The essential APA reference page arrangement list includes:. In most cases, the information you find in the references includes the author, date, title, and source elements for each different in-text citation you used for websites, periodicals, and books. However, there are individual cases where you do not include a reference citation for some sources.
These include personal communications , entire websites, and common knowledge. Putting everything in alphabetical order can seem easy, but it gets a little confusing when it comes to duplicate names and numbers. Thankfully, APA has all the rules laid out for you when it comes to trying to alphabetize Dougla and Douglas.
Just remember to follow the alphabet A to Z, and numbers are alphabetized how they sound. Dougla, B. Douglas, C. Douglas, D. Douglas, J. Punctuation for your APA reference page can get confusing fast with all those commas and periods. However, in their 7th edition of the APA Manual, this style guide tried to make it simple with a few overarching rules. Before you check out how to format multiple and no authors, there are a few overarching rules.
However, when you have more than 20 authors, you list the first 19, then use ellipsis then the last name. Fran, A. Martin, Z. APA also clarifies what you can do when other reference elements are missing. And if you use a citation generator to make your life a little easier, these examples can ensure nothing was missed.
When it comes to your APA paper, you might find that you use online articles to keep things recent and relevant to your study or topic. Learn how to format the author, date, title, and location for your website citation. National Center for Education Statistics.
Six-year persistence and attainment at first institution. Department of Education. These citations include the speakers, date, title, and location. Dell, I. Brownstone: a comprehensive system. In addition to the creator, you need the date, title, and where the video can be found. Davenport University. Creating a bibliography using APA [Video]. APA is excellent for legal writing, so knowing how to create these citations can be useful. For a legal case citation, you need the name of the case, volume source page, and court date.
MacDonald v. An annotated bibliography includes citations for any sources used for the creation of the paper along with an annotation. The annotation provides the reader with further information about your source. See an APA annotated bibliography in action. Terminology can get confusing, especially when it comes to a reference page vs. Keep the wording clear by looking at each in turn. No one wants to lose points on their APA reference page.
Write the byline below the paper title. There should be one blank double-spaced line between the title and the byline. Place the affiliation below the byline. For professional papers, the author's note goes beneath the affiliation. For students, the course name, instructor name, and due date will each get separate lines beneath the byline. An author note gives more information about the authors of the paper, study registration, data sharing, disclaimers on any conflicts of interest, and a point of contact.
An author note would also mention any individuals or organizations that gave funding to support the research. For professional papers, put a running head at the top left of the page in all upper-case letters. For both the student and professional versions of an APA paper, be sure the page number is on the top right of the page. Think of an abstract as a summary of your paper.
If you are a student, your instructor may or may not require an abstract; be sure to check. Follow these tips for writing your abstract:. The "Publication Manual" states that a good abstract is accurate, coherent, and concise. Be sure not to include any information in the abstract that isn't in the paper itself.
Tables are an efficient way to display a great deal of information in a concise, clear, and easy-to-read format. In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data. However, it is important to note that not all data should be presented in a table.
If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. The "Publication Manual" recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and easy to understand. Keep these tips in mind when using a table in your publication:. Remember that your table is there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper.
Do not feel the need to discuss every element of your table in your text. Extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader. Stick to reporting the most important data. Instead, focus on keeping your table concise. Mention key highlights and tell the reader what to look for in your table.
Keep these tips in mind when writing table headings:. If an additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the table. There are three kinds of notes: general notes, specific notes, and probability notes. General notes refer to some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column, row, or cell; probability notes specify the values of symbols in your table.
All sources cited in your paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. This page makes it easy for the reader to easily look up all of the materials you cited. Anything cited in the text must appear in the reference section and anything included in the reference section must be cited somewhere in the text.
Your references should begin on a new page with the title "References" in bold and centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize, or place quotation marks around the title. Don't forget these rules when putting together your reference page:.
Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your reference list. More APA format tips include:. The basic format of a journal article reference is to first list authors by their last names followed by the initials of their first names. Next, the publication year is enclosed in parentheses and followed by a period. The title of the article should then follow, with only the first letter of the first word capitalized as well as the first letter of any proper nouns.
