characteristics and blended learning design features.
Song, Singleton, Hill, and Koh examined online learning effectiveness factors and found out that time management a self-regulatory factor was crucial for successful online learning. Eom, Wen, and Ashill using a survey found out that interaction, among other factors, was significant for learner satisfaction. Technical problems with regard to instructional design were a challenge to online learners thus not indicating effectiveness Song et al.
Arbaugh and Swan indicated that high levels of learner-instructor interaction are associated with high levels of user satisfaction and learning outcomes. A study by Naaj et al. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of blended learning in view of student satisfaction, knowledge construction, performance and intrinsic motivation and how they are related to student characteristics and blended learning design features in a blended learning environment.
What are the student characteristics and blended learning design features for an effective blended learning environment? Which factors among the learner characteristics and blended learning design features predict student satisfaction, learning outcomes, intrinsic motivation and knowledge construction? The conceptual model for our study is depicted as follows Fig.
This research applies a quantitative design where descriptive statistics are used for the student characteristics and design features data, t-tests for the age and gender variables to determine if they are significant in blended learning effectiveness and regression for predictors of blended learning effectiveness. This study is based on an experiment in which learners participated during their study using face-to-face sessions and an on-line session of a blended learning design.
It is therefore a planning evaluation research design as noted by Guskey since the outcomes are aimed at blended learning implementation at MMU. The plan under which the various variables were tested involved face-to-face study at the beginning of a 17 week semester which was followed by online teaching and learning in the second half of the semester. The last part of the semester was for another face-to-face to review work done during the online sessions and final semester examinations.
A questionnaire with items on student characteristics, design features and learning outcomes was distributed among students from three schools and one directorate of postgraduate studies. Cluster sampling was used to select a total of learners to participate in this study. Out of the whole university population of students, three schools and one directorate were used. From these, one course unit was selected from each school and all the learners following the course unit were surveyed.
The study population comprised of male students representing The end of semester results were used to measure learner performance. Other self-developed instruments were used for the other remaining variables of attitudes, computer competence, workload management, social and family support, satisfaction, knowledge construction, technology quality, interactions, learning management system tools and resources and face-to-face support.
All the scales and sub-scales had acceptable internal consistency reliabilities as shown in Table 1 below:. First, descriptive statistics was conducted. Shapiro-Wilk test was done to test normality of the data for it to qualify for parametric tests. An independent samples t -test was done to find out the differences in male and female performance to explain the gender characteristics in blended learning effectiveness. A one-way ANOVA between subjects was conducted to establish the differences in performance between age groups.
Finally, multiple regression analysis was done between student variables and design elements with learning outcomes to determine the significant predictors for blended learning effectiveness. A t- test was carried out to establish the performance of male and female learners in the blended learning set up.
This was aimed at finding out if male and female learners do perform equally well in blended learning given their different roles and responsibilities in society. Results show that learner self-regulation was good enough at The least in the scoring was task strategies at They are therefore good enough in word processing and web browsing.
Their computer confidence levels are reported at Levels of family and social support for learners during blended learning experiences are at There is however a low score on learners being assisted by family members in situations of computer setbacks A higher percentage A big percentage of learners spend two hours on study while at home Sixty percent of the learners have to answer to someone when they are not attending to other activities outside study compared to the The usability of the online system, tools and resources was below average as shown in the table below in percentages Table 3 :.
On the whole, the online resources were fine for the learners They reported that using moodle helped them to learn new concepts, information and gaining skills Learner interactions were seen from three angles of cognitivism, collaborative learning and student-teacher interactions. The common form of communication medium frequently used by learners during the blended learning experience was by phone They did receive suggestions from instructors about resources to use in their learning Learner extent of use of the learning management system features was as shown in the table below in percentage Table 4 :.
From the table, very rarely used features include the blog and wiki while very often used ones include the email, forum, chat and calendar. The frequency of the face-to-face sessions is shown in the table below as preferred by learners Table 5. Learners preferred face-to-face sessions after every month in the semester Learners reported high intrinsic motivation levels with interest and enjoyment of tasks at The data was first tested to check if it met the linear regression test assumptions and results showed the correlations between the independent variables and each of the dependent variables highest 0.
From the coefficients table, the VIF values ranged from 1. The normal probability plot was seen to lie as a reasonably straight diagonal from bottom left to top right indicating normality of our data. Linearity was found suitable from the scatter plot of the standardized residuals and was rectangular in distribution.
Our R -square values was at 0. All the models explaining the three dependent variables of learner satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and knowledge construction were significant at the 0. From the table above, design features technology quality and online tools and resources , and learner characteristics attitudes to blended learning, self-regulation were significant predictors of learner satisfaction in blended learning.