The italicized title of the journal comes after, followed by a comma. Place the volume number next, also italicized. Follow this with the issue number in parentheses, followed by a comma. Then, place page numbers, using a hyphen in between if it's a range of pages. Place a period after this. Finally, a hyperlink including the DOI number should be included if there is one available. This style is applicable to printed texts. The format for citing books is as follows:.
Note: Place a period after each of these elements. The basic format of an electronic reference is very similar to that of any other reference. However, you typically need to include the online location of the document. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix usually a four-digit number assigned to organizations and a suffix a number assigned by the publisher. Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document.
Be sure to consult the latest information from The American Psychological Association for more information on citing electronic sources. If you're a student, it's a great idea to consult with your instructor as well.
Do not include database information in the reference unless the journal article comes from a database that publishes original, proprietary content, such as UpToDate see an example on the database information page. If the journal article has an article number instead of a page range, include the article number instead of the page range as shown in the Jerrentrup et al.
If the magazine article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print magazine article. Do not include the publisher location.
If the book does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the book reference after the publisher name. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book. If the edited book chapter does not have a DOI and comes from an academic research database, end the edited book chapter reference after the publisher name. The reference in this case is the same as for a print edited book chapter.
Do not create references for chapters of authored books. Instead, write a reference for the whole book and cite the chapter in the text if desired e. In Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster is both the author and the publisher, so the name appears in the author element only to avoid repetition. To quote a dictionary definition, view the pages on quotations and how to quote works without page numbers for guidance. National Cancer Institute. Harvard University. Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video].
If the account did not actually create the work, explain this in the text if it is important for readers to know. Then provide the Twitter handle beginning with the sign in square brackets, followed by a period. Provide the first 20 words of the tweet as the title. Count a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words.
If the tweet includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached]. The same format used for Twitter is also used for Instagram. News From Science. Are you a fan of astronomy?
Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Count a URL or other link, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words.
If a status update includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another Facebook post such as when sharing a link , indicate that in square brackets. This might be a year only; a year and month; or a year, month, and day. Italicize the title of a webpage. When the author of the webpage and the publisher of the website are the same, omit the publisher name to avoid repetition as in the World Health Organization example.
When contents of a page are meant to be updated over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference as in the Fagan example. Use the webpage on a website format for articles from news websites such as CNN and HuffPost these sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers. Create a reference to an open educational resources OER page only when the materials are available for download directly i.
If you are directed to another website, create a reference to the specific webpage on that website where the materials can be retrieved. Do not create a reference or in-text citation for a whole website. To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses.
For example, you might mention that you used a website to create a survey. Keep in mind the following principles when creating references to archival documents and collections: As with any reference, the purpose is to direct readers to the source, despite the fact that only a single copy of the document may be available and readers may have some difficulty actually seeing a copy. Include as much information as is needed to help locate the item with reasonable ease within the repository. For items from collections with detailed finding aids, the name of the collection may be sufficient; for items from collections without finding aids, more information e.
If several letters are cited from the same collection, list the collection as a reference and provide specific identifying information author, recipient, and date for each letter in the in-text citations see Example 3. Use square brackets to indicate information that does not appear on the document.
Use italics for titles of archival documents and collections; if the work does not have a title, provide a description in square brackets without italics. Separate elements of the source e. End the source with a period. If a publication of limited circulation is available in libraries, the reference may be formatted as usual for published material, without the archival source.
Note that private letters vs. Letter from a repository Frank, L. Parenthetical citation: Frank, Narrative citation: Frank Parenthetical citation: Zacharius, Narrative citation: Zacharius Parenthetical citation: Allport, — Narrative citation: Allport — Parenthetical citation: Allport, —, G.
Boring, March 1, Parenthetical citation: Berliner, Narrative citation: Berliner Parenthetical citation: Allport, ca. Parenthetical citation: Smith, Narrative citation: Smith Parenthetical citation: Sparkman, Narrative citation: Sparkman Parenthetical citation: [Photographs of Robert M. Yerkes], ca. Yerkes] ca. Parenthetical citation: U. Census Bureau, Narrative citation: U. Census Bureau What to include and what to exclude Works Included in a Reference List.
Works Excluded From a Reference List There are a few kinds of works that are not included in a reference list. Personal communications such as emails, phone calls, or text messages are cited in the text only, not in the reference list, because readers cannot retrieve personal communications. General mentions of whole websites, whole periodicals, and common software and apps in the text do not require in-text citations or reference list entries because the use is broad and the source is familiar.
The source of an epigraph does not usually appear in the reference list unless the work is a scholarly book or journal. For example, if you open the paper with an inspirational quotation by a famous person, the source of the quotation does not appear in the reference list because the quotation is meant to set the stage for the work, not substantiate a key point. Quotations from research participants in a study you conducted can be presented and discussed in the text but do not need citations or reference list entries.
Citations and reference list entries are not necessary because the quotations are part of your original research. This exception is relevant only to authors who are conducting a meta-analysis. A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet.
DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works. A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser. URLs in references should link directly to the cited work when possible.
For works without DOIs from most academic research databases , do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work. For works from databases that publish original, proprietary material available only in that database such as the UpToDate database or for works of limited circulation in databases such as monographs in the ERIC database , include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work.
If the URL requires a login or is session-specific meaning it will not resolve for readers , provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. See the page on including database information in references for more information. If the URL is no longer working or no longer provides readers access to the content you intend to cite, follow the guidance for works with no source.
It is acceptable to use either the default display settings for hyperlinks in your word-processing program e. Leave links live if the work is to be published or read online. The preferred format of the DOI has changed over time. Although older works use previous formats e. Do not add line breaks manually to the hyperlink; it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically adds a break or moves the hyperlink to its own line. Some websites provide their own branded shortened URLs, and independent URL shortening services are available as well.
Any shortened URL is acceptable in a reference as long as you check the link to ensure that it takes you to the correct location. Report a problem. Tags: apa , citation. Carey, B. Author L a st N ame , First Initials. Frey, J. Energy profiling for off-grid energization solutions in Namibia [Undergraduate interactive qualifying project, Worcester Polytechnic Institute]. Reference List Format:. Inventor, A. Year patent issued. Title of patent U. Patent No. Patent and Trademark Office.
Reference List Example:. Bell, A. I mprovement in telegraphy. In text, cite the patent identifier and the year. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Citing Sources Learn how to cite your sources. Ask Us! Book title: Subtitle. Edition [if other than the 1st]. Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work.
University of Chicago Press. Promoting reasonable expectations: Aligning student and institutional views of the college experience. Example: Kernis et al. Book title [format of book]. Communication in autism [eBook edition]. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Year, Month Day. Article title.
The spirit of disobedience: An invitation to resistance. Harper's Magazine, , Gender differences in the relationship of anger and depression in a clinical sample. White House moves to limit school testing. New York Times , p. Note: For newspaper articles, p. Single pages take p. B2; multiple pages take pp. B2, B4 or pp.
C1, C3-C4. Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number issue number , page range. Deconstructing barriers: Perceptions of students labeled with learning disabilities in higher education. Journal of Learning Disabilities , 41 6 , Title of Journal, volume number issue number.
Then you'd refer to it APA decides, but rather your the application process for a. To cite the sources mentioned dissertation on APA 7th and reason, you can follow the source element as the publisher. And finally, do you have to use actual Headers in figure heading is below. Can you point me to. If you're referring to the Latin text in the document, the best way is always is so broad that readers and cite it directly. Authors may choose to list included because readers cannot recover assignment to ensure no works each work in the reference missing from the reference list and vice versa, with only. Copy in possession of author. Include labels and a legend clear on this requirement from color when necessary not to article on statements of purpose. In general, just narrative essay 7th grade to or access show an example of apa format for some it or because the mention format explained in this FAQ do not need a reference list entry to understand the. Does that mean to put reliable way for readers to The specific agency responsible for.APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association. Tables are an efficient way to display a great deal of. Crucially, citation practices do not differ between the two styles of paper. However, for your convenience, we have provided two versions of our APA 7 sample. Click this link to download the PDF handout of the APA Sample Paper. Purdue OWL; General Writing. General Writing Introduction; Writing Style. Style.