This means that good technology with the features involved and the learner positive attitudes with capacity to do blended learning with self drive led to their satisfaction. The design features technology quality, interactions and learner characteristics self regulation and social support , were found to be significant predictors of learner knowledge construction.
Finally, none of the independent variables considered under this study were predictors of learning outcomes grade. We took students from three schools out of five and one directorate of post-graduate studies at a Ugandan University. The study suggests that the characteristics and design features examined are good drivers towards an effective blended learning environment though a few of them predicted learning outcomes in blended learning.
The learner characteristics, design features investigated are potentially important for an effective blended learning environment. Performance by gender shows a balance with no statistical differences between male and female. The indicators of self regulation exist as well as positive attitudes towards blended learning. Learners do well with word processing, e-mail, spreadsheets and web browsers but still lag below average in html tools.
They show computer confidence at Learner satisfaction with the online system and its tools shows prospect for blended learning effectiveness but there are challenges in regard to locating course content and assignments, submitting their work and staying on a task during online study.
Average collaborative, cognitive learning as well as learner-teacher interactions exist as important factors. Technology quality for effective blended learning is a potential for effectiveness though features like the blog and wiki are rarely used by learners. Face-to-face support is satisfactory and it should be conducted every month. Among the design features, technology quality, online tools and face-to-face support are predictors of learner satisfaction while learner characteristics of self regulation and attitudes to blended learning are predictors of satisfaction.
Technology quality and interactions are the only design features predicting learner knowledge construction, while social support, among the learner backgrounds, is a predictor of knowledge construction. Self regulation as a learner characteristic is a predictor of knowledge construction.
Self regulation is the only learner characteristic predicting intrinsic motivation in blended learning while technology quality, online tools and interactions are the design features predicting intrinsic motivation. However, all the independent variables are not significant predictors of learning performance in blended learning.
The high computer competences and confidence is an antecedent factor for blended learning effectiveness as noted by Hadad and this study finds learners confident and competent enough for the effectiveness of blended learning. A lack in computer skills causes failure in e-learning and blended learning as noted by Shraim and Khlaif From our study findings, this is no threat for blended learning our case as noted by our results.
Contrary to Cohen et al. Time conflict, as compounded by family, employment status and management support Packham et al. Our results show, on the contrary, that these factors are drivers for blended learning effectiveness because learners have a good balance between work and study and are supported by bosses to study.
In agreement with Selim , learner positive attitudes towards e-and blended learning environments are success factors. In line with Coldwell et al. We however note that Coldwel, et al dealt with young, middle-aged and old above 45 years whereas we dealt with young and middle aged only. Learner interactions at all levels are good enough and contrary to Astleitner, that their absence makes learners withdraw, they are a drive factor here. In line with Loukis the LMS quality, reliability and ease of use lead to learning efficiency as technology quality, online tools are predictors of learner satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.
Face-to-face sessions should continue on a monthly basis as noted here and is in agreement with Marriot et al. High learner intrinsic motivation leads to persistence in online courses as noted by Menager-Beeley, and is high enough in our study.
This implies a possibility of an effectiveness blended learning environment. The causes of learner dissatisfaction noted by Islam such as incompetence in the use of the LMS are contrary to our results in our study, while the one noted by Hara and Kling, as resulting from technical difficulties and ambiguous course instruction are no threat from our findings.
Student-teacher interaction showed a relation with satisfaction according to Swan but is not a predictor in our study. Initiating knowledge construction by learners for blended learning effectiveness is exhibited in our findings and agrees with Rahman, Yasin and Jusof Our study has not agreed with Eom et al.
An effective blended learning environment is necessary in undertaking innovative pedagogical approaches through the use of technology in teaching and learning. Most of the student characteristics and blended learning design features dealt with in this study are important factors for blended learning effectiveness.
None of the independent variables were identified as significant predictors of student performance. These gaps are open for further investigation in order to understand if they can be significant predictors of blended learning effectiveness in a similar or different learning setting. In planning to design and implement blended learning, we are mindful of the implications raised by this study which is a planning evaluation research for the design and eventual implementation of blended learning.
Universities should be mindful of the interplay between the learner characteristics, design features and learning outcomes which are indicators of blended learning effectiveness. From this research, learners manifest high potential to take on blended learning more especially in regard to learner self-regulation exhibited. Learner ability to assess and critically evaluate knowledge sources is hereby established in our findings.
This can go a long way in producing skilled learners who can be innovative graduates enough to satisfy employment demands through creativity and innovativeness. Technology being less of a shock to students gives potential for blended learning design. Universities and other institutions of learning should continue to emphasize blended learning approaches through installation of learning management systems along with strong internet to enable effective learning through technology especially in the developing world.
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